The World of Tetras

Biotope Aquarium Glowlight Tetra

Nature and Aquarium

It would be presumptuous to want to recreate impressive biotopes on a small scale in the aquarium. Nevertheless, attractive landscape elements should be an inspiration to the creative hobbyist. . . .

In the Muromachi period (1338—1573), the grandiose Chinese aquatic montane landscapes were recreated even in limited spaces in Japanese horticulture.

The focal point of my work is in creating landscapes based on the natural model. In Zen gardens of the Karesansui style it is attempted to represent the cosmos in the smallest possible space and thus to recreate the great in the small.

A small clearing along the stream in the rainforest. The rocks above the water's surface are covered with moss. Between the giant trees, a few of which have collapsed from age, grow young trees, plants, and ferns.

Noticeable above everything else are the sounds of flowing water, intensified by the rushing noise produced by small rapids.

For the copying of Nature and for the study of the arrangement of rocks and the overall design of a landscape garden in the Karesansui style, the Hojonan Garden in the Daitokuji Temple, the Hojohoku Garden in the Ryugenin Temple, the Hojohoku Garden in the Daisenin Temple, the Hojo Garden in the Ryoanji Temple, the Hojohoku Garden in the Entokuin Temple, and the garden in the Tenryui Temple are particularly instructive examples. Moreover, to depict them under water demands a great deal of sensitivity.

Hydrocotyle Verticillata

Squalls in the Jungle

Glossostigma elatoides in the foreground and Hydrocotyle verticillata in the central part of the aquarium have similar leaf forms but very different sizes. They contrast with the wood with the Java moss and Congo fern growing on it.

Hydrocotyle JapanHow Decorate Aquarium With Wood

It is essential that harmonious plant species be selected despite their differences.

Plants and fish are identified on page 13.

Furnishing and planting plan lor the tetra aquarium "Squalls in the Jungle":

When the wood is used as is, it produces an imbalance in the underwater landscape. Therefore, it is recommended to decorate the wood with Java moss [Vesicularia dubyana) and with ferns such as Congo fern (Bolbitis heudelotii).

When attaching the carpet of moss, make sure that it is not too thick. After about two months, the cotton threads will have dissolved and the moss in t he meantime will have grown onto the wood.

Plant Growing The SandNematobrycon Palmeriotocinclus
Nematobrycon palmen, the Emperor Tetra.

Inpaichthys kerri, the Blue Emperor Tetra.

Inpaichthys kerri, the Blue Emperor Tetra.

Blue Aquarium PlantsYellow Phantom Tetra
Megalamphodus roseus, the Yellow Phantom Tetra.

Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi, the Black Neon.

Squalls in the Jungle

Aquarium Carpet Plants
Data:

Emperor Tetra and Congo Waterfern.

Underwater landscapes with the Congo lern make the aquarium look like a summer landscape. The rich green of the plants really allows the observer to sense the power of summer.

Only with proper care will the initially plain Inpaichthys kerri turn into a real Blue Emperor Tetra.

With soft lighting and a dark substrate, they are shown to best advantage. These are active and peaceful school fishes, which require an open swimming space. They also need more thickly planted areas, however, into which they can retreat.

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand. C02 fertilization, about two bubbles per second, and a weekly water change of about 1/2 the volume.

For all dimensions of the following aquaria, length x width x height applies.

60 x 30 x 36 cm. ADA Cube Garden. Für aIle Größenangaben der folgenden Aquarien gilt:

Plants and Animals used

Bolbitis heudeloüi Vesicularia dubyana Glossostigma elatinoides Hydrocotyle verticillata Hydrocotyle maritima Riccia ßuitans

Caridinia japonica Inpaichthys kerri Nematobrycon lacortei Nematobrycon palmeri Otocinclus sp.

in "Sqaulls in the Jungle":

Congo Waterfern Java Moss Australian Figwort American Pennywort European Pennywort Crystalwort

Yamatonuma Shrimp Blue Emperor Tetra Rainbow Tetra Emperor Tetra Dwarf sucker catfish

The Yamatonuma shrimps and dwarf sucker catfishes are found as algae eaters in all aquaria. Yamatonuma shrimps are unobtainable in Europe and Com possibly be replaced by other species. There are no results so far on such attempts. Dwarf sucker catfishes stay considerably smaller than the Ancistriis species that are commonly used to control algae, but they are also more delicate.

Yamatonuma Shrimp Blue Emperor Tetra Rainbow Tetra Emperor Tetra Dwarf sucker catfish

Aquarium Pennywort
Cryptocoryne species are also suitable for planting the tetra aquarium.
Emperor Shrimp The Aquarium

The Garden of the Muse

Emperor Shrimp The Aquarium

Nannostomus espei.

Data:

40 X 40 X 40 cm. 3 X 27 W. 10 hours/day, 25°C. pH 7.0. 4°dGH. 5°dKH.

All-glass aquarium with plant tubes,

Bolbitis heudelotii Crypiocoryne wendtii var. Crypiocoryne wendtii var.

Vesicularia dubyana Hydrocotyle verticillata var. Lilaeopsis brasiliensis Ludwigia arcuata Roíala macrandra sp. Sagittaria subulata form pusilla

Caridinia japónica Nannostomus espei Otocinclus sp.

Congo Waterfem Wendt's Crypto

Wendt's Crypto Java moss

American Pennywort Brazilian Carpetgrass Ludwigia Tigerlcaf Rotala

Dwarf Sag

Yamatonuma shrimp Espe's Pencilfish Dwarf sucker catfish

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material (Bio Rio and activated carbon). substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about two bubbles per second, and regular water changes of about 1 /3 the volume at five-day intervals.

Espe's Pencilfish, Nannostomus espei. is relatively demanding in regard to water quality. Under unfavorable conditions these fishes are very shy and hide under roots or plant leaves. They prefer to stay just under the waters surface or in the mid-levels of the aquarium in the open water. In the wild these peaceful school fishes wait until dusk before searching for food and are somewhat more active at this time.

Nannostomus espei.

"The Garden of the Muse"

In "the garden of the muse" the observer finds elements of both dense planting, which produces the necessary' places in which the fishes can hide, and open swimming space for the pencilfish above the low-growing foreground plants.

This aquarium is a balanced composition based on three triangles, which can be viewed from two sides.

In the background the aquatic plants were planted more thickly, in order to create the impression of a jungle, supported by the wood. The foreground is taken up by a "meadow." In this manner the foreground and background were connected harmoniously with each other.

Aquarium Plants Background

Views shown in the photos: a - page 16, b- page 17 (top), c - page 14/15.

Planting plan

A - Low-growing plants of the foreground. B - Resinous bog wood covered with plants.

Views shown in the photos: a - page 16, b- page 17 (top), c - page 14/15.

Best Background Aquarium Plants

"The Glow of the Grove"

The left side of this scene is dominated by the Java moss-grown wood and the red plant, the Ludwigia. It is opposite the open swimming space on the right side.

The combination of the plant-covered wood and the red plant produces an interesting tension.

Silver Sand Aquarium Planted

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand. C02 fertilization, about three bubbles per second, and a weekly water change of about 1 /2 the volume.

For data, plants, and animals, see page 20.

Cube Garden
60 x 30 x 36 cm. ADA Cube Garden. 4 x 20 W (sodium tubes). 10 hours/day 24°C. pH 7.3. 3°dGH. 6°dKH.

Cryploconjne beckettii var. pechii Cryptocoryne walkeri var. lutea Cryptocoryne wendtii var. Echinodorus teneUus Vesicalaria dubyana Hemianthus micranthemoides var.

Mlcranthemum unbrosum Lagarosiphon madagascariensis Ludwigia arcuata Riccia Jluitans

Caridinia japonica Megalamphodus sweglesl Otocinclus sp. Paracheirodon innesi Thayeria obliqua

Beckett's Crypto Walker's Crypto Wendt's Crypto Dwarf Swordplant Java moss Dainty Pearlweed Pearlweed Waterpest Ludwigia Crystal wort

Yamatonuma Shrimp Swegle's Tetra Dwarf sucker catfish Neon Tetra Penguin Tetra

Cripto Dwarf TreeGlowing And The Dark Aquarium Fish

The Glow of the Grove

The Background Determines the Effect of the Aquarium.

The Penguin Tetra, Thayeria obliqua, is a plain-looking school fish which is striking because of its peculiar diagonal manner of swimming. By keeping colorful fishes, such as the Neon Tetra and the Phantom Tetra, with less conspicuous species, the coloration of the colorful fishes is additionally accented.

In the community tank the observer will not grow tired of viewing, and ultimately even the less colorful fishes will receive corresponding attention because of their distinctive features. Like other tetras, the Penguin Tetra also prefers a dark substrate, a dense planting, clear water, and as many conspecifics as possible for the care in the school.

Causes Cloudy Aquarium Water

Cloudy water

Cloudy water and algae blooms are often caused by an excess of nutrients. The phenomenon can be remedied through intensive filtration. but its causes must be determined in order to achieve long-term improvement.

Is too much being fed? Is the fertilization of the plants consistent with their growth? Are the measured water parameters in agreement with the desired values?

The light-green growth habit of Hygrophila corymbosa animates and introduces some variety into and brightens up the tetra aquarium. The Rummy-nose Tetra. Hemigrammus rhodo-stomus, harmonizes splendidly with the selected plant composition.

The light-green growth habit of Hygrophila corymbosa animates and introduces some variety into and brightens up the tetra aquarium. The Rummy-nose Tetra. Hemigrammus rhodo-stomus, harmonizes splendidly with the selected plant composition.

Aquarium Planting SchemesAquarium Planting SchemesAquarium Planting Schemes

A large aquarium can contain two dominant plant groupings.

Planting plan of the "majestic Echinodorus is a well-suited "grassy plant" for the foreground.

A large aquarium can contain two dominant plant groupings.

Planting plan of the "majestic Echinodorus is a well-suited "grassy plant" for the foreground.

"Majestic Forest"

Planting scheme of the Majestic Forest. Aquarium, see pages 24 & 25.

Data

120 x 45 x 45 cm. glass aquarium. 12 x 20 W (sodium tubes), 10 hours/day, 25°C. pH 6.5, 3°dGH, 4°dKH.

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about four bubbles per second, and a weekly water change of about 1/3 the volume.

Alternanthera sessilis var. Ulacina Anubias barteri var. nana Cryptocoryne crispatula var. foafansae Cryptocoryne beckettil var. petchil Cryptocoryne undulata Cryptocoryne walkeri var. luteus Cryptocoryne X willisii var. lucens Echinodorus tenellus Eleocharis acicularis Vesicularia dubyana Glossostigma elatinoides Hydrocotyle maritima Hygrophila corymbosa Hygrophila guianensis Hygrophila polysperma Lilaeopsls sp. Mauritius Ludwigia arcuata Microsomm pteropus Rieda ßuitans Sagittaria subulata forma pusilla

False Parrotfeather Dwarf Anubias Seersucker Crypto Beckett's Crypto Wavy Crypto Walker's Crypto Willis's Crypto Dwarf Swordplant Hairgrass Java moss Australian Figwort European Pennywort Dwarf Hygrophila Guyanan Waterstar Indian Waqterstar Mauritius Carpetgrass Ludwigia Java fem Crystalwort Dwarf Sag

Carpet Grass Aquatic

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"Majestic Forest''

The aquarium is effectively divided into two halves by the two plant groupings. Placing the red grouping in the middle would make the aquarium easier to take in at a glance but would also make it appear smaller. By dividing the aquarium in two. the observer is induced constantly to look from one side to the other.

Caridinia japonica Carnegiella marthae marthae Gasteropelecus sternlcla Hemigrammus rodwayi var. cumstrongi Hemigrammus bleheri Hemigrammus erythrozomis Hyphessobrycon callistus Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodt Hyphessobrycon scholzet Megalamphodus roseus Megalamphodus sweglesi Otocinclus sp. Parachelrodon axelrodt Paracheirodon simulans Thayeria boehlkei

Yamatonuma Shrimp Black-winged Hatchetfish Silver Hatchctfish Gold Tetra Red-nose Tetra Glow-light Tetra Jewel Tetra Black Neon Tetra Black-lined Tetra Red Phantom Tetra Swegles's Tetra Dwarf sucker catfish Cardinal Tetra False Neon Tetra Hockeystick Tetra

Blue Neon Tetra

Tetra community. The colorful community makes a somewhat confusing impression. Limiting the number of species can often be more effective.

Left to Right: Various tetras show up well against the greenery

Left to Right: Various tetras show up well against the greenery

Tetras Community Tank
Optical impression of the tetra community tank.

"Majestic Forest"

For the aquarist who likes a lively community, a tetra community tank is ideal.

Furnishing the Aquarium

Using the example of a 90-centimeter-long aquarium, the furnishing of a beautiful planted aquarium for American tetras will be presented.

The location must be level and the aquarium provided with a pressure-resistant pad, which levels out any unevenness that may be present and which could be overlooked despite the careful inspection of the surface upon which the aquarium rests.

The aquarium must not be too near a window, because sunlight promotes the growth of algae. Furthermore, the light of the aquarium lighting competes with the sunlight, making the aquarium appear washed out.

The location of the aquarium must be well planned and must not be chosen on a whim, because this usually leads to a bad choice.

The fertilizer and the substrate material are prepared and placed ready outside the aquarium, of course in the sequence in which they will be put in the aquarium.

The gravel or absorbent clay is washed thoroughly under running water to limit the introduction of unknown clouding agents and foreign substances.

Some types of absorbent clay float in water and must be boiled before use so that the air it holds and that clings to it can escape.

The plant fertilizer is spread evenly. It can also be mixed with a lower layer of the substrate material. This makes it easier to distribute the fertilizer uniformly, without stirring it up too quickly.

The slow-release plant fertilizer is distributed uniformly. Coarse substrate material makes it easier for the water to flow through to provide oxygen.

The dark substrate is layered over the fertilizer. The back left comer remains somewhat lower so thai the mulm collects here and can be siphoned off easily.

The wood, preferably bog oak. is placed in the intended locations.

The dark substrate is layered over the fertilizer. The back left comer remains somewhat lower so thai the mulm collects here and can be siphoned off easily.

The wood, preferably bog oak. is placed in the intended locations.

The Java and Congo fern and the Java moss are tied to the rocks and also placed in their intended positions.

Tying on the plants. The cotton threads decompose after awhile. By then, however, the plants are already firmly rooted. This method of growing Anubias and water ferns makes it easier to redecorate later, since the entire decoration can be removed.

The plants are inserted.

Some water is added to a depth of 5 to 10 cm. To prevent the substrate from being stirred up.

a pad is placed under the entering stream of water.

After planting, the location of the individual groups is inspected.

The foreground is characterized by various Cryptocoryne species.

After planting, the location of the individual groups is inspected.

The foreground is characterized by various Cryptocoryne species.

Beckett Cryptocoryne

Subsequently, the small Anubias barteri var. nana which are tied to rocks are placed behind the wood. They form an attractive central background, which later will be bordered by red plants.

The aquarium is inspected again and the furnishings and planting are brought into line with the planting plan (see below, left frontal view, right top view).

2 — Cryptocoiynes.

Pearl weed.

Pearl Weed Aquarium Plant

Individual plant stalks can be inserted later with long forceps. In this way the appearance of the plant groupings can still be corrected later without any problem.

The grouping of the plants is essentially complete. Additions and corrections are made after the plants have taken root.

Aquarium Backgrounds ClingBreakout Area With Plants

The Hairgrass and Pearlweed are well suited for When adding the water, the stream of water is covering extensive areas. directed at the decorative objects to break it up. to

After the aquarium is furnished completely, it avoid stirring up the substrate, can finally be filled with water.

The completely furnished and filled aquarium is still not particularly attractive. The water is cloudy at first and numerous air bubbles cling to the decorative objects and the aquarium glass. These manifestations, however, disappear after only a few hours. An intensive filtration naturally increases the speed at which the water clears. Now the aquarium should be left alone for about two weeks, so that the plants can take root and the cultures of microorganisms can develop. Algae-eating animals can already be introduced after two to three days.

Cryptocoryne Willisii

90 x 45 x 45 cm, glass aquarium, 6 x 32 W (sodium tubes), 10 hours/day, 26°C, pH 6.8, 4°dGH, 0 mg/1 NH4\ 0.02 mg/1 NOa\ <1 mg/1 NO. 0.2 mg/1 P04.

External filtration of the aquarium through biological filter material, substrate of fine sand, C02 fertilization, about three bubbles per second, and a weekly water change of about 1/3 the volume.

Above: This is how the aquarium presentee in the furnishing example looks after two months.

Shadows in the Rainforest

A new, as yet undescribed tetra from Amazonia

Data see page 33.

By using only one tetra species, the tank population produces an especially harmonious effect and the composition of plants and woods is displayed to good effect.

Hyphessobrycon sp.

Hyphessobrycon sp.

Hyphessobrycon Herbertaxelrodi

Because tastes and sensibilities vary from person to person, it is scarcely possible to say which planting or which combination of plants and decorative objects is good or bad. Yet an aquarium, no matter how artfully and tastefully decorated, can make an inartistic impression when the higher plants do not grow but algae do instead. If the aquatic plants are not arranged optimally, but grow well, then an impressive underwater landscape develops all on its own.

If there should be only one rule for the hobbyist, then it should be that the plants and animals must be healthy.

Basically. Japanese aquaria can be furnished in two different ways.

"60 and 90"

The furnishing of a 90-cent.imeter glass aquarium and the technical accessories.

Also, a comparison with a small aquarium with a frontal length of 60 centimeters. Dimensions:

Calculating the substrate:

60 x 30 = 1800sq. cm, 80 kg. 90 x 45 = 4050 sq. cm, 250 kg.

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Aquarium and Fish Care Tactics

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Responses

  • regolo
    How to hide filtration on aquarium viewed from all sides?
    6 years ago
  • maddalena
    How to decorate aquarium with wood?
    6 years ago
  • weldon
    Why is my tetra swimming diagonally?
    5 years ago
  • phyllis
    How to landscape tank for tetra?
    5 years ago
  • eeva lindstr
    How to make a moss carpet fish tank?
    5 years ago
  • aziza
    Why are neon tetra delicate?
    5 years ago

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