The Vegetative Rhythm of the Echinodorus Species

Low Light Aquarium Plants

On the basis of the author's observations during different seasons of different Echinodorus species, she would like to attempt a portrayal of the lifestyle of Echinodorus species. It must be specifically emphasized, though, that it is a model that is simplified and requires modification and amendment since there is no or little data available on the native habitats of many species. The specific ecology of individual species should therefore be studied in a more targeted and focused way in order...

Cuttings

A large number of aquarium plants form creeping or upright growing shoots. These stem plants can be split up into stem axis (stem) nodes, on which the leaves are arranged in differing phyllotaxis and inter-nodes. Most stem plants are characterized in the aquarium by a very high degree of lateral branching which has its origin in the leaf axils. These lateral branches can be cut off and used as cuttings so that reproduction in general does not pose a problem. Ludwigia and Hygrophila species, for...

Linn Pennell 1946

Vallisneria Nana Seed

Synonyms Lysimachia monnieri Linn (1756), Gra iola monnieri L., G. monnieria L., Herpestis monnieria Kunth (nom. ill.), Bacopa monnieria Wettstein (as monniera, nom. ill.). Etymology Bacopa see Bacopa carolini-ana monnieri named after the botanist G.L. Le Monnier, Paris. Distribution Widely distributed within the tropics and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Australia and America. Occasionally introduced in Europe. Description Creeping or ascendent, up to 40-cm tall...

Aquatic and Marsh Plants in Their Natural Habitats

Native Mexico Plants

Compared to previous times, today there exists an ever increasing interest in the natural habitats of aquatic plants. The science covering the interrelationships of organisms and their surrounding environment is called ecology. The function of ecology is to analyze and comprehend all operative, active factors and their respective functions and tasks within natural biotopes and living environments. Although the native habitats of local aquatic and marsh plants have previously often been the...

General Recommendations for Cultivation

Aquarium Plant Deficiencies

Echinodorus species are popular and normally undemanding plants, which are recommended for use in tropical aquariums. Many species, however, are suitable only for spa cious aquariums from about 100 L upwards because, under optimum growth conditions, they would simply appear too dominant in small aquariums. The leaves of larger specimens, however, may also be truncated which will not impact much on growth. Adult leaves, though, will subsequently initially remain smaller in size. Specimens which...

Camus 1911

Vallisneria Nana Seed

Camus Etymology Aponogeton see A. abyssinicus robinsonii after C. Robinson (1871-1913). Distribution Central and South Vietnam. Description Aquatic plant. Tuber up to 3.5 cm in size. Leaf blade up to 50 cm petiolate, ribbon-like, transparent, up to 29( 40) cm long, 2.5-3.5( 4.5) cm wide, olive to dark olive green, juveniles also reddish. Margin slightly undulate. Floating leaves up to 19 x 4.5 cm in size. Margin flat. Peduncle up to 1.65 m long, not or hardly...

Environmental Factors

Variations in Water Levels in Areas with Distinct Seasonal Climates Those Echinodorus species existing in tropical or subtropical areas have adapted their living requirements to periodic dry and wet seasons and associated variations in water levels. However, only few Echinodorus species are able to survive variations in water levels of more than 1-1.5 m over a longer period of time. Most species, as soon as their leaves die off due to lack of light, could endure only a short spell with the aid...

Araceae Family About Nomenclature

The most important work on the Cryptocoryne genus was done by Engler (1920), de Wit (1990), Rataj (1975b), Jacobsen (1976, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1985a, 1987a, 1991) and Jacobsen and Bogner (1986 1987). Rataj's revision was inadequate, and almost all his new descriptions were subsequently retracted as valid synonyms. De Wit, too, identified several new species, the descriptions of which were generally justified at the time, over the last 20 years, through chromosome counts, pollen research,...

Cryptocoryne diderici

Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis diderici after Dirk de Wit (father of the discoverer). Distribution Sumatra. Description Leaf blade 5-11 cm petiolate, ovoid with cordate base, 4-7 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, dark green to purple-red. Spathe 8-ll( 20) cm long, limb short caudate, slightly recurved, not twirled, interior rough, light brown in color. Wide throat zone, slightly thickened, yellow. A collar is missing. Female flowers about 6. Male flowers 25-35. Number of chromosomes 2n 34. Culture...

General Habitat Description

The majority of Echinodorus species grows either in boggy flood areas or in the immediate embankment of stagnant or flowing waters. Some species even exist in temporary waters which dry out completely and in which soil the plants survive and endure with their hardy rhizomes. These species display a more or less identical life cycle to Apo-nogeton species. Only a few sword plants are known to probably exist submersed in water all year round, even though their rhizome would enable them to endure...

Plants Unsuitable for Aquariums

Even though the available range of well-growing aquarium plants has increased continuously over the last couple of years, species totally unsuitable for underwater cultivation continue to be made commercially available in aquarium shops. They will not grow submersed and will die after only a few days. Most of these plants are traded under exotic fantasy names, for example underwater palm, and are conspicuous by their bright coloration which is why they continue to be bought by aquarists. The...

Whitegreen specimens of Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

Since about 1992, a white-green plant of G. spilanthoides has become commercially available. It displays both a partial absence of chlorophyll as well as stunting in the leaf blades. This appearance is typical of viral infections. Whereas these white-green specimens grow well in emersed cultivation, their adaptive capabilities to submersed living conditions are only limited and their growth is only very moderate. Virosistic plants of G. spilanthoides. Virosistic plants of G. spilanthoides.

Linn Parlatore 1854

Flowering Aquarium Plants

Synonyms Alisma ranunculoides Linn 1753 , Echinodorus ranunculoides L. As-cherson. Etymology Baldellia after B. Bartolini-Baldelli 19th century ranunculoides similar to the genus Ranunculus. Distribution Europe, North Africa. Description Small marsh plant with leaves arranged in rosette formation. Juvenile leaves submersed, linear, gramineous, 0.5-7 mm wide, up to 55 cm long, without lateral veins. Adults floating or emersed, up to 20 cm petio-late, narrow elliptic to very...

Defining Features of the Genus

Flowers Native Mexico

All Echinodorus species are annual or perennial water or marsh plants. Whereas the medium-sized and larger sword plants display more or less large rhizomes through which they also vegetatively multiply, the smaller species are stoloniferous. Some species form swollen roots. This feature, which is apparently highly dependent on the surrounding environmental conditions, has been previously neglected in research and therefore deserves closer attention. The leaves are arranged in the form of a...

Ammannia gracilis

Adaptation Aquatic Plants

Synonyms Ammannia diffusa Hiern, non Willdenow. Etymology Ammannia after the botanist P. Ammann 1634-1691 gracilis gracile. Distribution Senegambia. Description Marsh plant with an erect or ascendent, fleshy, glabrous, up to 60 cm-long stem. Sessile leaves, decussate, margin entire. Emersed blades linear to obovate, emersed 2-6 cm long, 1.0-1.8 cm wide, olive green. Submersed blade lanceolate, 7-12 cm long, 0.7-1.8 cm wide, upperside olive green to brownish red, underside deep violet. The...

The Importance of Ecological Factors in the Cultivation of Aquarium Plants

The chapter on natural habitats of aquatic and marsh plants dealth with environmental factors which exert an essential influence on the plants' photosynthesis and growth. It can be concluded from the observations made that nature, as our teacher, can in many respects adopt a certain model function for the culture of aquarium plants. For aquarists this results in the challenging task of drawing the right conclusions not only from research of natural habitats, but also from the results of...

Kirk Cockayne 1907

Synonyms Tillaea helmsii Kirk 1899 , T. recurva Hooker f., Crassula recurva Hooker f. Ostenfeld, non N.E. Brown, Bulliardia recurva Hooker f. Etymology Crassula crassus thick, thick leaf helmsii after R. Helms 1842-1914 . Distribution Widespread in Australia, New Zealand, introduced to England. Description Small, perennial marsh plant with emersed creeping, submersed erect, very branchy shoots. Leaves decussate, sessile. Leaf blade linear to lanceolate, acute, fleshy, in...

Sowing and Growing

The most important prerequisites for successful sexual propagation to take place are, obviously, mature and germinable seeds. The right point in time for the harvest of seeds is usually when the fruits open up and release the mostly brown seeds. For a variety of reasons an immediate sowing is sometimes undesirable. In such cases it is essential to know how long the seeds will retain their ger-minability. For many aquarium plants there is, however, insufficient information available about this....

Distribution of Echinodorus Species

The distribution of the Echinodorus genus is limited to the American continent. Its northern limits lie in the U.S., the southern border in Argentina. Rataj described two species E. africanus and E. veronikae from Africa Cameroon , but in doing so obviously started out on the basis of erroneous assumptions. With regard to the first species, this author was able to clarify on the spot in its native habitat that the plants which supposedly originated from Cameroon were, in fact, confused with...

Light

Vallisneria Clearwater Biotope Habitat

Because it is an essential provider of energy for photcJsynthesis, light is important for many growth and developmental processes of plants. Furthermore, it has an important influence on the morphology and anatomy of plants, as well as on photoperiodic occurrences. Measuring light intensity in natural habitats of tropical and subtropical aquatic and marsh plants is extremely important for the expansion of knowledge about the requirements of the different aquarium plants, and also to be able to...

Lamarck 1783

Azolla Filiculoides Lamarck

Synonyms Azolla magellanica Willdenow, A. squamosa Molina, A. arbuscula Desvaux. Etymology Azolla see Azolla caroliniana, filiculoides similar to a small fern. Distribution North, Central and South America, introduced in Europe, isolated in South Africa, Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand. Description As indicated for A. caroliniana, but distinguishable through the following features stem pinnately branched. Plant 1-2.5 10 cm long, larger than A. caroliniana. Upper lobe 2.5 x 0.9-1.4 mm in...

Use of English Names

Images And Names Aquarium Plants

The English trivial name of Amazon sword plant is being applied incorrectly to Echinodorus species because it creates the impression that they all originate from the Amazon area or its immediate surroundings, which is extremely misleading. The author has therefore chosen the English name sword plant for the genus Echinodorus since this name has been well established over time.

Type 4 Flowing Permanent

Sri Lanka Aquarium Habitat

This type constitutes the most important liv-ihg environment for Aponogeton species in cultivation. Contradicting this, however, is the fact that such biotopes were practically nonexistent in earlier instructions on cultivation. Previous recommendations from other authors to always remove the tuber from the substrate during the rest periods is, according to my observations, contrary to the ecological conditions in the plant's natural locations. This is especially true for those species which...

Type 3 Flowing Temporary

Aponogeton Ulvaceus Kaufen

Previously, it has been known, or assumed, that very few Aponogeton species grow in rivers which occasionally dry out during rain-deficient periods. Since there are hardly any recorded observations of this plant group, a definite classification this in category of body of water is difficult simply because flowing waters which dry out are very rare. Aponogeton boivinianus and A. ulvaceus probably exist in such waters. With regard to the seasonal changes, the living conditions in these waters...

Fluorescent Lamps

The advantages of fluorescent lamps are especially high light exploitation higher degree of efficiency than high-pressure lamps , long durability, good color reproduction, good value for money and low energy consumption high efficiency . The choice of light colors in fluorescent lamps is greater than that in high-pressure lamps. Typical for fluorescent lamps is the fact that they provide balanced lighting of the entire aquarium in contrast to discharge lamps. A conclusion as to under which...

Bunge 1835

Bunge Plant

Synonyms None Etymology Cardamine from Greek kar-damon cress lyrata lyrate leaf shape . Distribution Eastern Siberia, northern China, Japan. Description Emersed stem creeping, up to 60 cm long, 1 mm thick, glabrous, often branchy, rooting on all nodes. Submersed shoots erect, up to 40 cm long. Alternate leaf arrangement, up to 2 cm petiolate stipules small. Emersed blade reniform to almost round with cordate base and round apex, rarely impar pinnate with a large terminal...

Walter Robinson 1908

Bacopa Caroliniana

Synonyms Obolaria caroliniana Walter 1788 , Monniera amplexicaulis Michaux, Bacopa amplexicaulis Michaux Wettstein, and others. Etymology Bacopa plant name derived from the indigenous population of Guyana caroliniana originating from Carolina. Distribution Southern and middle U.S. .Description Marsh plant, up to 60 cm tall, with creeping or ascendent, hardly branchy shoots. Stem up to 4 mm thick, fleshy, emersed strong pubescence, submersed glabrous. Leaves decussate,...

Daily Lighting Periods

The question about the daily lighting period can best be answered if one visualizes the conditions to which aquarium plants are subjected within their natural habitats. Almost all cultivated aquatic and marsh plants exist in the tropics and subtropics between the equatorial zone and a geographical latitude of 30 . In the vicinity of the equator the daily lighting period measures a constant 12 hours. In a geographical latitude of 10 the length of day will vary according to the season between 11...

Seasonal Influences Vegetation Rhythm and Types of Waterways

Biotopes Fresh Aquarium Plants

Tropical and subtropical aquatic and marsh plants have conquered very different living environments in the course of evolution. Their natural biotopes are boggy flood areas, puddles, ponds, lakes, more or less fast-flowing streams and rivers as well as man-made living environments, such as rice paddies, pools and storage lakes. These ecosystems are subjected to the seasonality typical for the tropics, namely rain-intensive and rain-deficient seasons and associated variations in water levels,...

Bentham Pennell 1946

Bacopa Madagascariensis

Synonyms Herpestis madagascariensis Etymology Bacopa see B. caroliniana madagascariensis originating from Madagascar. Distribution Madagascar. Description Marsh plant with decumbent or ascendent up to 1-m long shoots, hardly branchy. Stem up to 4 mm thick, slightly grooved, fleshy, glabrous. Leaves decussate, almost amplexicaul. Blade lanceolate to narrow ovoid, 1-3 cm long, 0.5-1.3 cm wide, light green. Apex acute to obtuse. Margin slightly crenate similar to B. crenata . Solitary flowers, up...

Bulbils and Brood Tubers

Reproduction through bulbils and brood tubers is very common in the cultivation of ornamental and useful plants. Among aquarium plants tubers are known to occur only in the species belonging to the Aponogeton genus in most cases, though, they are incapable of producing brood tubers. Bulbils are occasionally formed on strong specimens of the Crinum genus this form of reproduction, however, is rarely productive. The development of bulbils in the aquarium is more common especially in Crinum...

Halogen Metalvapor Lamps

Excessive Light Intensity Plants

In comparison to mercury vapor high-pressure lamps, light exploitation and color reproduction in metal halide lamps have been improved considerably. A disadvantage of the latter, however, is the comparatively low exploitation period of about 6000 hours. It is especially important for the user to know that halogen metal-vapor lamps emit UV radiation of around 2-5 . For this reason, the lamp may not be used uncovered but has to be fitted with a cover glass or discs which filter and absorb...

Light in the Aquarium

The fundamental importance of light for many growth processes in plants is discussed extensively on pp. 4-13. In their natural habitats the species have, over the course of evolution, adapted to the daily and seasonal changes in sunlight in order to make optimum use of the available light for photosynthesis. In contrast, plants in the aquarium rely on artificial light sources which, in addition, radiate continuously all day in an unnatural way. Most of the aquarium plants kept, though, are...

Choice Of Lamp Types And Light Colors

Light Colors And Plants

There are a number of lamp types available to the aquarist for the purpose of illuminating plants and fish. For the hobbyists interested in solid plant growth, there is the initial basic question whether to use fluorescent tubes or high-pressure lamps incandescent lamps, halogen incandescent lamps and mixed light appliances will not be dealt with here because of their negligible relevance and poor light utilization . The next consideration as pre Dense and diversely planted aquariums are...

Aquarium Plants

Krieger Publishing Company Malabar, Florida 2003 Original German Edition, Aquarienpflanzen 1995, 1999 First English Edition 2003 Printed and Published by KRIEGER PUBLISHING COMPANY KRIEGER DRIVE MALABAR, FLORIDA 32950 Copyright German Edition 1995, 1999 by Eugen Ulmer GmbH amp Co. Copyright English Edition 2003 by Krieger Publishing Company Translated from the Original 1999 German Edition by Ulf Kotlenga and Andr S.J. van Proosdig. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in...

Ceratophyllum submersum

Ceratophyllaceae Submersum

Etymology Ceratophyllum'. see C. demersum submersum submerged, refers to the plant's mode of existence. Distribution Subspecies submersum worldwide var. submersum Europe, western Asia, Turkey, Yemen, China, Malaysia, tropical Africa, U.S. rarely in large numbers var. squamosum China var. haynaldianum Hungary subsp. muricatum var. echinatum western Asia, southern Europe, India, China, eastern Asia, tropical Africa, South Africa, U.S., Central America, northern South America var. manschuricum...

Climate Rhythmics

Light and temperature variations which, on the one hand, occur during the course of the day and, on the other hand, are dependent on the periodic seasonal change, have an essential influence on the conditions under which tropical and subtropical aquatic and marsh plants prosper. In the tropics the length of both day and night vary only a little in the course of a year, so that there generally occurs a daytime warming-up phase as well as a cooling-down period during the night, lasting 12 hours...

Genuine Aquatic Plants

Potamogeton Gayi

Only some of the aquarium plants available are so-called genuine aquatic plants which also exist continuously submersed in their native habitat. Some even flower underwater others, in turn, form their inflorescences close to the water surface. The Hydrocharitaceae family, for example, with the genera of Blyxa, Egeria, Elodea, Hydrilla, Hydrocharis, La-garospihon, Limnobium, Ottelia, Stratiotes and Vallisneria, contains exclusively aquatic plants. Representatives of this family which are kept...

Cryptocoryne cordata Griffith Pinkveined

Schneider Switzerland found a C. cordata specimen in an import shipment that featured a white to light pink-colored venation, which he propagated vegetatively. In 1985, Bogner and Jacobsen accorded the plant the status of a cultivar. Due to a generally accepted hypothesis the special characteristic has come about through mutation. Cultivation experience, however, shows that the degree of intensity is, to a large extent, dependent on the environment, i.e., is being influenced by the...

Discharge Lamps

Mercury vapor high-pressure lamps and halogen metal-vapor metal halide lamps have been increasingly used in aquaristics over the last couple of years. For most aquarists using this type of lamp, two aspects are usually decisive aquariums opening on top limited accessability also by free-hanging fluorescent lamps permit unusual effects however, the selective spotlighting of the aquarium creates an appealing play of light and shade. A necessity also often arises to adequately illuminate...

The Aquarium Substrate

Best Aquarium Plants For Oxygen

Most cultivated aquarium plants are marsh plants which draw their nutrient requirements to a large extent from the substrate through an extensive root system and only to a limited degree from the surface of the plant. Only in genuine aquatic plants are the roots reduced to such an extent that their function mainly lies in the plant's anchoring and only to a lesser extent in the absorption of nutrients. These plants exist almost exclusively on ions freely available in the water, where, however,...

Slow Growing Marsh Plants

Among this group are Anubias species which have been available over the last couple of years and which are especially suited to cich-lid aquariums due to their hard leaf structure. When touching and feeling an emersed leaf the difference in aquatic leaves will quickly become evident it is leathery and stiff, not transparent and unpartitioned. If Anubias is removed from the water the leaves will remain in their upright position and will not hang down in a limp fashion. Even though the Anubias...

Thunberg 1781

Brown Saltwater Aquarium Plant

Synonyms Aponogeton echinatum Roxburgh. Etymology Aponogeton see A. abyssinicus crispus crisped, refers to the margin. Distribution Southern India, Sri Lanka. Description Variable aquatic plant. Tuber up to 5 cm in size. Submersed leaf blade up to 10 cm petiolate, strap-shaped, with undulate and crisped, rarely flat margin, up to 50 cm long, 4.5 cm wide, light to dark green or reddish brown coloration. Blade of the floating leaves up to 20 cm long, 5 cm wide. Peduncle up...

P Beauvois Le Prieur 1830

Beauv 1806 and others. Etymology Ceratopteris keras - horn, pteris fern, refers to the lobe that stand out like horns cornuta with horns. Distribution Africa Senegal to Sudan, southwards to Tanzania , Madagascar, isolated populations in Yemen Sokotra Island , Saudi Arabia, Iraq, northeastern India, Burma, Indonesia, northern Australia. Description Floating plants, then only with sterile leaves, or rooted in the substrate in wet locations, forming fertile leaves after...

Linn Brongniart 1821

Planted Aquariums Central

Synonyms Acrostichum thalictroides L. 1753 and others. Etymology Ceratopteris see Ceratopteris cornuta, thalictroides similar to the genus Thalictrum. Distribution Southeast Asia, northern Australia isolated populations in Tanzania, Florida, Central America, northern to central South America. Description Amphibious fern, with a short and erect rhizome, usually rooted in the substrate. Leaves shaped differently, light green coloration. Sterile leaves petiole up to 15 31 cm long, 2-5 8 mm thick....

Black Water Clear Water White Water

White Water Biotope

Numerous scientific studies conducted in the 1950s, mainly in the Amazon river system Sioli 1950, Braun 1952, Gessner 1959, Sioli and Klinge 1961, among others , led to a rough classification into three types of water, based on physical coloring and clouding and chemical differences between a number of rivers. Based on their typical features black, clear and white water can be distin guished, with many intermediate forms existing, of course, resulting in not every waterway being able to be...

Aponogeton boivinianus

Ecology Aquarium

Synonyms None Etymology Aponogeton see A. abyssinicus boivinianus after the collector Boivin. Distribution Northern Madagascar, Nosy Be, Mayotte. Description Aquatic plant. Tuber up to 3 cm diameter. Leaf blade up to 13 22 cm petio-late, strap-shaped, highly bullate and undulate, slightly leathery, up to 30 -60 cm long, 1.5 5 8 cm wide, dark green, young leaves light green or brown in color. Peduncle up to 70 cm long, spongy swollen toward the inflorescence. Spathe up to...

Cryptocoryne bogneri

Cryptocoryne Alba Sri Lanka

Synonyms Cryptocoryne bogneri de Wit only several months after Rataj's identification . Etymology Cryptocoryne'. see C. affinis bogneri after the discoverer Josef Bogner. Distribution Southwestern Sri Lanka. Description Marsh plant, 5-10 cm tall. Petiole 2-5 -12 cm long. Blade 3-8 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, smooth or slightly undulate, emersed ovoid, upperside rough, submersed lanceolate, smooth, olive green to dark green or brownish, often with red venation. Apex acute or obtuse base truncate,...

Submersed Cultivation

Cryptocorynes are a regular component of aquarium flora. Commercially available most regularly are Cryptocoryne ajfinis, C. becket-tii, C. cordata, C. crispatula, C. parva, C. pontederiifolia, C. undulata, C. wendtii and C. x willisii. In general these species can easily be kept in aquariums. Occasionally C. albida, C. aponogetifolia and C. moehlman-nii are also kept, with C. hudoroi and C. Table 4 Number of chromosomes and distribution of Cryptocorynes. according to Jacobsen 1977, Arends et...

Beauvois Hepper 1960

Bacopa Crenata

Synonyms Herpestis crenata Beauvois 1819 , H. calycina Bentham, H. thonningii Bentham, Bacopa calycina Engler ex De Wildeman, Moniera calycina Hiern. Etymology Bacopa see Bacopa carolini-ana crenata crenate, refers to the margin. Distribution West Africa from Senegal to Angola, Tanzania, Madagascar. Distribution Marsh plant, up to 30 cm tall, decumbent or ascendent. Stems 2-5 mm thick, round, fleshy, nonpubescent. Decussate leaves, in submersed culture rarely with...

Fast Growing Marsh Plants

Hygrophila Aquatica Submersed

Marsh plants make up the major part of the range of aquarium plants. In their natural habitats they grow both submersed under water Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia at a waterfall in Limbe Cameroon . The plant is excellently suited for large aquariums holding cichlids. as well as emersed above water . Dependent on seasonal variations in the water levels many marsh plants develop differently structured leaves under water as an adaptation to their submersed existence to those formed above the...

Don Wettstein 1891

Bacopa Species

Synonyms Bramia lan gera G. Don, Her-pestis lan gera Chamisso amp Schlechtendal, and others. Etymology Bacopa see B. carol n ana lan gera wearing wool. Distribution Brazil. Description Marsh plant with decumbent or erect shoots. Stem 2-5 mm thick, fleshy, thick wooly pubescence. Leaves decussate rarely trimerous whorls , sessile, amplex-icauline, glabrous. Leaf blade ovoid to wide ovoid, 2-3.2 cm long, 1.7-2.8 cm wide, with a round apex and distinct midrib. Margin...

Hygrophila polysperma Rosanervig

Hygrophila Polysperma Rosanervig

A variegate, white-green variant of Hygrophila polysperma is commercially available, described as a cultivar under the name of H. polysperma 'Rosanervig'. The cultivar name of 'Marmor', introduced later, should not be used for the sake of uniformity. The white pattern on the plant leaves due to a lack of chlorophyll is almost certainly caused by virus infection. This feature, however, is not consistent refer also to H. dif-formis White-Green . The cultivar 'Rosanervig' is expressedly...

Alismataceae Family Nomenclature

The Echinodorus genus was first extensively dealt with by Micheli 1881 , further work followed by Buchenau 1903 and Fas-sett 1955 . Rataj 1975a then published a revision of the genus. Since this was the only new publication for a long time, it represented, for many years, an important basis for aquarists for the identification of the species. From the beginning, though, there were critical voices who accused Rataj of describing too many species and varieties in a careless fashion. Over the last...

Cryptocoryne fusca

Cryptocoryne Fusca

Synonyms Cryptocoryne tortilis de Wit. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis fusca red-brown, refers to the coloration of the limb. Distribution Borneo southwest Kalimantan Description Petiole up to 17 cm. Leaf blade narrow ovoid, up to 10 cm long, 5 cm wide, upperside light green, underside whitish green. Apex acute base auriculate or cordate. Margin and leaf underside occasionally with dense pubescence. Spathe 8-20 cm long. Limb erect, cuspidate, hardly to spirally twisted and opening with a...

Aponogeton crispus Kompakt

Aponogeton Crispus

Etymology Aponogeton crispus see under A. crispus 'Kompakt' cultivar name given by the aquatic plant nursery H. Barth, Dessau. Distribution No natural distribution. Description Aquatic plant. Tuber small. Leaves up to 5 cm petiolate. Petiole trigonal, up to 5 mm wide. Blade narrow ovoid to lanceolate, transparent, slightly leathery, up to 15 cm long and 6 cm wide, light green or mildly brown in coloration. Apex obtuse rounded base obtuse. Margin undulate. Midrib solid,...

Bentham 1878

Aponogeton Elongatus

Synonyms None Etymology Aponogeton see A. abyssinicus elongatus extended, stretched. Distribution North, East, and northwestern Australia. Description Aquatic plant. Tuber up to 2.5 cm in size. Leaves petiolate, ribbon-like, soft, light green, yellowish green to reddish brown in color. Van Br ggen distinguishes 4 forms 1 f. strigosus tuber echinate only in this form . Leaves up to 40 x 0.5-5 cm, flat or undulate. Floating leaves up to 11 x 1.7 cm 2 f. latifolius leaves...

Emersed Cultivation

Nearly all Cryptocorynes can be cultivated above the water line in high humidity conditions. For this purpose, an empty aquarium covered with a glass panel will do. Artificial lighting is sufficient. An easy cultivation method is to fill the aquarium with enough water to enable the plant pots to sit in water of up to about 1-3 cm. With the aid of a diffusor located in a separate container with water, air circulation and, at the same time, high humidity is created. In addition, the water may be...

General Features of the Genus

Habit The Cryptocoryne genus comprises aquatic and marsh plants which generally propagate vegetatively through buried runners. All Cryptocorynes feature a usually creeping rarely erect , more or less thick rhizome, on which the leaves are arranged in a rosette. They are with the exception of the winter leaves in C. retrospiralis divided into petiole and blade, and have an inconspicuous sheath at the base. In contrast to the Lage-nandra genus, where the juvenile leaf blade is wrapped by both...

Bogner Heine 1987

Crinum Calamistratum Propagation

Synonyms Crinum natans crispus. Etymology Crinum from krinon lily calamistratum cr spate, curly. Distribution Western Cameroon near Kumba . Description Aquatic plant with an oblong, 1-3-cm thick, up to 10-cm long bulb. Leaves rosette-like, strap-shaped, slightly twirled, 70-100 200 cm long, 0.2-0.7 cm wide, dark green margin cr spate. Midrib distinct. Peduncle up to 80 cm long, erect. Inflorescence with 1-3 well-scented flowers. Bracts about 3.5 cm long. Flower with an...

Cryptocoryne crispatula

Cryptocoryne Crispatula

Synonyms 1. var. crispatula C. retrospi-ralis Roxburgh Kunth var. crispatula En-gler de Wit, C. bertilihansenii Rataj 2. var. flaccidifolia none 3. var. balansae Gag-nep. N. Jacobsen C. balansae Gagnep., C. longispatha Merrill, C. kwangsiensis H. Li 4. var. sinensis Merr. N. Jacobsen C. sinensis Merr., C. yunnanensis H. Li 5. var. .tonkinensis Gagnep. N. Jacobsen C. tonki-nensis Gagnep., C. retrospiralis Roxb. Kunth var. tonkinensis Gagnep. de Wit. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. afftnis...

Descaisne Hooker fil 1883

Aponogeton Bernierianus

Synonyms Ouvirandra bernieriana De-caisne 1837 , Aponogeton quadrangulare Baker. Etymology Aponogeton see A. abyssinicus bernierianus after the collector Bernier. Distribution Eastern Madagascar. Description Aquatic plant with a 3-cm thick tuber or thick and branchy rhizome. Leaf blade up to 13 cm petiolate, strap-shaped, highly bullate and undulate, up to 50 120 cm long and 1.5 6.5 10 cm wide, dark green coloration. Peduncle up to 75 cm long, tapering towards the...

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides

Balinese Water Plant

Synonyms Hydrocotyle rotundifolia Roxburgh, H. jap nica Makino, H. yabei Makino, H. rotundifolia var. pauciflora Yabe. Etymology Hydrocotyle see H. leucoce-phala sibthorpioides similar to the Sibthor-pia genus. Distribution Widely spread in tropical Asia, introduced to the New World. Description Small marsh plant with emersed creeping, thin glabrous shoots, also being erect in the water and producing roots on the nodes. Leaves alternate. Petiole 0.5-11 cm long. Leaf blade almost orbicular, with...

Hydrocleys martii

Synonyms Ostenia uruguayensis Buchenau, Hydrocleys uruguayensis Buchenau Peder-sen. Etymology Hydrocleys hydor Gr. water kleis - key martii after the German botanist K. F. P. von Martius 1794-1868 . Distribution Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay. Description Aquatic plant with runners up to 50 cm long. Juveniles submersed, sessile, linear. Mature leaves floating or emersed, up to 40 cm petiolate, on the base with an up to 8-cm sheath. Leaf blade wide ovate to orbicular, up to...

Hemianthus micranthemoides

Freshwater Paludarium

Synonyms Micranthemum nuttallii A. Gray, M. micranthemoides Wettstein. Etymology Hemianthus from hemi half, and anthos flower, refers to the insignificant upper lip micranthemoides similar to a small Anthemis. Distribution East coast of North America. Description Delicate marsh plant with creeping or erect, glabrous, multibranched shoots. Leaves decussate or in 3-4-merous whorls, sessile, entire, lanceolate to elliptic, 3-9 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, light green. Flowers...

Cryptocoryne ciliata

Cryptocoryne Sulawesi

Synonyms Ambrosina ciliata Roxb. 1819 and others. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis', ciliata fimbricate limb . Distribution From India to New Guinea. Description Marsh plant, emersed 50-90 cm, submersed up to 50 cm tall. Diploid plants are stoloniferous, triploid forms develop short, erect runners which break off from the rhizome. Leaves up to 40 cm petio-late. Blade narrow lanceolate to narrow ovoid, 15-25 50 cm long, 2-7 -20 cm wide, leathery, fleshy, stiff, vertical, smooth, medium...

Eichhornia heterosperma

Aquarium Plant Species Yellow

Synonyms Eichhornia venezuelensis Velasquez. Etymology Eichhornia see E. azurea heterosperma with different seeds. Distribution Central and South America up to northern Brazil . Description Marsh plant with floating in shallow water or creeping in boggy environments nonpubescent shoots. Stem, petiole and sheaths conspicuously wine red in color. Emersed leaves up to 15 cm petiolate petiole not inflated. Emersed leaf blades ob-lanceolate to wide obovoid, 3-10 cm long,...

Eichhornia crassipes

Planta Rio Guapore Aquaticas

Synonyms Pontederia crassipes Martius Etymology Eichhornia see Eichhornia azurea crassipes thick-stemmed. Distribution Worldwide originally Brazil . Description Usually free-floating, up to about 50-cm tall plant with abundantly branched, bluish black roots. Internodes strongly compressed, so that the emersed leaves form a rosette. Petioles up to 40 cm long, spongy swollen. Sheath up to 15 cm long. Blade roundish to rhombic, sized up to 25 cm, apex obtuse, base cuneate to narrow cordate....

Eichhornia natans

Eichhornia Heterosperma

Synonyms Pontederia natans P. Beauvois 1810 , Monochoria natans Thomson, Eichhornia diversifolia Troupin non Urban . Etymology Eichhornia see E. azurea natans swimming. Distribution West Africa, individually also in East Africa Tanzania, Madagascar . Description Sturdy aquatic plant. Submersed leaves alternate, spirally arranged or distichous, sessile, linear, acute, 3-8 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, light green on the apex of the shoot. Floating leaves 4-10 cm petiolate, with a...

Egeria densa

Aquarium Plants Elodea

Casp., Etymology Egeria after the nymph Egeria densa dense, refers to the foliage. Distribution Southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, introduced in Chile, Mexico, North America, East Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Europe. Description Perennial floating or aquatic plant with 2-3-mm thick, hard, fragile, densely leaved stem. Internodes 0.3-1 cm. Leaves sessile. Prophylls scaleous, opposite, upper leaves usually in 4-merous whorls. When branched, 2 leaf...

Echinodorus schlueteri

Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus schlueteri dedicated name not explained when first used . Distribution Unknown. Description Small to medium-sized marsh plant, 5-25 cm tall. Leaves up to 20 -40 cm petiolate. Blade narrow ovoid to ovoid, up to 16 23 cm long, 10 16 cm wide, with acute or fine aciculate apex and more or less cordate rounded base. Margin flat or slightly undulate. Coloration is light to medium green, submersed also moderately brownish...

Cryptocoryne beckettii

Cryptocoryne Petchii Pink

Synonyms Cryptocoryne petchii Alston. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis beckettii after T.W.N. Beckett 1838-1906 . Distribution Central and southwestern Sri Lanka. Description Marsh plant, 10-25 cm tall. Petiole up to 15 cm long, often brown reddish in color. Blade narrow lanceolate to ovoid, 3-13 cm long, 1.5-4.0 cm wide, smooth or slightly undulate. Apex acute base from truncate to mildly cordate. Margin undulate or slightly crispate. Coloration upperside from olive green to dark green...

Echinodorus portoalegrensis

Echinodorus Opacus Round Leaf

Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus portoalegrensis after Porto Alegre. Distribution Southern Brazil Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre habitat description doubtful and Santa Catarina, Tangara. Description Medium-sized aquatic plant with a long, thin rhizome. Petiole up to 15 cm long, almost round, hard. Blade narrow elliptic to elliptic or narrow lanceolate to oblan-ceolate, 5-16 cm long, 2-7 cm wide, conspicuously stiff, leathery, medium to black...

Echinodorus parviflorus Tropica

Echinodorus Bleheri Flower

Etymology Cultivar name 'Tropica' after the aquatic plant nursery of the same name in Hjortsh0j, Denmark. Distribution Unknown. Description Small to medium-sized marsh plant. Petiole up to 5 cm long. Blade narrow obovoid, up to 12 cm long, 5 cm wide, coarse, a little bullate, medium to dark green in color, without dark cross-venation. Apex obtuse rounded, with an up to 7-mm long tip. Leaf margin slightly undulate. Number of chromosomes 2n 22. Description otherwise as in E. parviflorus. Culture...

Echinodorus parviflorus

Ecology Aquarium

Commercial name Echinodorus peruensis, Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus parviflorus small-flowered. Distribution Not definitely known mass exports in the 1970s arrived supposedly from Peru and Bolivia. Description Medium-sized marsh plant. Leaves up to 15 cm petiolate. Blade narrow lanceolate in the short-day, lanceolate in the long-day, up to 27 cm long, 4-6.5 cm wide, medium green, frequently with dark cross-venation, juveniles also brownish. Apex and base acute. Leaf surface...

Echinodorus palaefolius

Echinodorus Palaefolius

Family Alismataceae Synonyms Sagittaria palaefolia Nees and Martius 1823 , Alisma palaefolium Nees and Martius Kunth, A. ellipticum Martius, E. palaefolius var. latifolius Micheli Rataj, E. palaefolius var. minus Seubert Rataj, and others. Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus palaefolius with primeval, primitive l,eaves. Distribution Eastern Brazil. Description Sturdy marsh plant. Petiole up to 75 cm long, almost round, grooved, glabrous. Emersed blade ovoid, not cordate, up to 30 cm...

Adventitious Plants

The formation of adventitious plants on leaves, petioles, roots and inflorescences of the parent plant is well-known to aquarists. Propagules on the margins can often be seen in ferns such as Ceratopteris and Micro-sorum, whereas in pond lilies, such as Nym-phaea micrantha and Nymphaea X daube-nyana, they are found on the leaf base, ensuring easy vegetative propagation in these species. In Microsorum shoots will also form in large quantities on the roots hanging in the water. Detached leaves...

Echinodorus macrophyllus

Myriophyllum Cuiaba

Synonyms For subsp. macrophyllus Alisma macrophyllum Kunth 1841 for subsp. scaber Rataj Haynes and Holm-Nielsen Echinodorus scaber Rataj, E. scaber var. proliferate Rataj. Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus , macrophyllus large-leaved. Distribution Southern Nicaragua, Venezuela to Argentina. Description Sturdy marsh plant. Petiole up to 1 m long, round, glabrous subsp. macrophyllus or mammillate with stellate hair subsp. scaber . Emersed blade 15-40 cm long, 8-25...

Tasek Bera Biotope No

Tasek Bera is a 60 km2 low-lying marsh area on the Malay Peninsula in the southwestern part of the State of Pahang. It is crisscrossed by many channel-like waterways and forms an important environment for aquatic and marsh plants. Furtado and Mori 1982 studied numerous ecological aspects of this biotope and summarized their 4 years of research in a comprehensive publication. Even though the author is not personally familiar with Tasek Bera, some essential research results should be summarized...

Biotope No

Aponogeton loriae is a very rare aquatic plant which is endemic in Papua New Guinea. The studied biotope is located on the road from Port Moresby in the direction of the Vaimauri Plateau, 61 km from the airport of the Papua New Guinea capital. There A. loriae grows in dense populations in a small river that is about 2-4 m wide. The clear water flows slowly at a speed of about 25 cm s. Whereas the water was knee-deep at the river's edge without a distinct shallow water zone , it reached a depth...

Rio Yanayacu Peru Biotope No

The Rio Yanayacu is a confluent to the Uya-cali. The biotope from which the water sample was taken in July 1990 consists of a quiet cove. A thick layer of floating plants, such as Ceratopteris pteridoides, Ceratophyllum de-mersum, C. submersum, Eichhornia crassi-pes, Limnobium laevigatum, Ludwigia hel-minth.orrh.iza, Phyllanthus fluitans, Pistia stratiotes, Ricciocarpus natans, Salvinia au-riculata and Utricularia foliosa, was found on the banks in slow-moving water. Due to the too small sample...

Echinodorus berteroi

Echinodorus Habitat

Synonyms Alisma berteroi Sprengel 1825 , A. rostratum Nuttall, E. rostratus Nutt. Engelmann, E. patagonicus Spegazzini, and others. Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus berteroi after J. Bertero 1789-1831 . Distribution U.S. and Central America widespread isolated in Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru. Description Strong marsh plant, up to 70 cm tall in the aquarium. Petiole up to 50 cm long rarely longer , triangular. Emersed leaf blade wide ovate with an obtuse...

Hygrophila difformis White Green

Hygrophila Difformis

In contrast to the wild form, this plant depicts a more or less strongly pronounced white marking which refers mainly to the venation, but also to other parts of the leaf blade. So far, it has not been determined if this is a mutation or a virus infection, the latter, however, being very likely. Because the consistency of the white marking is not settled, it seems more appropriate to classify the plant not as a separate variety or form, but as a cultivar 'White-Green' Kasselmann 1981b, 1983a ....

Echinodorus aschersonianus

Echinodorus Aschersonianus

Synonyms E. aschersonianus var. nulliglan- Etymology Echinodorus Gr. echinos hedgehog, doros pipe, hose, hedgehog hose, refers to the spiny fruit aschersonianus after the German botanist P. Ascherson 1834-1913 . Distribution Southern Brazil to Argentina. Description Small to medium-sized marsh plant. Emersed plants petiole usually up to 10 cm long, half-round. Blade narrow ovoid, 6-14 cm long, 3.5-6 cm wide, medium green. Leaf apex round or aciculate base slightly cordate, with minuscule teeth....

Echinodorus amazonicus

Synonyms Echinodorus brevipedicellatus auct. non O. Kuntze Buchenau. Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersonia-nus amazonicus originating from the Amazon. Distribution Two habitats in the Brazilian Amazon region Rio Jamari Rondonia , Be-lem Para . Description Medium-sized sword plant, Submersed 30-50 cm tall. Petiole up to 10 cm long. Leaf blade narrow lanceolate, often slightly recurved sideways, up to 40 cm in length, 1.5-3 cm wide, medium green with dark horizontal...

Cyperus helferi

Vegetative Propagation Plants

Etymology Cyperus from kypeiros Greek plant name helferi after the collector Johann Wilhelm Heifer 1810-1840 . Distribution India, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, western Malaysia. Description Marsh plant, up to 60 cm tall. Creeping rhizome, up to 5 cm long, 7 mm thick, very branchy. Leaves basilar, bushy growth, 10-60 cm long, 2-9 mm wide, strap-shaped, cuspidate, gramineous, flaccid, flat, with a deep, angular furrow in the center of the blade, green, the margin featuring minute denticles,...

Cryptocoryne x willisii

Cryptocoryne Willis

Synonyms Cryptocoryne nevillii sensu auct., non Hook, f., C. lucens de Wit. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis willisii named after J.C. Willis. Distribution Central Sri Lanka. Description Marsh plant, emersed up to 25 cm, submersed 5-15 cm tall. Leaves 2-12 20 cm petiolate. Blade narrow ovoid to lanceolate, 1.5-12 cm long, 0.6-2.5 cm wide, flat, medium green in color. Apex usually acute base acute or slightly cordate. Margin entire. Indistinct venation. Spathe 4-8 cm long. Tube 2-5 cm long....

Cryptocoryne wendtii

Cryptocoryne Wendtii Var Jahnelli

Synonyms Cryptocoryne wendtii de Wit var. wendtii, var. jahnelli Rataj, var. krauteri Rataj, var. nana Rataj, var. rubella Rataj. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis wendtii after Albert Wendt 1887-1958 , author of the comprehensive work Die Aqua-rienpflanzen in Wort und Bild. Distribution Central, western to northwestern Sri Lanka. Description Marsh plant, 10-30 cm tall. Leaves 5-20 25 cm petiolate. Leaf blade elliptic to very narrow elliptic or narrow lanceolate to narrow ovoid, 5 15 23 cm...

Cryptocoryne walkeri x nevillii

Cryptocoryne Nevillii

Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis walkeri after A.W. Walker nevillii after H. Nevill. Distribution No natural distribution artificial hybrid . Description Marsh plant, emersed 5-15 cm, submersed 2-7 cm tall. Leaves up to 12 cm petiolate, sometimes slightly fleshy and stiff. Leaf blade lanceolate, up to 5.5 cm long, 1.8 cm wide, flat. Apex acute base round. Light to medium green coloration. Spathe up to 17 cm long. Tube up to 10 cm long. Limb about 5 cm in length, erect, cuspidate, slightly...

Cryptocoryne usteriana

Cryptocoryne Usteriana

Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. ajfinis usteriana after A. Usteri 1869-1948 . Distribution Philippines Guimaras Island . Description Aquatic plant, up to 70 cm tall. Leaves up to 30 cm petiolate. Blade lanceolate to narrow elliptic, up to 40 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, bullate. Apex acute base round or acute. Undulate margin. Medium green coloration, often pale to deep purple-red on the underside. Strong midrib. Spathe 5-14 cm long. Tube 3.5-9 cm long. Limb 1.8-3.5 cm, cuspidate or short caudate,...

Cryptocoryne undulata

Aquarium Plant Problem

Synonyms Cryptocoryne willisii Baum, C. axelrodii Rataj. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis undulata undulate, refers to the structure of the leaf blade. Distribution Central Sri Lanka. Description Marsh plant, 10-25 cm tall. Leaves 7-15 cm petiolate. Blade lanceolate to narrow lanceolate, 4 11 15 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, slightly undulate. Apex acute base narrow, acute, truncate or slightly cordate. Margin entire or undulate. Upperside medium green to dark brown coloring, occasionally...

Echinodorus osiris

Echinodorus Osiris

Commercial name E. osiris rubra, E. au- Etymology Echinodorus see E. aschersoni-anus osiris refers to the Brazilian aquatic plant nursery Lotus Osiris. Distribution Southern Brazil few habitats . Description It is distinguished from E. uru-guayensis by the following features E. osiris easily forms emersed leaves. Petiole 40-70 cm long. Blade elliptic or narrow ovoid, 15-25 cm long, 7-15 cm wide. Submersed blade 10-40 cm petiolate, very narrow elliptic, narrow lanceolate or oblanceolate, 10-30...

Linn Engler Krause 1906

Aponogeton Madagascariensis India

Synonyms Saururus natans L. 1771 , Aponogeton monostachyon L. f., and others. Etymology Aponogeton see A. abyssinicus natans swimming. Distribution Sri Lanka, India. Description Plant usually existing in water, rarely entirely emersed. Tuber up to 2 cm in size. Juveniles submersed, up to 5 cm petio-late blade lanceolate, up to 6.5 x 1.5 cm, light green margin undulate. Adults floating blade up to 11.5 x 3 cm in size, with cordate base, light green margin flat. Peduncle...

Hydrilla verticillata

Hydrilla Verticillata

Synonyms Serpicula verticillata Linn fil. Etymology Hydrilla hydor water, illein -to turn, revolve verticillata whorled, refers to the whorled arrangement of the leaves. Distribution Widely spread in Asia, Australia, East Africa, Europe, North America, absent from South America. Description Polymorphic aquatic plant with 1-2-mm thick, soft, more than 2-cm long stem. Internodes usually 0.5-2 cm long. Leaves sessile, prophylls opposite, the upper leaves set in 3-6 12 -merous whorls. Blade linear...

Water in the Aquarium

Elodea Salt Water Lab

THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF CARBON COMPOUNDS, PH-VALUE AND CARBONATE HARDNESS Carbon constitutes a vital element for the nutrition of higher plants. In contrast to terrestrial plants which obtain their carbon requirements exclusively from the carbon dioxide content of air, aquatic plants supply themselves with this nutritional element essentially from the different inorganic carbon compounds in water C02 carbon dioxide, H2C03 carbonic acid, HC03 hydrogen carbonate, CO carbonation, Ca HC03 2...

Cryptocoryne scurrilis

Cryptocoryne Scurrilis

Synonyms C. bullosa Engler var. scurrilis de Wit Rataj. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis scurrilis funny, teasing, refers to the limb's appearance. Distribution Sumatra. Description Petiole up to 11 cm. Blade lanceolate, often with a cordate base, up to 11 x 4 cm in size, flat or slightly bullate, upperside green or brownish, the underside is often purple-red. Spathe 5-11 cm, tube 2.5-6 cm, limb 2-2.5 cm long, aciculate, obliquely reflexed, interior very mammillate, torose margin, light to...

Cryptocoryne schulzei

Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis schulzei after the plant's discoverer J. Schulze, Berlin. Distribution Malay Peninsula. Description Leaf blade lanceolate, 4-6 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, round or slightly cordate base, green or brownish, marmorate. Spathe 3.5-11.5 cm long. Tube 1-6 cm long. Limb 1.0-3.5 cm long, erect or recurved, cuspidate, not or hardly twisted, yellow or dark red with a yellow margin. Distinct collar. Wide throat, light or dark purple-red coloration. Number of chromosomes...

Echinodorus martii

Echinodorus Martii Major

Synonyms E. martii Micheli 3 major Micheli, E. major Micheli Rataj, E. leopoldina. Etymology Echinodorus'. see E. aschersoni-anus martii after the German botanist K.F.R von Martius 1794-1868 . Distribution Eastern Brazil. Description Medium-sized sword plant, emersed up to 25 cm, submersed up to 60 cm tall. Emersed stem up to 5 cm, half-round. Blade oblanceolate, up to 20 x 5 cm in size, light green. Apex acute base usually truncate. Margin undulate 3-7 veins. Submersed...

Cryptocoryne affinis

Cryptocoryne Emersed

Synonyms C. haerteliana Milk., C. affinis Hook. f. subsp. haerteliana Milk. Schopfel. Etymology Cryptocoryne Greek kryptos - hidden, koryne spadix, refers to the spa-dix hidden in the kettle affinis related to, cognate with. Distribution Malay Peninsula. Description Marsh plant, submersed up to 40 cm tall, emersed much smaller. Leaves up to 20 cm petiolate. Blades lanceolate to narrow lanceolate, up to 23 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, more or less bullate. Apex acute base acute or round. Coloration...

Cryptocoryne parva

Synonyms C. nevillii sensu auct., non Hook, f. Etymology Cryptocoryne see C. affinis parva small. Distribution Central Sri Lanka. Description Marsh plant, up to 10 cm tall. Leaves l-6 10 cm petiolate. Blade narrow elliptical to lanceolate, entire, emersed 1.5- 2.5 cm long, 0.4-0.8 cm wide, submersed up to 2 cm long, 0.2-0.3 cm wide, smooth, medium to dark green. Apex acute base cune-ate. Indistinct venation. Spathe 1.5-2.5 3.5 cm long. Tube 0.7-1.5 cm long. Limb 0.4-1.2 cm long, not caudate,...