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Madagascan lace plant 129 Marginal pond plants 110, 194 Marsh plant 142 Marsilea crenata 172 drummondi 172 hirsuta 50, 65, 101, 172 Mexican oak leaf 188 Micranthemum micranthemoldes 161 orbicu latum 173 umbrosum 50, 64, 101, 173 Microsorium 81 pteropus 50, 65, 65, 84, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 106, 107, 107, 115, 775, 116, 121, 173-175 'Red' 174 'Tropica' 7 7, 174 'Windelav' 175 sp. 18, 24, 55, 82, 99 Midground plants 50, 98, 99, 99, 101-101, 122 Moehlmann's cryptocoryne 142 Moss fern 131 Mosses...

Larger midwater swimmers

Some larger fish can be used in the planted aquarium without risking damage to the plants and many will make a bold and welcome addition to a display. The most popular fish in this category are the angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), which will gracefully glide between taller plants such as Vallisneria spp. Although when fully grown, these fish will become large enough to eat smaller fish, such as young cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi) or young harlequins (Rasbora heteromorpha), they can...

Elodea canadensis

Common name Canadian pondweed Origin North America Elodea canadensis is very similar in appearance to Egeria densa, and often sold as such, but does not tolerate warmer water as well as E. densa. Use it in groups of five or more for the best display. In good conditions, the plant will grow rapidly and may need regular pruning. Cutting will also result in the production of side shoots, creating a denser, bushier display. The plant is a good coldwater and pond subject in tropical aquariums it may...

Info

The location of plants in nature affects the amount of light they require in the aquarium. Plants that are accustomed to open environments will require strong lighting for longer periods, while plants found in the shade of vegetation will require a less intense light source. In nature, a number of plants, such as Echinodorus spp., also produce leaves above the water surface, where both light and C02 are more easily available. The advantage of producing aerial leaves is that faster-growing...

Temperature 5986F 1530C Propagation By division Difficulty

Temperature And Plant

There are many individual plants within a dump of crystalwort The deep red color of this delicate, oval-leaved plant contrasts well with lighter green species, but bear in mind that the stunning leaf color is dependent on strong lighting and iron-rich fertilizer. Transport and plant it carefully, as the stems are sensitive and easily damaged. Rotala macrandra is best planted in groups in front of taller species. Planting stems of various heights, with taller plants toward the back, will create...

Suitable Fish

The smaller cryptocorynes should be kept free from algae and debris, so small algae-eaters, such as Otocinclus spp., and scavengers, such as Corydoras spp., are fine. All the plants used here are quite hardy, so slightly boisterous fish can be added, such as barbs and danios. These fish will also appreciate the open swimming space in the center of the aquarium. Barbs, including the tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), golden barb (P. sachsi), rosy barb (P. conchonius), black ruby barb (P....

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Acorus gramineus 133, 194 var. aureovariegatus 193, 193 'Pusillus' 102, 103, 194 'Variegatus' 193 African fern 82, 113, 7 73, 7 76, 134 African onion plant 112, 113, 137 African waterweed 1 13, 7 73, 167 Alternanthera 99 reineckii 16, 50, 50, 64, 100, 124 rosaefolia 124 'Rosaefolia' 21 Amazon frogbit 168 Amazon swordplant 145, 146, 148, 149 black 148 black-red 146 broadleaved 145 large-flowered 146 large-leaved 147 opaque 149 red 148 ruffled 147 Uruguay 150 Ambulia 50 Ammannia 112 gracilis 19,...

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Water (H20) 72, 13, 13, 14, 14, 16, 18, 18, 19, 20, 50, 56, 58, 61, 62, 67, 74, 75, 76, 85, 185, 187 acidic 119 brackish 185 fast-moving 116, 117 hard 15, 67, 73, 77, 91, 108, 123, 128, 130, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 184, 185 hardness 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 37, 42, 67, 72, 85, 86, 94, 95 level 78 90, 92, 94, 116, 118 rain 37, 37, 67, 72, 75 reverse osmosis 37, 67, 72 soft 31, 37, 37,40, 66, 67, 73, 112, 119, 123, 128, 129, 133, 136, 137, 168, 177, 184, 189, 190, 191 soft-medium 142 surface...

Other Nutrients

Aquarium Plant Food

When you come to select suitable nutrient mixes, bear in mind that some fertilizers include other micronutrients that are not essential for aquatic plants and need not be added to the aquarium. Some terrestrial plants may require these nutrients for functions that are not present in aquatic plants, such as nitrogen fixation (obtaining nitrogen from the atmosphere). These nutrients include sodium, silicon, iodine, and cobalt. Aquatic plants do not need these nutrients. Many nutrients in the...

Liquid fertilizers

Several off-the-shelf liquid fertilizers are available for aquatic plants, but they should be used with caution because over-fertilization can cause problems with algae and metal toxicity. Generally speaking, you get what you pay for when you buy liquid fertilizers some of the more specialized products are far more valuable and contain the correct quantities of the required nutrients without oversupplying or lacking some elements. Liquid fertilizers can be particularly useful in supplying...

Echinodorus tenellus

Origin Northern and southern America In good conditions, this tiny Echinodorus species will spread and create a lawnlike appearance across the foreground of the aquarium. Provide medium-bright lighting, a fine substrate, and medium-soft water. When you buy them, many specimens exhibit the terrestrial leaf form, which is more oval shaped and on short stems. When placed underwater, the terrestrial form will lose all the existing leaves before growing new aquatic ones.

The substrate

In many aquariums, it is necessary to clean the substrate regularly and remove the debris using a gravel cleaner. Removing organic debris helps to prevent decomposition, which releases ammonia and nitrites, and also combats bacterial diseases and algae. However, in a heavily planted aquarium, the organic debris produced from fish, fish food, and plant waste is often beneficial in the production and storage of nutrients within the substrate. As organics build up in the substrate, they act as...

Other Plants Of Interest

Color Temperature Aquarium Plants

Propagation From runners Difficulty 1 This unusual coldwater plant has a seaweed appearance, which can look very effective in the right setting. The leaves will grow to 4 in 10 cm , have highly crinkled edges, and vary in color from dark green to slightly dark reddish. If kept in temperatures above 68 F 20 C , the plant may become weak and die. Provide a good, iron-rich substrate and, in the aquarium, good lighting. This is also a good coldwater plant for the aquarium or pond environment. Area...

Practical Section

Bamboo Tree For Aquarium

Make sure that brushwood is completely dead before using it in the aquarium. Mopani bogwood is precleaned and has interesting twisted shapes. Twisted roots bogwood makes an ideal rooting medium for some plants. Wood Although natural, or normal, wood cannot be used in an aquarium because it will quickly rot and produce fungal growths, other forms are suitable Bogwood can play a large part in the design of the planted aquarium. There are many different forms of bogwood, although these often arise...

Hb

Above Chemical filter media, such as activated carbon, can be used to remove color and toxins from the water. Use them with care, as they can remove nutrients and treatments at the same time. Left Tannins released from wood can discolor the water Although not harmful, this can look unsightly. Regular, but limited, use of chemical media should effectively remove such discoloration. Above Chemical filter media, such as activated carbon, can be used to remove color and toxins from the water. Use...

Fish food

Aquarium Plant Food

All higher organisms are made up from the same basic elements. It therefore follows that fish food, which is manufactured mainly from living organisms usually fish in the case of dry foods, such as flake, tablet, or pellet foods contains almost all the nutrients required by plants as well as fish. Most of these elements are excreted by the fish and then become available to plants as nutrients. Many fish foods are particularly high in phosphate and potassium, and in a well-fed aquarium, may...

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Sagittaria 80, 150 dwarf 108, 109, 7 76 giant 111, 7 7 7 lorata 185 platyphylia 65, 1 01, 1 1 1 , 7 7 7, 185 subulata 65, 100, 101, 185 var. pusilla 184 Salvinia 105, 106, 107, 186, 187 auriculata 65, 101, 705, 706, 107, 186, 187 minima 65, 101 natans 65, 75, 101, 707, 186 oblongifolia 65, 101, 787 spp. 167, 186, 186, 187 Samoius floribundus 187 parvifiorus 187 valerandi 50, 65, 101, 187 Saururus cernuus 15, 65, 101, 188 Scarlet lobelia 169 Shinnersia rivularis 64, 100, 101, 188 101, 702, 103,...

Echinodorus bleheri

Common name Broadleaved Amazon swordplant The broadleaved Amazon swordplant is the most widely available Amazon sword, partly due to its durability and ease of care. When established, the plant can take up a fair amount of space, so use it only in groups in larger aquariums or in tanks containing just a few plant species. Provide a good source of iron, both in the substrate and through liquid fertilizers. Does well in hard water. Area Background, Specimen, or unusual

Aponogeton ulvaceus

Common name Compact aponogeton Origin Sri Lanka This aponogeton sports the common wavy-edged leaves of the genus, although the light green 1.6-2.4 In 4-6 cm -wide leaves often appear smooth, shiny, and slightly fleshy. The plant often grows in spurts, producing numerous new leaves before slowing down and eventually shedding the old ones. In bright light it will grow taller. The highly ruffled leaves of Aponogeton ulvaceus may vary in color and sometimes appear pale green-yellow. This is a...

Surface swimmers

Floating plants are useful as well as aesthetic in a planted aquarium. Surface-swimming fish, such as gouramis, livebearers, and hatchetfish, will welcome the hiding places provided by floating plants and their roots. Many anabantoids which includes the gouramis , make bubblenests on the surface of floating plants in which to lay their eggs. This rarely happens in a crowded community aquarium, but if the water conditions are correct and the fish stocking level is low, a well-planted display...

Cabomba aquatica

Common name Yellow cabomba, Giant cabomba This attractive plant produces many fine, feathery leaves. The yellow-green coloration is unusual and makes for an interesting ornamental plant. Due to the very fine nature of the leaves, it is vital that the water is clean and free from floating debris, and that algae is not allowed to form on the plant. Strong lighting is required to keep it looking healthy and compact. Stems should be planted in small groups in open areas, and at least 2-2.4 in 5-6...

Plant Profiles

Shallow Marine Aquarium

Acorus Caladium Chlorophytum Dracaena Hemigraphis Origin Tropical and subtropical regions The green leaves of this plant are marked with white edging and stripes with a thick, leathery appearance. The plant is hardy and will survive for several months underwater. It is best used in shallow areas or on raised areas in open-topped aquariums. Another variety, Dracaena variegata, is available with yellow stripes. Propagation Top cuttings from emersed plants A truly striking plant that will catch...

Nuphar japnica

Aquatic Green Lotus Lily Plant

Common name Spatterdock Origin Japan Spatterdock's light green, triangular leaves contrast well with many plants in the aquarium. Ideally, it should be used singly in the midground with plenty of surrounding space. It has no special demands, but softer water will help to keep it healthy. Very bright light will prevent the leaves from reaching the water surface. To keep the plant short, simply remove the larger or older leaves. Maximum height spread Leaves will grow 6 in 15 cm long and stems...

Difficulty 1

Aquarium Carpet Plants

This tiny foreground plant usually reaches a height of only 0.6 In 1.5 cm and once established, will spread to form a dense carpet across the substrate. Its only major requirement is strong lighting as long as other conditions are adequate, the plant should do well once established. Avoid placing It in shaded or covered areas. It can be used as a bog marsh plant in damp situations. If conditions in the aquarium are relatively good, this is an excellent foregrou Area Foreground Light Bright to...

Heating Cables In Planted Aquarium

Planted Aquarium Substrate

Small-grade pea gravel can be used as a main substrate. Small grades can be used with a heating cable. Looks good as a top layer, but due to the small grade, mulm will collect more readily. Not normally a major problem. Some nutrient-rich substrates are designed to be used in large quantities as a main substrate. If the grade size is greater than 0.16 in 4 mm , mix it with a smaller lime-free substrate. Suitable if covered by a 1 in 2.5 cm layer of gravel. High, may be lacking hardwater...

Gallery Of Echinodorus

Narrow Elodea Leaf

Below Echinodorus 'Rubin' is a cultivated variety of echinodorus. Many aquarium plants are manmade varieties, created by crossing separate species, which results in attractive, new hybrid plants. The leaves of Echinodorus 'Rubin' vary in color. A mixture of red and green areas, combined with visible veins, creates a distinctive plant. The red edging of this leaf is unusual and creates a good contrasting effect when viewed against other leaves and plants. Right The narrow-leaved form of E....

Aquarium Plants

Java Fern Rock

Lysimachia Marsilea Micranthemum Microsorium The numerous small leaves help to create a dense mat effect. The popular Java fern is both versatile and easy to keep. In nature, it exists both submerged and on the banks of streams and rivers. Its roots are designed to attach to hard surfaces such as rocks and wood, and this is how it should be grown in the aquarium. Java fern adapts to most aquariums and requires little light. It is a slow-growing plant and older leaves may become tatty and...

Myriophyllum aquaticum

Myriophyllum Aquaticum For Fish Tanks

Synonym M. brasiliense, M. proserpinacoides Common name Brazilian milfoil, milfoil It is important to keep this common aquarium plant In water free of visible debris, which may clog the fine leaves. Providing you regularly add a multipurpose fertilizer to the tank, the plant should do well in most aquariums. It will produce side shoots, but overcutting will damage it. In strong light, the plant may produce thick leaves above the surface. Milfoil does well in softer water and will grow without...

Water quality

It is important to check the levels of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, pH, and hardness in the aquarium on a regular basis. If possible, carry out these tests every week and keep a record of each one and the date it was performed. It is also possible to test for the presence of certain nutrients, but this needs to be done only when plants show signs of a deficiency or excess of nutrients. Keeping a record of test results is a good way of checking any trends in the aquarium, such as rises in...

Myriophyllum tuberculatum

Common name Red myriophyllum Origin Brazil, South America The stem and leaves of this plant vary between brown and red, depending on various aquarium conditions. The color is highly unusual among common aquarium plants, making this plant a popular choice in planted displays. The fine, feathery leaves require clean, well-filtered water any debris and or algae will clog them and stop them photosynthesizing. Strong lighting is essential for this plant. Do not plant individual stems too close...

Sterilization

Harmful Nitrate Level For Freshwater

Sterilization as a form of filtration is normally employed in the marine aquarium, although there are situations when it can be useful in a freshwater aquarium. The process involves passing water through a pressurized unit containing an ultraviolet UV lamp. UV light at the right intensity is able to break down some algae cells and disease organisms, with obvious benefits for aquatic life. However, as with chemical filtration, it can also destroy useful elements. In general, because of the...

Alternanthera reineckii

This red-ieaved stem plant can be found in many different leaf forms and shades of color. The top leaf surface may vary from olive-green to brown, while the underside is pink-red. A good source of iron will help to intensify the red color. The plant is easy to care for if given the right conditions, which include strong lighting and a good iron-rich substrate. In larger aquariums, plant A. reineckii in small, well-spaced groups around the center of the aquarium. The red leaves make the plant a...

Ammannia gracilis

Common name Delicate ammannia, Red ammannia Origin Africa With its unusual leaf shape, Ammannia gracilis can look very effective when planted in groups and set against other plants with light green leaves. For the best effect, use shorter foreground plants around the base. The leaves vary in length depending on aquarium conditions. In good conditions, they may reach 4-4.7 In 10-12 cm long, but 3.2-4 in 8-10 cm is more usual. For the best results, provide bright lighting and a nutrient- and...

Soilbased substrates

Aquarium Plant Substrate

Although you must exercise caution when using soil-based substrates see page 43 , it is nevertheless true that soil contains a large quantity of many nutrients far more than are produced through other fertilization methods. Apart from carbon, chlorine, hydrogen, nickel, and oxygen, soil will provide every other nutrient required by aquatic plants for a number of years. Because hydrogen, chlorine, nickel, and oxygen can be readily obtained from the water, it is possible to use just soil and C02...

Propagation From cuttings and side shoots

North American Fresh Water Plants

Common name Lizard's tail Origin North America The attractively shaped and well-spaced leaves of this plant make It a good specimen for the midground of the aquarium. The leaves are oval to heart-shaped and a solid green color. The plant has no special requirements, other than adequate fertilization and good lighting.

Ludwigia glandulosa

Common name Glandular ludwigia, Red star ludwigia In the right conditions, this ludwigia will grow quickly, producing intensely olive-green pink leaves that stand out well in a planted aquarium. Regular trimming will keep the plant compact and tidy. Given very bright lighting and good all-round conditions, it is easy to care for and will adapt to most aquariums. The leaves will grow to 2 in 5 cm long. Best planted in groups of five or more. With good care, this plant can be very attractive....

A lowlight aquarium

As we have seen, the correct lighting is vital for the continued growth and health of aquarium plants, but in some situations, providing suitably intense light may be costly or impractical. Luckily for the aquarist, there are plants that thrive in shady streams with little natural light, and these have adapted to grow in relatively dim conditions. Indeed, some of them will not do well if given too much light. One limitation of low light conditions is that suitable foreground plants are hard to...

Nutrientrich substrates

Ready-made, nutrient-rich additives are widely available and usually designed as a main substrate, or to be mixed with a small-grade inert substrate. These substrates are high in many of the nutrients required by plants and not commonly available through other sources tap water, natural processes, etc. . In an established aquarium, most of these nutrients are released slowly over long periods of time, making nutrient-rich substrates an ideal long-term fertilizing solution. Most nutrient-rich...

Tablet fertilizers

Tablet fertilizers provide a localized supply of nutrients. They are concentrated forms of nutrient-rich substrate additives and particularly high in iron. Some faster-growing plants use vast amounts of iron, and supplying a concentrated source at the roots will help to prevent iron deficiency problems. Deficiencies in other plants, which may not be able to compete for available iron as quickly, will also be reduced or prevented. Do not use tablets as a whole-aquarium solution to universal...

Simple or diverse

Large Artificial Aquarium Plants

There are many styles of aquarium design, from barren rockscapes to heavily and diversely planted Dutch-style aquariums. You could be inspired by such designs or simply use your own, but in either case it is important to stick to a single style within one aquarium. When using rocks, select one or two types and use them in various sizes, rather than mix several different types of rocks and individual pieces. The same applies to wood it is usually better to use one type than many. Plant species,...

Difficulty

Small Leaf Aquarium Plants

Above The small leaves of Azolla sp. have a velvety appearance, as a result of many fine hairs, which help to resist water and keep the plant afloat. Small, surface-dwelling fish such as this honey gourami Colisa sota appreciate the cover provided by floating plants. Above Good lighting will allow Bacopa monnieri to grow compactly, with smaller spaces between the leaves. This often produces a better-looking plant and reduces the need for regular pruning. Common name Round bacopa Origin Southern...

Difficulty 2

Southeast Asian Aquarium Backgrounds

Small and the distance between them the nodes is large, if planted in groups, this plant will appear quite dense. Common name Whorly rotala Origin Southeast Asia Maximum height 16 in 40 cm Growth rate Medium, Fast Area Background, Midground Light Bright to Very Bright Temperature 72-86 F 22-30'C Propagation Cuttings Difficulty 3 This rotala is often confused with many Myriophyllum species and does indeed look very similar, except that the needlelike leaves are not branched but singular. Use the...

An Indonesian stream

Cryptocoryne Affinis

Blyxa echinosperma Giant Japanese rush The dose planting of the fine-leaved blyxa and broadleaved cryptocorynes provides a striking contrast in texture, especially as the two groups intermingle with each other. An ideal substrate should consist of a fine or sandy medium, with an additional iron-rich planting substrate. The dose planting of the fine-leaved blyxa and broadleaved cryptocorynes provides a striking contrast in texture, especially as the two groups intermingle with each other. In the...

Floating plants

Aquarium Floating Plants

Floating plants cast welcome shade on the plants positioned beneath them in the aquarium. Cryptocoryne affinis The background, floating, and wood-rooted plants take most nutrients from the water, and the foreground cryptocorynes will do well with liquid fertilizers and C02. Substrate is, therefore, relatively unimportant in this aquarium and a simple small-grade lime-free or pea gravel substrate will suffice.

Foreground Plants

Foreground Plant

The leaves of Salvinia species grow in pairs along short stems. The finely feathered roots of salvinia are designed to enable the plant to take up the maximum amount of nutrients from the water, but they also Below The leaves of Salvinia oblongifolia are more extended and elongate than in other Salvinia species. This plant has similar requirements to those of Salvinia auriculata. The finely feathered roots of salvinia are designed to enable the plant to take up the maximum amount of nutrients...

Ceratopteris cornuta

Synonym C. thalictroides Common name Floating fern Origin Africa The leaves of C. cornuta are an unusual shape and the plant varies In size, depending on aquarium conditions. It does well if given good lighting and plenty of space for growth. Can be used as a floating plant. Plantlets are frequently produced along older leaves. Maximum height Up to 20 in 50 cm , usually 14-16 in 35-40 cm Propagation By adventitious plantlets

Gallery Of Java Fern

Right Microsorium pteropus 'Tropica' is a cultivated variety with a slightly feathered leaf. All varieties of Java fern require the same conditions, although this variety may grow slightly faster. Right Microsorium pteropus 'Red' has the typical leaf form. Before planting, remove the pot and potting medium and tie the main root rhizome to a rock or piece of bogwood. You can place the plant in substrate, but the rhizome must be in open water. Java fern Microsorium pteropus is a popular aquarium...

Bad Plant

Small Holes Leaves Aquarium Plants

Here, roots are growing through the pot, along with a few small plantlets and fully formed leaves. This shows vigorous growth and general good health. These roots are not in perfect condition, but given the right environment and providing the roots are intact, even plants in this condition may start to grow new, healthy leaves. transport and handling, although it may take a few days to show up. with small holes, are an indication that the leaves on this plant will not last long before they...

Changes In Intensity

Aquarium Lamp Plants

Plants adapt to a given light source relatively quickly, but a sudden and prolonged significant change in light intensity can be harmful and sometimes deadly. High-intensity lights, such as mercury vapor or metal-halide lamps, may produce too much light for many plants. If the light source is too bright, plants are able to create protective pigments that reduce any harmful effects. However, if a sensitive plant notably floating species is transferred from an aquarium with single fluorescent...

An African pool

Bolbitis Heudelotii Natural Habitat

Two main styles of aquarium can be recreated here. The fast, open waters of the Zaire River, for example, are home to few plants, since the high oxygen levels and rapid waters make conditions unsuitable for many species. This type of display would resemble a mountain stream biotope. By contrast, the lowland swamps, pools, and slow-moving streams found in many places, often by the sides of faster moving waters, are filled with aquatic plants. Along the muddy banks, species of Azolla, Eleocharis...

Temperature 7282F 2228C

Hardy Aquarium Plants

Propagation From cuttings, side shoots and runners The thick, fleshy leaves are hardy enough to withstand the attentions of some herbivorous or boisterous fish. Area Midground, Foreground Light Bright Temperature 72-79 F 22-26 C Propagation From cuttings and side shoots Difficulty 1, 2 The thick, fleshy leaves are hardy enough to withstand the attentions of some herbivorous or boisterous fish.

JCrinum natans

Onion Background When They Planted

This dominant, long-leaved plant can also be found in a narrow-leaved form, which is a very attractive plant in any display. The wider-leaved form needs bright lighting and adequate nutrients, but the narrow-leaved one is less demanding. Both forms will reach up to 39 in 1 m in length and i lt trail along the water surface. Some ' lt m herbivorous fish will not eat this Maximum height 39 in 1 m plant. Provide medium- Growth rate Medium to Fast soft water and a Area Background, Specimen, or...

Rocks In A Planted Aquarium

The following inert rocks are safe to use coal, basalt, flint, granite, sandstone, quartz, slate, and lava rock. Rocks to avoid include chalk, limestone, marble, and tufa rock. Calcareous rocks are often brittle or porous in appearance and should not be used in a planted aquarium. Cobbles make good additions to the aquarium foreground. Once washed, coal is a striking rock that is safe to use in the aquarium.

Circulation In Plants

Aquarium Plants With Long Roots

The substrate acts as a nutrient sink, trapping nutrients where plant roots can easily obtain them. The nutrients are moved by gentle convection currents. Heat from the sun warms the substrate. Water circulation carries nutrients down into the substrate. The substrate is slightly warmer than the water above it. Water rises by convection as it is warmed by the substrate. Plant roots absorb nutrients from the substrate. Water circulation carries nutrients down into the substrate. The substrate is...

Special note Not a true aquatic plant

Vallisneria Gigantea

Below Flowers readily form on healthy specimens of S. wallisii. Due to the large white petiole, they appear much larger than flowers of other aquatic plants. Maximum height 14 in 35 cm Growth rate Medium Area Background Light Bright Temperature 72-82 F 22-28 C Propagation From runners Difficulty 1, 2 Left The tiny, white flowers of Vallisneria spp. are often produced in the aquarium, and may be formed on a straight or twisted stem that grows rapidly toward the aquarium surface. Maximum height...

Aquarium Plant Substrate

Planted Aquarium Substrate

Lime-free substrates are made up of inert quartz granules and will not affect water quality in any way. This medium is ideal for supporting roots and should be used as a main substrate. Pea gravel is the most commonly available aquarium substrate, although it is best used as a top layer in planted aquariums. Smaller grades can be used as a good supportive rooting medium. and labeled as lime-free substrate and usually available in grades of 0.04-0.12 in 1-3 mm . In smaller aquariums, or tanks...

Keeping plants tidy

Fast Growing Stem Plants Fish Tank

In a healthy planted aquarium with good lighting and balanced nutrients, the plants should grow and propagate at a relatively fast rate. If left unchecked, an attractive display can quickly become a tangled mess of vegetation. To keep plants looking their best, they will need to be regularly trimmed and or older leaves must be removed to allow healthy, new ones to grow in their place. Stem plants will often continue to grow until they reach the surface, at which point they either grow...

An opentopped aquarium

The water surface of an aquarium without a hood can be used as an extension of the display. Floating plants and leaves produced above the water add an extra element. If the aquarium is large enough, you can also include bogwood and houseplants. An open-topped aquarium must be illuminated with pendant-type lighting. If plants are to grow on or above the water surface, allow enough space at least 18 in 45 cm between the light and the water surface so that the leaves do not overheat. For the same...

Nymphaea stellata

Nymphaea Stellata Plant

Common name Red and blue water lily Origin India Although sometimes sold as red tiger lotus Nymphaea lotus var. rubra this tropical lily has smaller, spade-shaped leaves and will grow more compact, sometimes creating a better effect in a well-planted aquarium than red tiger lotus. The leaves will grow up to 4.7 in 12 cm long and are a brownish pink to red in color. If the light source is not bright, the plant will produce larger 8 in 20 cm green floating leaves. As it ages it may die back...

Azolla caroliniana

Water velvet is a small 0.8-1.2 in 2-3 cm diameter floating plant that can be used in tropical and unheated aquariums and even in outdoor ponds although in ponds it may die back in winter . In good conditions, the plant will spread rapidly and may need to be thinned regularly. It does not produce trailing roots, but will provide cover for some fish. In brighter lighting, the plant sports an attractive rusty red coloration. Provide adequate ventilation in the aquarium to prevent condensation on...

Common name Giant ambulia Origin India Sri Lanka

Once established, this attractive, fine-leaved bushy plant is relatively easy to look after. Any difficulties you experience in keeping it can usually be attributed to changing conditions or the lack of a particular nutrient. A readily available source of Iron and fairly soft water with a pH of 6-7 are particularly important. In good conditions and strong lighting, the plant will grow rapidly, producing noticeable growth almost daily. Stronger light will also ensure that the leaves are thicker...

Shinnersia rivularis

The unusual leaf shape - similar to an oak leaf - makes this plant an interesting addition to the aquarium. The leaves are up to 2 in 5 cm long and a dark green color. In the aquarium the plant may grow rapidly and need regular thinning. Bright lighting will prevent the node distance between the leaves from becoming too large and keeps the plant compact. It will reach the surface and continue to grow under the water. Can be used out of water in a bog aquarium.

Algaeeating fish

Algae Eating Shark

The leaves of aquatic plants are ideal surfaces on which algae can grow and if such algae is not removed from large-leaved or slow-growing plants, it can hinder photosynthesis see pages 89-91 . Removing algae growth by hand is tricky and usually results in damage to the leaves, so you need to find an alternative method of dealing with it. Most types of algae have high levels of protein and are very nutritious, making them an ideal food source for fish. Not all fish will eat large amounts of...

Aponogeton boivinianus

Aponogeton Boivinianus

The attractive crinkled leaf and large size of this plant make it an ideal specimen plant for the midground of a larger aquarium. In a heavily planted aquarium where there is competition for light and nutrients, A boivinianus may produce smaller and fewer leaves. The leaves are bright green and sometimes slightly transparent in places. Maximum height 16 in 40 cm , sometimes taller Growth rate Initially fast, but slows as the plant ages Area Midground, Specimen, or unusual Temperature 68-79 F...

Scavenging fish

Poecilia Velifera

Many fine-leaved, grasslike, foreground plants will trap debris between their leaves. In nature, this debris would be Above Although the popular red-tailed black shark Epalzeorhynchus bicolor can get quite large, it is a useful addition to a planted aquarium. This attractive, lively, and strikingly colored fish spends most of its time grazing algae from rocks and plant leaves. swept away by water currents and scavenging fish. Small scavenger fish can be introduced to a planted aquarium for the...

Plant diseases and poisoning

Plants are as susceptible to disease as any other complex living organism, but luckily, plant diseases in the aquarium are very rare except in one case cryptocoryne rot. Cryptocoryne rot is a disease that affects mostly the cryptocoryne family of plants. Its cause is not entirely understood, but it is often triggered by changes in environmental conditions. The symptoms include holes or perforated patches in the leaves, followed by a complete degradation of the leaf tissue, sometimes resulting...

Hydrocotyle leucocephala

Aquarium Plant Arrangement

This plant is similar in appearance to Cardamine lyrata although the leaves are much larger, reaching 1.2-2 in 3-5 cm in diameter. It adapts to most aquarium conditions, although it does appreciate good lighting. The shoots quickly reach the surface, where the leaves spread rapidly, cutting out light to the aquarium. To prevent other plants from losing light, be sure to prune Brazilian pennywort regularly. It will also grow in damp bog conditions. Area Midground, Foreground, Floating, Specimen,...

Acorus gramineus Variegatus

Acorus Gramineus Aureovariegatus

Common name Variegated Japanese rush This tall, grassy plant produces numerous stiff, leathery leaves with a green base color and two or three white stripes along their entire length. The plant will survive up to a year submersed and grows in most rooting mediums. Potted plants produce thick, heavy roots that take nutrients directly from the water. In a reasonable substrate and with at least half the length of the leaf above water, the plant will spread by producing new shoots from the base. If...

Light Undemanding

Ivy Leaf Aquarium

Propagation Cuttings from side sprouts Propagation Cuttings from side sprouts The flexible leaves bend over to create a fountain effect in the aquarium. In this variety of 0. japonicus, the leaves grow up to 14 in 35 cm and are less rigid, but still bend back at the tips. The plant has a slightly messy appearance and is best placed in areas of water flow, where the leaves will create movement in the aquarium. It will survive for several months submerged and is hardy and undemanding. The...

Large fish and planteaters

Aquarium Plants For Cichlids Pictures

There are many fish that cannot normally be kept with plants. Some of the larger characins are herbivorous and quickly consume plants aggressive cichlids also destroy plants, although this is a consequence of their territorial behavior, and not because they are searching for food and large barbs, such Above Keep gouramis such as these pearl, gold and opaline varieties, in groups to avoid dominant aggression from individuals. These larger fish are graceful and slow-moving and will not damage...

Nymphaea lotus var rubra

Tall Silk Aquarium Plants

This color variety of the tiger lotus produces leaves that vary from a light green-red with reddish speckles to a darker green-brown with red speckles. It makes a good centerpiece and contrasts well with both tall, bushy, or small-leaved background plants and smaller foreground plants. Maximum height Will grow to the surface Growth rate Moderate to Fast Area Background, Midground Light Bright to Very Bright Temperature 72-82 F 22-28 C Propagation From daughter plants on runners Difficulty 2, 3

Common name Dwarf hygrophila Origin India

A commonly available and popular aquarium plant that is tolerant and adaptable. The leaves are shorter 1.6 in 4 cm and narrower 0.4 in 1 cm than H. stricta and H. corymbosa and sport a light green, sometimes reddish-brown color. Regular pruning will keep the plant healthy. When it reaches toward the surface, the leaves become red and compact. Ideal conditions include strong lighting and an iron-rich, fine substrate.

Caladium bicolor

This attractive plant produces spade-shaped leaves on long stems above the water surface. Many leaf forms are available, but most have a white or red center and green edging. This plant is commonly available, both as an aquatic and terrestrial garden plant, but will survive fully submerged for only six to eight weeks. It is better used above water, with the roots trailing into the aquarium. If It is kept in its original pot It will stay healthy, but grow very slowly and produce shorter stems,...

Bacopa monnieri

Large Artificial Aquarium Plants

Common name Dwarf bacopa, Baby tears This plant makes an ideal foreground plant for more open areas, where it can be kept short and compact with good lighting. The leaves are thick, oval, and roughly 0.8 in 2 cm long. In low light conditions, the plant will grow taller with wider spaces between the leaves, which can look messy and unattractive. Too much pruning will also create an untidy-looking plant. Dwarf bacopa is tolerant of water conditions, hardness, and substrate, but will look its best...

Rotala rotund folia

This small-leaved species has an attractive, delicate appearance and is ideal for planting in groups in the back or midground of the aquarium. Lighting should be relatively strong. Given bright light and sufficient nutrients, the leaves may change from an olive green to a pinkish color toward the top of the plant. Cuttings should be at least 4 in 10 cm long to ensure good growth. The plant is adaptable to moderate light and lower temperatures, although growth will be slowed. A few leaf shape...

Surface Swimmers For The Planted Aquarium

Most Interesting Fish Tank

Betta spiendens Siamese fighting fish Carnegieiia strigata marbled hatchetfish Colisa ialia dwarf gourami Coiisa sota honey gourami Kryptopterus bicirrhis glass catfish Macropodus operculars paradisefish Poecilia reticulata guppy Poecilia sphenops molly Poecilia velifera sailfin molly Thoracocharax stellatus silver hatchetfish Trichopsis vittatus croaking gourami Xiphophorus maculatus platy Below Corydoras catfish are useful shoaling fish that will gently disturb the substrate in their constant...

Pistia stratiotes

Origin Tropical and subtropical areas This common floating species is available both as an aquarium and a pond plant. In the aquarium, the leaves are 1.2-1.6 in 3-4 cm long, but in an open environment they may reach up to 6 in 15 cm . The leaves are fleshy in appearance and have a covering of tiny hairs, giving them a velvety texture. Fine, trailing roots are produced below the surface and these provide good shade from lights and hiding places for smaller fish. The aquarium should be either...

Nymphoides aquatica

This unusual little plant gets its name from the banana-shaped root sections that are used by the plant to store nutrients. These should be left above the substrate the plant also produces normal roots that will bury themselves. The heart-shaped leaves on short stalks are 4-4.7 in 10-12 cm long. In shallow areas, the leaves will reach the surface and grow to 6 in 15 cm . The plant is relatively easy to care for but may have a limited life span in the aquarium. Area Midground, Foreground,...

Echinodorus parviflorus

Echinodorus Quadricostatus Xinguensis

Common name Black Amazon swordplant This adaptable and hardy Amazon swordplant is a popular, commonly available species. As the plant will reach only 10 in 25 cm in height, it is an ideal alternative to many of the larger Amazon swordplants when used in a smaller aquarium. The substrate should be fine and iron-enriched. Remove older leaves if they become tatty and covered with algae. This is the aquatic leaf form of E. tenellus, but many plants are sold with the terrestrial leaf form. Area...

Anubias gracilis

Anubias Afzelii

The spade-shaped 3.2-4.7 in 8-12 cm leaves and longer stalks give this anubias a much tidier appearance than smaller anubias, which may grow in seemingly random directions, but it is harder to care for than other anubias species. This plant does best when allowed to grow above the water surface and given plenty of nutrients. The substrate should be fairly loose and contain iron-rich fertilizer. In good conditions, this is an attractive and dominant plant that makes an excellent addition to any...

A hardwater aquarium

Hard Water Aquatic Plants

Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis Hygrophila stricta Twisted, or corkscrew, vallisneria Thai stricta Tall plants along the back of the aquarium will begin to grow around the sides to create a frame for the aquascape. Using smaller foreground plants or suitable decor in front of them helps to break up the solid appearance they create. Cryptocoryne bottom and larger-grade toward the top wendtii will provide a good rooting medium. A layer of nutrient-rich substrate will boost plant growth....

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

Easy Keep Aquarium Plants

Common name Spadeleaf plant Origin South America This plant is often confused with Hygrophila corymbosa, although the leaves are fleshier and less rigid than those of H. corymbosa. The leaves of the spadeleaf can be up to 4.7-5.5 in 12-14 cm long, so allow adequate space between the stems when planting. New shoots will rapidly grow to the surface, where they may produce leaves above water. Airborne leaves are thinner, more robust, and jagged along the edges. The plant is relatively adaptable...

Cryptocoryne parva

Marsh Plants

Common name Tiny cryptocoryne Origin Sri Lanka This little plant will look very effective when used in groups along the foreground. With good growth, it is possible to achieve a lawn effect. However, the plant is not easy to care for unless you provide very good lighting, along with a reasonably good substrate. Well-established plants will spread relatively quickly through the production of daughter plants on runners. Can also be used as a bog or marsh plant. Area Foreground Light Very Bright...

Anaerobic Conditions Good

Aerobic And Anaerobic Conditions

-4 substrate rich in organic material waste matter and nutrient-rich substrates will naturally contain large numbers of bacteria that break down these organics into usable nutrients. The majority of these bacteria quickly use up oxygen, with the result that the substrate becomes anaerobic. In anaerobic conditions, different types of bacteria form, which do not need to use large quantities of oxygen or can create their own oxygen. These anaerobic bacteria can release toxic gases, most notably...

Vallisneria tortifolia

Common name Twisted vallisneria, Dwarf vallisneria This smaller vallisneria can be used in the midground or foreground of the aquarium and will spread rapidly, producing numerous daughter plants from runners. The leaves may reach up to 10 in 25 cm in length, but usually only 6-8 in 15-20 cm in the aquarium. This undemanding and adaptable plant is ideal for smaller aquariums. Plant it in groups of six or more individual plants, leaving space for them to grow. Left At a closer glance, the tiny...

Common name Helzine

Aquarium Floating Plants

This compact, small-leaved plant will grow in a messy yet attractive fashion, and is best situated to the foreground of the aquarium in front of larger plants. Regular pruning will keep it tidy. The tiny 0.2 in 5 mm round leaves are numerous and light green in color. Although the plant needs very bright lighting when planted in the substrate, it can also be used as a floating plant and as a bog plant. Apart from good lighting, it has no special requirements.

Sagittaria subulata

Sagittaria Aquarium

Common name Needle sagittaria, Floating arrowhead Origin Coastal areas of Eastern United States There are several varieties of this very hardy plant that do well In most aquariums. They make ideal background plants. 5. subulata can be used in harder water and even In slightly brackish conditions. The leaves of this hardy Sagittaria subulata are less tidy than those of other Sagittaria spp., but the plant's robustness makes it a suitable alternative for aquariums with less than ideal conditions....

Fixing items

Many types of decor, such as lava rock or cork bark, can be used to create a three-dimensional background in the aquarium. An almost vertical rather than sloped background will need to be firmly fixed in place to prevent any rocks from falling and damaging the glass panels of the aquarium. Silicone sealant is ideal for fixing items to glass and to each other, although the items must be fixed whilst the aquarium is dry. A good method to use for creating a backdrop is to carry out a dry run first...

Hygrophila corymbosa

Hygrophila corymbosa, a very popular, readily available, and well-known aquarium plant, is highly adaptable and relatively fast growing. It is tolerant of a wide range of aquarium conditions, but may not do well in softer water. An ideal plant for any aquarium, it is not fussy about substrates or water quality. The plant can be grouped, but allow at least 2-2.4 in 5-6 cm between shoots. It looks best when well spaced the edges and corners of the aquarium. If the leaves begin to yellow, add more...

Bright

Lotuspistia

Metal-halide or mercury vapor lamps are still the ideal choice for these plants although in aquariums less than 18 in 45 cm deep, two or three fluorescent tubes with reflectors may be sufficient. If the plants are densely grouped together, use metal-halide or mercury vapor lamps if they are not and there is plenty of open space, then fluorescent tubes will be adequate. Alternanthera reineckii Anubias gracilis Aponogeton boivinianus Aponogeton crispus Aponogeton ulvaceus Aponogeton undulatus...

Mm

Aquarium Plant Food

On these stores to survive harsh periods during the winter period and produce enough food to regrow when environmental conditions improve. Below Viewed from above, it is clear that the oval leaves of this cryptocoryne are arranged to be exposed to as much of the sky as possible, allowing each leaf to receive maximum light. Left Aquatic plants do not need a waxy cuticle layer to prevent drying out. This allows plants such as this Cabomba sp. to develop thinner and more complex leaf structures....

Specimen

Nuphar Japonica Aquariums

Anubias barteri var. barteri Anubias barteri vai nana Anubias congensis Anubias gracilis Aponogeton boivinianus Aponogeton crispus Aponogeton elongatus Aponogeton madagascariensis Aponogeton ulvaceus Aponogeton undulatus Azolla filiculoides Bolbitis heudelotii Cardamine lyrata Crinum natans Cryptocoryne balansae Cryptocoryne siamensis Cryptocoryne undulata Echinodorus amazonicus Echinodorus bleheri Echinodorus cordifolius Echinodorus macrophyllus Echinodorus major Echinodorus osiris Echinodorus...

A coldwater aquarium

Egeria Densa

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides Spadeleaf plant Hydrocotyle verticillata Whorled umbrella plant Eleocharis parvula Dwarf hairgrass Lysimachia nummularia Creeping Jenny Hydrocotyle verticillata Whorled umbrella plant Eleocharis parvula Dwarf hairgrass The greatest variety of commonly available aquarium plants originate from tropical waters. This is good news for the majority of fishkeepers who keep tropical freshwater fish, but not for those with coldwater aquariums. Well-planted coldwater aquariums...

Preparing wood

How Make Fake Wood Aquarium

Woods such as bamboo, brushwood, and cork bark will need preparing before use. Dry woods such as these may contain fungal spores and are prone to rotting when wet. If they are placed in the aquarium without prior treatment they quickly decay, producing bacterial blooms that will appear as a slimy film over the wood and or cloudy water. Fungal blooms normally white or Above To ensure that woods such as bamboo last longer underwater, they can be varnished using a clear polyurethane varnish....

Artificial aquarium propagation

Propagating The Aquarium Plants

Aquarium plants can also be propagated artificially by means of cuttings, and by dividing rhizomes and rootstocks. Cuttings All plants with a central stem supporting a number of leaves can be propagated by cuttings. Most stem plants sold either as bunches or potted up are simply top cuttings from established plants. Cuttings can be taken from both the top and middle stem sections, as well as from side shoots. However, the top section of a stem plant includes the growing point and a top cutting...

Suitable aquarium decor

These days, aquarists are faced with a wide range of rocks, wood, and other decor, but not all materials are suitable for a planted aquarium. When making a choice, it is often best to keep things simple and stick to, say, one or two types of rock, rather than crowd the aquarium with all manner of objects. All the decor should, of course, be bought and not collected from the wild. Clean it well before using it in the aquarium. water quality by releasing calcium and carbonates that raise the pH...

Aquarium Algae Types

Red Growth Glass Aquarium

Many forms of algae grow in the aquarium environment and an algal bloom can quickly swamp plants, competing for light and nutrients, until the plants are choked to death. Not only do algae inhibit plant growth, but they also look unsightly and can release dangerous toxins into the water, affecting both plant and fish health. It is impossible to eradicate algae completely, because wherever there is water, light and a minimal supply of nutrients, algae will grow. However, it is possible to keep...

Allelopathy

Reef Aquarium Algae Bloom

Allelopathy describes the production of chemicals by an organism that adversely affect another organism and or advantageously affect itself. In the case of plants, these chemicals called allelochemlcals are often readily produced to inhibit the growth of other plants or algae, or to prevent animals from eating the plant. Plants depend heavily on allelochemicals because they are unable to defend themselves In a mobile way i.e., they cannot run, move, or fight in the traditional sense . In...

Placing plants in the aquarium

Eleocharis Parviflorus

Cryptocoryne albida Cryptocoryne balansae Cryptocoryne beckettii Cryptocoryne ciliata Cryptocoryne cordata Cryptocoryne lutea Cryptocoryne moehlmannll Cryptocoryne pontederilfolia Cryptocoryne undulata Cryptocoryne walkeri Cryptocoryne wendtil Didiplis dlandra Echlnodorus amazonicus Echinodorus cordlfolius Echlnodorus horemanll Echinodorus opacus Echinodorus osiris Echinodorus parviflorus Echinodorus quadricostatus var. xlnguensis Echinodorus uruguayensis Egerla densa Eichhornia azurea...

Plant list

Acorus gmmineus var. pusillus Dwarf Japanese rush 2. Anubias lanceolata Narrow-leaved anubias 5. Lysimachia nummularia Creeping Jenny 6. Microsorium pteropus Java fern 7. Ophiopogon japonicus 'Variegatus' Variegated fountain plant 8. Spathiphyllum wallisii Peace lily Use silicone sealant to fix rocks together and to the glass to create a stable display. Fill the tank only a third full to allow space for the non-aquatic plants. Pockets of soil in the rockwork support terrestrial or marsh...