Micranthemum Umbrosum

rich sugar compounds. This process is called photosynthesis. In biology class we learned that the photosynthesis of plants is the basis for all life on earth.

In their natural environment, plants as a rule are constantly supplied with sufficient carbon dioxide. In the aquarium, on the other hand, the amount of carbon dioxide respired by the fishes is too small to ensure a lasting CO., supply for the plants. The available carbon dioxide is used up in the process of photosynthesis. As a consequence the pH rises and the water becomes alkaline, which is not tolerated by the plants and most animals. In this situation it is necessary to install an apparatus for the artificial production of carbon dioxide. Numerous devices for this purpose are available from various manufacturers. For the magnificently planted aquarium a device for producing a controlled supply of C02 is almost a necessity. Otherwise the aquarium water would have a permanent C02 deficiency.

When aquarium plants do not flourish despite the addition oi'CO.., this means either that the lighting is too weak or that the amount of carbon dioxide added is insufficient.

Planted Aquarium DeficiencyAmazon Sword Plant Deicenct
Paracheirodon, Hemigrammus. Hyphessobrycon, Megalamphodus, Thayeria...all at home in the beatiful greenery.
Micranthemum Umbrosum For Stress
Paracheirodon simulans, False Neon Tetras.

Plants that Produce Runners

Glossostigma elatinoides

This is a dainty, carpet-forming plant that grows well. It requires a great deal of light and prefers soft, slightly acidic water.

Drawn Amazon Sword Plant

Echinodorus tenellus

This the smallest Amazon sword plant, is among the most popular and decorative foreground plants. Under suitable conditions, especially intensive lighting, within a short time it forms a dense, low carpet through runners, which is ideally suited for the foreground planting. Adequate lighting absolutely must be provided.

Freshwater Runner Aquarium Plants

Lilaeopsis sp. Mauritius

This Carpetgrass unfortunately is rarely offered on the market. It is comparable in its cultivation to Lilaeopsis brasiliensis and Lilaeopsis carolinensis. The three spccies are not easily distinguished from one another. Flowers are required for reliable identification. Flowers and fruits develop, however, only under bog cultivation. This plant also requires a great deal of light for the foreground planting.

Sagittaria subulata

This dwarf Sagittaria is available somewhat more frequently. Under sufficient lighting it is fast growing and productive. With an adequate COa supply and fertilization, within a few-weeks it forms a dense, solid carpet about seven centimeters high. This plant prefers medium-hard to hard water and pH values in the neutral range.

Hydrocotyle Runner

Plants that produce runners are ideal for the foreground. They propagate through runners, without the keeper's having to intervene for the purposes of systematic propagation.

Vallisneria americana

This tapegrass develops highly variable growth types, which also differ in size. The plant is suitable for the foreground only in very large aquaria.

Hydrocotyle maritima

This Pennywort is extremely demanding with respect to both the fertilization and the light and C02 supply. It can only be recommended to the advanced hobbyist. Under very intense illumination the plant remains compact and displays a low growth habit, which appears to make the plant suitable for the front and middle parts of the aquarium.

Cryptocoryne zvendtii var.

Of Wendt's Crypto there are several growth and color forms, all of which at present are classified in this species. In the larger forms the plant reaches a height of up to 25 cm and is thus less suited for the foreground and more for the middle region of the aquarium. This species is not as demanding and gets by with less light. Then, however, the brown-red colors do not develop as well.

Cryptocoryne Balansae

Cryptocoryne crispatula

This Crypto is better known under the synonym Cryptocoryne balansae. It is comparable in size to the previous species. The plant is striking because of the bumpy leaves and is well suited for the middle portions of the aquarium. For cryptocorynes the water should be soft and slightly acidic. These two species, however, also flourish in medium-hard wrater.

Aquarium Plant Japanese Hairgrass Carpet

Example of another 90-cm aquarium for tet-ras, planted exclusively with Micranthemum umbrosum. As for the fishes. Hemigrammus ulreyl the FlagTetra, was used in an exemplary fashion.

The furnishing followed according to the principle of the previously shown aquarium, except that here the creative element rock was used in place of the element wood. It is important here that only one type of rock be used and that the individual rocks harmonize with both one another and the plants. Naturally, the fishes must also be chosen carefully. This aquarium shows once more that species aquaria produce a special effect.

"The Wind Comes"

Hemigrammus ulreyi.

90 x 45 x 45 cm, glass aquarium, 5 x 30 W (sodium tubes), 10 hours/day, 24.5°C, pH 6.8, 2°dGH, 0 mg/1 NH4\ <0.02 mg/1 N02 , <1 mg/1 N03\ 0.2 mg/1 P04 .


Tetra Ulreyi

Hemigrammus ulreyi.

90 x 45 x 45 cm, glass aquarium, 5 x 30 W (sodium tubes), 10 hours/day, 24.5°C, pH 6.8, 2°dGH, 0 mg/1 NH4\ <0.02 mg/1 N02 , <1 mg/1 N03\ 0.2 mg/1 P04 .

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about two bubbles per second, and a weekly water change of about 1/3 the volume.


Nannostomus Marginatus

Feeding the Fishes

The feeding of the fishes is a very special problem. The water is fouled by the food and the products excreted by the fishes. These metabolic products of the fishes and the other organisms are the reason for the necessary regular water changes, which have the goal of diluting these substances.

There arc no hard and fast rules for the times and frequencies of feeding. Feeding must always be based individually on the fish population. The kinds of foods chosen also depend on the animals being cared for. The only important thing is never to feed too much, since excess organic fouling of the water leads to an increase in the metabolic end products and these in turn promote the growth of bacteria and algae.

An aquarium infested with algae is an extremely unattractive sight, and such an aquarium will in no way do justice to the requirements of a beauti ful exhibition aquarium. Since the majority of hobbyists tend to overfeed their fishes, the advice to feed sparingly is particularly important. For many fishes one fasting day a week can make sense. For a well developed aquarium a vacation for the hobbyist is no problem either.

Flake foods and granules.

Aquarium Plant Food

"A Serenade of the Wind"

There are many species of algae. Most appear when too much nitrate is dissolved in the water, the aquarium is overcrowded with fishes, the filter is dirty or overloaded, an imbalance between carbon dioxide and light exists, or the water is not changed regularly in sufficient quantity.

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about four bubbles per second, and a weekly water change of about 2/3 the volume.

See page 58 for data on another beautiful aquascape in the "Serenade"style.

Changing Dirty Aquarium Filters

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about one bubble per second, and a daily water change of about 1/3 the volume.


36 x 22 x 26 cm, glass aquarium, 2 x 27 W (plant tubes). 10 b/day, 25°C, pH 6.8, 2°dGH, 0 mg/L NH/, <0.02 mg/L NO,. <1 mg/L NO,, <0.2 mg/L P04.

Caridinia japonica

- Yamatonuma shrimp Ladigesia rolojfi

- Orange Dwarf Tetra Nannostomus marginatus

- Dwarf pencil fish Otocinclus sp.

- Dwarf sucker catfish

Blyxa japonica - Japanese Threadweed Eleocharis acicularis

- Hairgrass Hemianthus micranthemoides

- Dainty Pearlweed Ludwigia arcuata

- Narrowleaf Ludwigia Marsilea angustifolia

- Dwarf Cloverfern

Micranthemum umbrosum

- Roundleaf Pearlweed

"A sunbeam symphony"

Ludwigia Arcuata Dark RedSodium Tubes For Planted Tank

45 x 24 x 30 cm, glass aquarium, 4 x 15 W (sodium tubes), 10 h/day, 25°C, pH 6.6, 5°dGH, 0 mg/1 NH4% <0.02 mg/1 NOa, <1 mg/1 NO,. <0.2 mg/1 P04.

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about one bubble per second, and a daily water change of about 1/3 the volume.

Blyxa japónica

- Japanese Threadweed Eleocharis acicularis

- Hairgrass Hemianthus micranthemoides

- Dainty Pearlweed Ludwigia arcuata

- Narrow-leaf Ludwigia Marsilea angustifolia

- Dwarf Cloverfern Micranthemum umbrosum

- Roundleaf Pearlweed

Caridinia japónica

- Yamatonuma shrimp Hemigrammus amandae Hemigrammus rodwayi

- Gold tetra

Megalamphodus roseus

- Yellow phantom tetra Otocinclus sp.

- Dwarf sucker catfish


The back corners arc particularly conspicuous to the observer and thus represent "strong points" for the planning of the decoration in relation to the view directly from the front. For a beautiful aquarium, however, exactly those points should not be emphasized. For the planning of attractive planted aquaria the sensible division of space in the aquarium is of special significance. At the same time the actual midpoint of the aquarium, which is the existing central focal point anyway, is not additionally emphasized through conspicuous decorative elements.

The simplest creative element thus takes the "strong points" into account. If both points are stressed here, then two preferential focal points result in the aquarium and the eye is drawn back and forth and never comes to rest. In many cases it is therefore better to create only one strong point in the aquarium. As long as the aquarium is not located exactly in the middle of a wall or in the middle of the room, the best area for the strong point as a rule is on the side opposite the observer. If the main visual point is not crcated with a plant grouping, but from wood or rocks, then those elements are arranged to ascend from front to back along the line of sight. This kind of division of the aquarium exaggerates the impression of depth and makes it appear larger than it actually is. Through such furnishing tricks the aquarium gets its special touch.

If the aquarium is standing in a corner and is viewed from the right side, the left side is the stronger point and accordingly will receive the dominant decoration. Groups of plants can also be used in different ways as creative elements. On the one hand, the group can be allowed to grow as it would in the wild, and on the other the group can be planted as with the decorative objects ascending from front to back. Particularly with the fast-growing stemmed plants, however, the care of a group planted in this way is very time-consuming, since the tips have to be pruned and replanted repeatedly. As beautiful as such a creation is, it naturally does not work.

In order to produce the impression of a larger aquarium, the dominant decorative elements are not pushed directly in the corner, but rather are displaced somewhat to the side.

The main visual points when viewed from the front. It can make sense to decorate only one of these strong points. The decoration of both points, however, also has its appeal.
The decoration corresponding to the two main visual points. This arrangement, however, draws the observer's eye back and forth.
Paludarium Sagittaria Subulata
In the view from the left, the strong point is on the right. If the left side is then decorated, the optical impression of a longer aquarium is achieved. Here too. however, the observer's eye is drawn back and forth.
The most favorable solution with the frontal view as well, however, is probably the displacement of the main decorative elements to the side It is always better when the corners of the aquarium are not additionally emphasized.

When viewed from the front, as well, shifting the decorative focal point to the left produces the impression of a longer aquarium.

In order to draw away the main visual point from the corner of the aquarium, the focal point is displaced somewhat to the side. This also makes the aquarium appear to be more "amply" decorated.

Furthermore, it can make sense to place the strong point on the other side (opposite the main viewing direction). Then the eye as in the aquarium with two strong decorative points is drawn from the main viewing direction to the decorative element. In this manner the favorable impression of a greater length of the aquarium can be produced, with the disadvantage that the eye is again drawn to and fro.

A very good depth effect is achieved by producing contrasting light and dark areas using the plant groupings. In this case \iews with lower-growing plants remain open at the strong points, which act as clearings or openings and accordingly grab the eye. In such open-water zones near cover, most of the expressions of life of the fishes are also played out.

Paracheirodon simulans would work very well in the aquarium planned here.

Paracheirodon Simulans

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Aquarium and Fish Care Tactics

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  • Medhanie
    How to propagate amazon sword runners?
    7 years ago
  • falco
    How to grow micranthemum umbrosum carpet?
    6 years ago

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