Anubias barteri

Schott var. nana (Engler) Crusio (1979)

Family: Araceae.

Synonyms: Anubias nana Engler (1899). Etymology: Anubias: see A. afzelii; barteri: see var. barteri; nana: dwarf-like. Distribution: Cameroon (Victoria). Description: Marsh plant. Rhizome 5-8 mm thick. Petiole 3-8 cm long, 1-3 mm thick, sheathed. Geniculum 0.5-1 cm. Leaf blade narrow ovoid to ovoid, about 4-8 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, leathery, medium to dark green. Apex acute; base round to slightly cordate. Margin slightly undulate.

Flower description: see var. barteri. Culture: An undemanding and popular, slow-growing marsh plant with excellent adaptability to aquarium conditions. Both soft and hard, weak acid or alkaline water are equally suitable for cultivation. The plants will prosper best under weak to medium light. Intensive lighting is not recommended because there is a high danger of algae infestation due to slow growth. This variety, featuring a height of 5-15 cm, is excellently suited for location in the aquarium foreground. During planting, care should be taken that rhi

Anubias barteri var. nana.

zomes are situated above the substrate level because specimens that are inserted too deep grow badly. These plants are especially recommended for the greening of decorative materials. Cichlid aquariums equipped exclusively with Anubias can be very impressive. Variety nana constitutes an ideal plant for breeding aquariums without a substrate because it is so sturdy, it will grow while floating freely in the water. Propagation is through rhizome partition and temperature range is 22-28 °C.

Ecology: There is hardly any ecological data available or any habitats known. This variety seems to grow in semiaquatic communities in a fast-flowing river in the town of Victoria (Cameroon). Since this location is a protected area no plants were removed by the author for identification purposes. Water analysis (February): temperature 25 °C (air temperature 27 °C), pH 7.8, GH 4.5 °dH, KH 3.5 °dH, 220 pS/cm, Fe2+/Fe3+ not detectable.

Anubias barteri var. nana.

Anubias Gigantea Natura

Anubias gigantea

Hutchinson (1939)

Family: Araceae.

Synonyms: Anubias gigantea Chevalier var. tripartita Chevalier (nomen nudum), A. has-tifolia Engler var. robusta Engler. Etymology: Anubias: see A. afzelii\ gigantea: gigantic, relates to leaf size. Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Togo, Cameroon. Description: Sturdy marsh plant featuring a slowly growing, 1.5-3-cm thick rhizome. Petiole up to 65( — 83) cm long, sheathed. Ge-niculum 1-2.5 cm long. Leaf blade leathery, very variable in shape, from hastate to tri-lobular; middle lobe lanceolate to narrow ovoid, 10-30 cm long, 6-17 cm wide, lateral lobe up to 25 cm long, 0.5-9 cm wide. Margin smooth. Coloration medium green.

Peduncle up to 50 cm long. Spathe 4.5-13 cm long, on maturity open for several hours, not recurved. Spadix 5-19 cm long, almost equal to about a third longer than the spathe, 4-6(7-8) adnate stamens. Thecae laterally on the synandrium. Seeds examined only once, up to 1.8 x 1.2 mm in size. Culture: A very slow-growing marsh plant with a moderate adaptation to submersed conditions. The variety is rarely commercially available. Due to its size, it is especially recommended for paludariums and has only a limited suitability for aquariums. The plants normally require an extended period of acclimatization. Propagation is through rhizome partition.

Ecology: According to Crusio (1987), the species grows semiaquatic on the banks or beds of streams, mostly in sunny locations. Flowering period is from February to April. Other: Three growth forms are in culture and can be easily differentiated through their consistent leaf shapes. The first has hastate, in their contour almost trigonal leaf blades; the second features hastate, distinctly trilobular blades with about 8-9-cm wide basal lobes; and the third has lanceolate leaf blades (similar to Anubias heterophylla) with up to 14 cm long and up to 1.5-cm wide basal lobes.

Emersed plant of Anubias gigantea.

Beech Plant Cameroon

Emersed plant of Anubias gigantea.

Anubias gilletii de Wildeman & Durand (1901)

Family: Araceae. Synonyms: None.

Etymology: Anubias: see A. afzeliv, gilletii: after the collector J. Gillet (1866-1943). Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire.

Description: Marsh plant with an up to 1 cm-thick rhizome. Petiole up to 40 cm long, 2-3 mm thick, with a short sheath, settled by small acanthas in more sturdy specimens. Ge-niculum about 1 cm long. Leaf blade leathery, initially slightly cordate or auriculate, older leaves sagittate to hastate; middle lobe up to 30 cm long, 15.5. cm wide, narrow oblong to oblong, acute to cuspidate; lateral lobe up to 10 cm long, acute to obtuse. Margin smooth. Coloration light to medium green.

Stem of the inflorescence up to 22 cm long. Spathe 1-3 cm long, briefly opened on maturity. Spadix with 2.5 cm length almost as long as the spathe; 3-5 adnate stamens. Thecae on the upper margin of the synandrium. Seeds up to 1 x 0.5 mm in size. Culture: A high degree of humidity has to be prevalent for emersed cultivation. Whereas

Emersed specimen of Anubias gilletii.

the plants grow very large in marsh culture, they remain considerably smaller in the aquarium so that they can quite easily be confused with varieties of A. barteri. Although A. gilletii also makes do with low light levels, it will display improved growth in a medium light intensity environment. Sturdy specimens display distinct lateral lobes. For more information on culture also refer to A. afzelii.

Ecology: In its native location this species grows on the banks of rivers, usually with its rhizome in the water or in hardly moist substrates. In Cameroon (February) the author occasionally found small to medium-sized specimens, also fully submersed. Inflorescences were rarely found. Other: Anubias gilletii can easily be confused with frail specimens of A. hastifolia and A. pynaertii. Inflorescences are essential for a definite species identification.

Emersed specimen of Anubias gilletii.

Slow Growing Aquarium Plants

Anubias gracilis

Hutchinson (1939)

Family: Araceae. Synonyms: None.

Etymology: Anubias: see Anubias afzelii', gracilis: slim, delicate. Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone. Description: Marsh plant with slowly growing, 1-1.5-cm thick rhizome. Petiole up to 60 cm long, with a very short sheath. Geniculum up to 1-1.5 cm long. Leathery blades, hastate, usually almost trigonal in its outline, 10-40 cm in length and 10-20 cm wide, apex acute; basal lobes round. Margin smooth. Medium green coloring.

Peduncle 6-15 cm long. Spathe 1.5-3 cm long, opened wide, recurved. Spadix up to 3 cm in length, equal in length or a little shorter than the spathe; 6-8(9) adnate stamens; the-cae lateral on the synandrium. Male segment of the spadix 2-4 times the length than its female counterpart. Seeds are not known. Culture: Anubias gracilis is rarely commercially available, which is mainly because the species grows rather large and subsequently requires spacious aquariums. It has only a limited suitability for a continuous culture underwater; it does, however, constitute a very recommendable paludarium plant. The substrate may consist of soil or a mixture of sand, clay and beech leaf mold. Hydroponics, too, is possible. Previous experience indicates no special requirements regarding water values in the aquarium. The plants will possibly grow best in soft water, even though healthy growth is also possible in water of medium hardness. Light requirements are very low. Within an aquarium, Anubias gracilis will grow best if both rhizome and roots are not inserted into the substrate but are left to hang freely in the water. Specimens cultivated in this manner nevertheless require many months to completely acclimatize. Propagation is through partitioning of the rhizome.

Ecology: At its natural habitat, A. gracilis will lead a partially submersed existence during the wet season (similar to Anubias gil-letii).

Further reading: Crusio (1979, 1987)

Emersed Plant

Emersed plants of Anubias gracilis,

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The word aquarium originates from the ancient Latin language, aqua meaning water and the suffix rium meaning place or building. Aquariums are beautiful and look good anywhere! Home aquariums are becoming more and more popular, it is a hobby that many people are flocking too and fish shops are on the rise. Fish are generally easy to keep although do they need quite a bit of attention. Puppies and kittens were the typical pet but now fish are becoming more and more frequent in house holds. In recent years fish shops have noticed a great increase in the rise of people wanting to purchase aquariums and fish, the boom has been great for local shops as the fish industry hasnt been such a great industry before now.

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Responses

  • daphne
    How many hours of light for anubias barteri?
    5 years ago

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