Family Mirapinnidae 274tapertails Marine Atlantic Indian and western Pacific

Anomalopidae

No scales gill membranes separate and free from isthmus dorsal and anal fins opposite one another pelvic fins jugular, 4-10 rays 3-5 branchiostegal rays vertebrae 42-55. The first specimen of this group was collected in 1911. At one time they were placed in order, Mirapinnati. All specimens are immature and 6 cm or less. Three genera and five species (one undescribed) (e.g., Paxton, 2003). Body moderately elongate, covered with short hairlike pile two halves of caudal fin overlapping large,...

Unranked 4a Unnamed Osteolepidiformes Elipistostegalia Tetrapoda

Body slender pectorals usually inserted low on body thick rhombic scales pineal foramen present. About five families (based on work of H.-P. Schultze in 1993 and Cloutier and Ahlberg, 1996), Canowindridae, Megalichthyidae (e.g., Megalichthys), Osteolepididae (e.g., Osteolepis, and perhaps Thursius), Tristichopteridae ( Eusthenopteridae) (Eusthenopteron is one of the best known of all fossil fishes), and Rhizodopsidae. Gogonasus is included within the osteolepidiforms,...

Superorder Protacanthopterygii

As stated in Nelson (1994) and still regarded as true, the classification of the protacanthopterygians has been and continues to be unstable, largely because the many characters exhibit a mosaic distribution, show reduction, are otherwise highly modified, or are primitive for the euteleosts. The composition of this assemblage over the past many decades has undergone much reduction, largely as a result of Rosen (1973a). In Nelson (1984) I recognized it with the one order, Salmoniformes,...

Series Atherinomorpha

Pectoral actinosts caudal skeleton usually with two large triangular hypural plates, never more than four swim bladder physoclistous. The protrusible upper jaw differs from that of other acanthopterygians in lacking a ball-and-socket joint between the palatine and maxilla (a feature that prevents the pre-maxillaries from being locked in the protruded position) and in lacking crossed rostral ligaments extending between the palatines and the heads of the premaxillaries (however, Odontesthes...

Family Normanichthyidae 317normanichthyids Marine off Peru and Chile

Body covered with ctenoid scales head unarmed pelvic fin with one spine and five soft rays no ribs. One species, Normanichthys crockeri. Suborder Cottoidei. The recognition of two monophyletic lineages, ranked as superfamilies, follows the conclusions of M. Yabe in his 1985 study. However, monophyly of the suborder itself is not certain. We have a great deal of evidence that our present understanding of relationships is not only weak, but it is wrong. However, it is as yet impossible to erect a...

Family Chilodontidae 114headstanders Freshwater northern South America

Premaxilla relatively small, maxilla much enlarged uppermost of three post-cleithra typical of the order missing 7-10 branched dorsal fin rays lateral line scales about 25-31 sixth lateral-line scale smaller than the other scales highly modified pharyngeal apparatus single series of relatively small teeth movably attached to jaws. Maximum length 18 cm. Two genera, Caenotropus (3) and Chilodus (4), with seven species (Vari and Raredon, 2003). Family CRENUCHIDAE (115) South American darters....

Family Chaenopsidae 450tube blennies Warm seas of North and South America

Fishes The South Pacific

Body naked no lateral line (three pores at most behind opercle) maxilla not visible externally some species with anterior portion of dorsal fin much higher than rest dorsal fin with 17-28 spines and 10-38 soft rays (total rays 29-57) anal fin with two spines and 19-38 soft rays pectoral fin with 12-15 rays caudal fin separate or variously united with dorsal and anal fins orbital and nasal cirri variously present or absent (cirri on nape absent) palatines with teeth head often spiny or rough...

Acknowledgments

Many individuals helped me in various ways with the preparation of this edition. They are greater in number than given below. I am grateful to them all. I greatly enjoy and benefit from seeing colleagues at meetings, from students to longtime friends (who sadly grow fewer in number as the years go by). Valuable help was received over the years during visits to museums, and I express my gratitude to museum curators who have been patient with overdue loans while this work was completed. The...

Order Squaliformes 10dogfish sharks

Two dorsal fins, with or without spines anal fin absent five gill slits spiracles present nictitating lower eyelid absent lateral-line canal closed (as it is in most euselachians). The Echinorhinidae, placed in this order in Nelson (1994), is now placed in its own order following de Carvalho (1996). Three of the families now recognized were regarded as subfamilies of Dalatiidae in Nelson (1994) (see Dalatiidae). Six families, 24 genera, and at least 97 species. Family SQUALIDAE (34) dogfish...

Appendix

Checklist of the classes (numbered), extant subclasses (not numbered), extant orders (numbered), extant suborders (not numbered), and extant families (numbered). Page number given for all. Order 1. Myxiniformes, 22 Family 1. Myxinidae, 22 Class 2. Petromyzontida, 24 Order 2. Petromyzontiformes, 24 Family 2. Petromyzontidae, 25 Family 3. Geotriidae, 26 Family 4. Mordaciidae, 27 Class 3. Placodermi, 35 Class 4. Chondrichthyes, 39 Subclass Holocephali, 42 Family 5. Callorhinchidae...

Family Myctophidae 200lanternfishes Marine all oceans Arctic to Antarctic

Cartilaginous supporting plate below the adipose fin small supramaxilla present in some genera subocular shelf present origin of anal fin under or short distance behind dorsal fin base small photophores arranged in groups and rows on head and body (except in one species) scales usually cycloid (ctenoid in four species) swim bladder present (except in adults of a few species) vertebrae 28-45. Myctophids are heavily consumed by numerous marine fishes and mammals. Most undergo a diurnal migration...

Subclass Elasmobranchii

Five to seven separate gill openings on each side dorsal fin s and spines, if present, are rigid males without clasper organ on head dermal placoid scales usually present palatoquadrate upperjaw not fused to cranium suspension amphistylic or hyostylic branchial basket mostly behind the neurocranium tooth replacement relatively rapid teeth numerous some ribs usually present spiracle opening remains of hyoidean gill slit usually present. As noted in Maisey 2001b , in modern elasmobranchs the...

Family Kraemeriidae 459sandfishes or sand gobies Marine rarely brackish or freshwater Indo Pacific to Hawaii

Pandaka Pygmaea Fish

Body elongate tongue bilobed at tip lower jaw protruding forward with enlarged chin eyes small body naked dorsal and anal fins free of caudal dorsal fin usually single with 4-6 feeble spines and usually 13-18 soft rays pelvics with one spine and five soft rays, usually separate five branchiostegal rays. These fishes generally inhabit sandy shallow waters. Many species burrow into the sand with only the head protruding. Maximum length about 6 cm. Two genera, the monotypic Gobitrichinotus with...

Family Champsodontidae 433gapers Marine Indo Pacific

Champsodontidae

Pelvic fins elongate, in front of pectorals pectoral fins small, base oblique spinous dorsal short, with five spines, soft dorsal, with 17-20 rays anal fin with one spine and 17-20 soft rays. There is no evidence that Champsodon is related to chiasmodontids or to other trachinoids, and Johnson 1993 and Mooi and Johnson 1997 noted that it may be related to the scorpaeniforms. Eocene fossils of Eochampsodon are known from the Northern Caucasus Bannikov, 2004c . One genus, Champsodon, with about...

Distribution And Biogeography

Biogeographic Distribution Fishes

Fishes occur in lakes, streams, estuaries, and oceans throughout the world. In most species of fishes, all individuals live entirely either in fresh or in marine waters. Over 225 species are diadromous, regularly living part of their lives in lakes and rivers and part in the oceans. Among these, most are anadromous, spawning in freshwater but spending much of their time in the sea. A few are catadromous, spawning in the oceans but returning to freshwater. Classification of some species as...

Family Hexagrammidae 316greenlings Marine North Pacific

Hexagrammidae

Head with cirri but without ridges or spines lateral lines one or five scales cycloid or ctenoid one dorsal fin but with a notch with 16-28 spines and 11-30 soft rays pelvic fin with one spine and five soft rays well-developed anterior nostril on each side, posterior nostril if present reduced to a small pore anal fin with 0-3 spines followed by soft rays six or seven branchioste-gal rays swim bladder absent vertebrae 36-63. Maximum length up to 1.5 m, attained in Ophiodon elongatus most other...

Family Trichiuridae 474cutlassfishes Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Scombridae

Body very elongate and strongly compressed protruding lower jaw teeth very long maxilla concealed by preorbitals fanglike teeth usually present single nostril on each side gill cover splintered dorsal fin extremely long based, with spines and soft rays spinous portion usually shorter than soft rayed portion, notch between two portions in some species anal fin with two spines and 56-121 soft rays caudal fin small or absent pectoral fin low on body pelvic fin reduced with a scalelike spine and...

Family Akysidae 136stream catfishes Freshwater southeastern Asia

Dorsal fin with a strong spine and a short base, usually four or five soft rays. Four genera given below with at least 42 species. The two subfamilies were ranked as families in Nelson 1994 . The family is sister to the clade of Sisoridae, Erethistidae, and Aspredinidae de Pinna, 1996b, 1998 . Subfamily Akysinae. Body with unculiferous tubercles arranged in longitudinal rows, a median middorsal row and usually four lateral rows dorsal fin with usually five soft rays adipose fin present and...

Family Chiasmodontidae 432swallowers Marine oceanic

Chiasmodontidae

Premaxilla and maxilla long and slender, firmly united posteriorly anterior tip of premaxilla expanded dorsally and diverging laterally highly distensible mouth and stomach. Placed in the Percoidei in Gosline 1971 . Four genera, Chiasmodon, Dysalotus, Kali synonym Gargaropteron , and Pseudoscopelus, with about 15 species e.g., Johnson and Cohen, 1974 McEachran and Sutton, 2003 . The last genus bears photophores.

Family Lampridae Lamprididae 202opahs Marine pelagic Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Fish Long Dorsal And Anal Fins

Body oval-shaped and compressed lateral line arched high in front dorsal and anal fins long dorsal with 48-56 rays and anal with 33-42 rays pelvic fin rays 12-17 minute cycloid scales vertebrae 43-46. Its food consists primarily of squids, octopuses, and crustaceans. Maximum length up to 1.8 m. The orthography of the family has been changed from Lamprididae to Lampridae, and some comment is required. There is a desire to have stability in the orthography of family names, while following...

Family Scombrolabracidae 471longfin escolars Marine deepwater Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Scombroidei

Premaxillae protractile preopercle and opercle serrated swim bladder with thin, elastic walls and, in adult, with bubblelike evaginations fitting into vertebral bullae 30 vertebrae, fifth through twelfth of adults with expanded para-pophyses, called the bullae, that bulge dorsolaterally and with ventral opening. Maximum length about 30 cm. As noted in Nelson 1994 , C. E. Bond and Uyeno 1981 , because of the mixed percoid and scombroid characteristics of the one species in general appearance it...

Family Holocentridae 282squirrelfishes Tropical marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Gadiformes

Pelvic fin with one spine and 5-8 usually seven soft rays long dorsal fin with spiny portion 10-13 spines and soft-rayed portion 11-17 rays divided by a notch anal fin with four spines and 7-16 soft rays caudal fin forked, with 18 or 19 principal rays scales large and ctenoid extremely rough eyes large opercle with spiny edge vertebrae 26 or 27 color usually reddish. Squirrelfishes are mostly nocturnal, usually hiding in crevices or beneath ledges of reefs in the daytime along with...

Family Pholidichthyidae 444convict blenny Marine southwesternmost Philippines to Solomon Islands

Body eel shaped one nostril on each side scales absent pelvics below or slightly in front of pectoral base, with one thin spine and two or three soft rays, rarely absent caudal fin rounded and joined with dorsal and anal fins dorsal fin with 66 98 soft rays anal fin with 49 81 soft rays pectoral fin with 15 rays lower pharyngeals fused into a single bone septal bone present in interorbital area larvae with four adhesive attachment glands between the eyes vertebrae 71-101. Placed in the...

Family Albulidae 71bonefishes Marine tropical seas

Maximum length about 105 cm, attained in Albula vulpes. Subfamily Albulinae. Most tropical seas rarely brackish and freshwater . Dorsal fin base short, 16-21 rays last ray of dorsal fin prolonged into a filament in Albula nemoptera branchiostegal rays 10-16 gill rakers 15-17 lateral line scales 66-84 vertebrae 69-80 small median gular plate maxilla and basihyal toothless crushing dentition on parasphenoid. One genus, Albula, and at least three species e.g., Smith, 2003 see Nelson et al., 2004...

Family Indostomidae 292armored sticklebacks Freshwater parts of Southeast Asia

Body slender and covered with bony scutes upper jaw not protrusible oper-cle with five to seven spines dorsal and anal fins each with six rays, usually five isolated spines preceding the dorsal fin three pectoral radials 22-24 pectoral fin rays pelvic fin with four soft rays, no spine gill filaments lobate subopercle minute and interopercle present parietals absent six bran-chiostegal rays no ribs usually 21 vertebrae swim bladder physoclistic. Maximum known length about 3.3 cm SL. The...

Family Nettastomatidae 87duckbill eels Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Head and snout elongate and narrow mouth enlarged tail greatly attenuated pectoral fin usually absent in adults present only in Hoplunnis vertebrae usually 190-280. Maximum length about 1 m. This family of tropical and warm temperate waters is poorly known it is thought to be most closely related to the Uroconger line of congrids. Six genera, Facciolella, Hoplunnis, Nettastoma,, Nettenchelys, Saurenchelys, and Venefica, with about 38 species e.g., D. G. Smith in Bohlke, 1989 568-612...

Family Himantolophidae 237footballfishes Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Himantolophidae

Both sexes lack the parietals throughout life present in other ceratioids except lost in adult females of Rhynchactis triradiate pelvic bone six bran-chiostegal rays no epurals bony plates, each with a median spine, over body dorsal fin with five or six rays and anal fin with four rays caudal fin with nine rays pectoral fin rays 14-18 vertebrae about 19. Females differ from other ceratioids in having a blunt and short snout papillae on snout and chin. Maximum length 46 cm maximum length of...

Family Gasteropelecidae 118freshwater hatchetfishes Freshwater Panama and South America absent in Chile

Strongly compressed head and body with protruding bony and muscular breast region lateral line extremely short, extending to tail, or curved downward to approach origin of anal fin dorsal fin rays 10-17 anal fin rays 22-44 pelvic fins and associated bones minute four or five branchiostegal rays adipose fin present in larger species or absent in smaller species frontal bone bearing a strong longitudinal ridge posttemporal and supracleithrum fused into a single bone cleithra of each side fused no...

Family Schilbeidae Schilbidae 157schilbeid catfishes Freshwater Africa and southern Asia

Brachyplatystoma Filamentosum

Dorsal fin usually present with short base and a spine, absent in Ailia and Parailia adipose fin usually present anal fin base very long, not confluent with caudal, 24-90 rays usually four pairs of barbels. The pelvic fin is occasionally absent in species of several genera. Members of this family tend to swim in open water. It is interesting here to note that, as with some other family names, there is disagreement on the correct spelling. Rules concerning determining the correct formation of...

Superclass Gnathostomata Jawed Vertebrates

Jaws present, derived from modified gill arches endochondral bone present see Smith and Hall, 1990 paired limbs usually present three semicircular canals and two or more maculae gills covered with ectoderm and directed externally gill arches not fused with neurocranium, internal to gill lamellae gills opening to surface in fishes through slits opercular opening, when present, may be porelike myelinized nerve fibers. There are many characters that carry over in the transition from jawless fishes...

Class Actinopterygiithe rayfinned fishes

Cladogram Lutjanus

Cladogram showing the relationships of the extant actinopterygians as presented here. The Clupeomorpha and Ostariophysi compose the subdivision Ostarioclupeomorpha Otocephala , sister to the Euteleostei. See text for the many fossil clades omitted. The class Actinopterygii, one of the major vertebrate taxa, is not diagnosed by strong derived character sets, but is nevertheless thought to be mono-phyletic. The earliest fossil remains are of scales of the Late Silurian Andreolepis, Ligulalepis,...

Family Trichomycteridae Pygidiidae 129pencil catfishes or parasitic catfishes

Freshwater Costa Rica, Panama, and throughout South America. Body naked and elongate chin mental barbels usually absent, nasal barbel usually present, usually two pairs of maxillary barbels usually no adipose fin opercle usually with spines. Pelvic fins have been lost in at least three lineages Eremophilus, Glanapteryginae, and Miuroglanis. The common name parasitic catfishes is derived from the habits found in species of two subfamilies. Members of the Vandelliinae are hematophagous and pierce...

Family Triacanthidae 504triplespines Marine shallow benthic Indo Pacific

Protacanthodes

Dorsal fin rays 19-26 anal fin rays 13-22 caudal fin deeply forked. Maximum length about 28 cm. Fossils include the Eocene Protacanthodes Tyler and Santini, 2002 . Four genera, Pseudotriacanthus, Triacanthus, Tripodichthys, and Trixiphichthys, with seven species e.g., K. Matsuura in Carpenter and Niem, 2001 Santini and Tyler, 2002a . Superfamily Balistoidea leatherjackets . Body usually compressed head and body covered with scales scales may be highly modified and hidden by tissue no pelvic...

Order Cyprinodontiformes Micro cyprini 51 killifishes

Monophyly of this order is recognized on the basis of several derived characters e.g., caudal fin truncate or rounded caudal fin skeleton symmetrical, with one epural first pleural rib on second vertebra rather than third pectoral fin insertion ventrolateral primitively, low-set pectoral girdle scalellike first postcleithrum an alveolar arm of the premaxillae extended developmental period Parenti, 1981 Rosen and Parenti, 1981 Costa, 1998a . In addition, they possess the following characters...

Family Monacanthidae 506filefishes Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Monacanthidae

Usually two dorsal spines the second is usually much smaller and it may be absent soft dorsal, anal, and pectoral rays simple scales small, in regular series body prickly or furry to touch upper jaw usually with three teeth in outer and two in the inner series on each premaxillary, developed for nibbling 19-31 vertebrae. The greatest number of filefishes, some 54 species, occur in Australia Hutchins, 1977 . Pliocene fossils are known from Italy Sorbini, 1988 . About 32 genera e.g., Aluterus,...

Order Squatiniformes 11angel sharks

Squatiniformes

Marine, temperate to tropical, continental shelves and upper slopes Atlantic, southwestern Indian, and Pacific. Body raylike eyes dorsal two spineless dorsal fins no anal fin five gill openings spiracle large mouth almost terminal nostrils terminal with barbels on anterior margin. Maximum length up to 2 m. Squatina and the remaining euselachians the pristiophorids and the batoids , termed the Hypnosqualean group, were regarded as a clade by Shirai 1992c, 1996...

Subdivision Selachii sharks Selachimorpha Pleurotremata

Gill openings mainly lateral anterior edge of pectoral fin not attached to side of head anal fin present or absent pectoral girdle halves not joined dorsally but scapulocoracoids fused ventrally in both sharks and rays . These features, while not representing shared derived features of the clade, do serve to distinguish sharks from rays. See above under Infraclass Euselachii for reasons why the sharks and rays, unlike in the 1994 edition, are placed in separate taxa of equal rank. Two...

Grade Teleostomi

The following three classes, the Acanthodii, Actinopterygii, and Sarcopterygii with acanthodians being the sister-group to the latter two , account for the remaining vertebrates and are thought to form a monophyletic group termed the Teleostomi and used previously in Nelson, 1994 . The alignment of acanthodians with the others is based on their sharing three otoliths with the Actinopterygii, although their otoliths do differ in appearance and composition a distinction must be made between the...

Family Zaproridae 422prowfishes Marine North Pacific California to Alaska and Hokkaido

Nototheniidae Gill Isthmus

No pelvic fins gill membranes united small cycloid scales on body no lateral line pectoral rays 24 or 25 dorsal fin long, with 54-57 spines anal fin short, with three weak spines and 24-27 soft rays large pores on head vertebrae 61 or 62 24-26 abdominal pyloric caeca about 36 77 vertebrae 61-64. Maximum length 88 cm. One species, Zaprora silenus Mecklenburg, 2003 . Family SCYTALINIDAE 423 graveldivers. Marine Pacific coast North America southern California to northwestern Alaska . No pelvic...

Family Hispidoberycidae 269hispidoberycids Marine northeastern Indian Ocean and South China

Cetomimoidei

Spinulose scales operculum with a long, stout spine palatine and vomerine teeth present dorsal fin with four or five spines and 10 soft rays anal fin with three spines and nine soft rays pelvic fin with one spine and six or seven soft rays lateral line scales 32-34 vertebrae 34. One species, Hispidoberyx ambagiosus Kotlyar, 1996, 2004d . Superfamily Cetomimoidea Cetunculi, Xenoberyces, in part . Complete loss of fin spines. The taxonomic history of this group is reviewed in Nelson 1984 and...

Family Berycidae 281alfonsinos Marine Atlantic Indian and western and central Pacific

Caproberyx

Pelvic fin with one spine and 7-13 soft rays dorsal fin without notch, with 4-7 spines increasing in length from first to last, and 12-20 soft rays anal fin with four spines and 12-17 Centroberyx or 25-30 Beryx soft rays lateral line scales 39-51 Centroberyx or 66-82 Beryx 24 vertebrae. Most species occur between 200-600 m. Two genera, Beryx and Centroberyx, with about nine species e.g., Kotlyar, 1996 Moore, 2003 . Suborder Holocentroidei. Fossil genera include the Upper Cretaceous Alloberyx,...

Family Dactylopteridae Cephalacanthidae 303flying gurnards Marine tropical Indo Pacific and Atlantic

Dampierosa Daruma

Large, blunt, bony head with spines and keels body covered with scutelike scales tremendously enlarged and colorful pectoral fins with inner rays free, total of 28-37 rays two free spines the first may be on the nape before the two dorsal fins pelvic fins thoracic, each with one spine and four soft rays no lateral line 22 vertebrae. Maximum length about 50 cm. These benthic fishes, which superficially resemble triglids, produce sounds by stridulation by using the hyomandibular bone and walk on...

Family Liparidae Liparididae 328snailfishes Marine Arctic to Antarctic

Semlikiichthys

Body elongate, scaleless small prickles in some and skin jellylike dorsal fin 28-82 soft rays and anal fin 24-76 soft rays long, confluent, or nearly so, with caudal fin pelvic fin disc absent in the 45 or more species of Paraliparis and in the monotypic Nectoliparis nostrils single or paired usually in Liparis vertebrae 38-86. Maximum length about 80 cm. Snailfishes have an unusually wide geographic and habitat range. They occur from tide pools to depths of over 7,000 m. They are one of the...

Family Lebiasinidae 123pencil fishes Freshwater Costa Rica Panama and South America

Family Lebiasinidae

Gape short, usually not reaching orbit three or four branchiostegal rays adipose fin present or absent anal fin with 8-14 rays dorsal fin in front of anal fin, usually over pelvic fins often behind in the Pyrrhulinini, which also have an elongate upper caudal fin lobe scales large, 17-33 in longitudinal series. Two subfamilies with seven genera Derhamia with one species is not assigned to subfamily and 61 species Weitzman and Weitzman, 2003 . Subfamily Lebiasininae. Four branchiostegal rays...

Superorder Polymixiomorpha Position uncertain

Order POLYMIXIIFORMES 42 beardfishes. Few groups have been shifted back and forth as frequently as this one, while still being considered of uncertain affinity. The one family is placed within the Beryciformes by many workers employing differing methods. Several works such as Stiassny 1986 and Johnson and Patterson 1993 provided evidence that it is or could be the sister group to all other Acanthomorphs. As noted by Stiassny 1986 , Polymixia is unique in having a palato-premaxillary ligament...

Family Caristiidae 368manefishes Marine oceanic

Body deep dorsal fin high and with long base origin on head anal spines lost pelvic fins elongate, in advance or behind pectoral fin base, with one spine and five soft rays 15 branched caudal rays seven branchiostegal rays 35-40 vertebrae. These fishes have an association with siphonophores, including feeding on them. As noted by Hartel and Triant 1998 this small family is badly in need of revision. Two genera, Caristius 4 and Platyberyx 1 , with about five species e.g., Hartel and Triant, 1998...

Superorder Ceratodontimorpha

Pectoral and pelvic fins filamentous, without rays scales small air bladder lungs paired larvae with external gills adults esti-vate in dry season. Fossils that may belong here include the Paleozoic Gnathorhiza. Cloutier and Ahlberg 1996 placed both genera in the same family, Lepidosirenidae. Family LEPIDOSIRENIDAE 514 South American lungfishes. Freshwater Brazil and Paraguay. Five gill arches and four gill clefts body very elongate. One species, Lepidosiren paradoxa....

Family Abyssocottidae 322deepwater Baikal sculpins Freshwater primarily Lake Baikal Siberia

Postcleithra reduced or absent dorsal fin with 3-10 spines and 10-21 soft rays anal fin with 8-16 soft rays pelvic fin with one spine and 2-4 soft rays vertebrae 30-37 see Sideleva, 1982 52-55, for a description of this family . In the present classification, the sculpins in Lake Baikal are placed in this family, in the Comephoridae, and in the Cottidae genus Cottus and subfamily Cottocomephorinae they account for slightly over half of its 50 known species. The species generally occur below 170...

Family Istiophoridae 477billfishes Marine most tropical and subtropical seas

Bill rounded scales present in adults pelvic fins elongate jaws with teeth caudal peduncle in adult with two keels on each side dorsal fin with very long base, sometimes saillike, depressible into groove lateral line retained throughout life 24 vertebrae. The bill is used to stun prey fish by slashing back and forth. Billfishes are an extremely popular sportfish. Length up to 4 m. Three genera with about 11 species e.g., I. Nakamura in Carpenter and Niem, 2001 . Istiophorus sailfishes first...

Family Microdesmidae Cerdalidae 461wormfishes Marine rarely brackish and freshwater tropical and subtropical waters

Body elongate to eel-like, strongly compressed eyes lateral body with small embedded cycloid scales lower jaw heavy and protruding dorsal fin continuous and extending along most of body, with a combination of 10-28 flexible spines and 28-66 soft rays anal fin with 23-61 soft rays pelvic fins small, inserted below pectorals, with one spine and 2-4 soft rays pectoral fin rays 10-16 caudal fin free or united to dorsal and anal fins, with 15 or 17 principal rays branchiostegal rays five vertebrae...

TClass Pteraspidomorphi Diplorhina

Shield made of a large dorsal and ventral median plates oak leaf-shaped tubercles on dermal bone true bone cells absent the acellular nature of the bone may be a primitive rather than a secondary condition, unlike acellular bone in higher fishes, which is derived from cellular bone at least two semicircular canals. Monophyly of this group was recognized by Blieck et al. 1991 and Gagnier 1993 . This has been supported by Janvier 1996 and Donoghue et al. 2000 , but they express differing views on...

Family Muraenesocidae 84pike congers Marine tropical Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Unsegmented Dorsal Fin Rays

Teeth well developed, especially on the vomer pectorals well developed eyes large and covered with skin dorsal fin origin over or slightly before pectoral base lateral line conspicuous vertebrae 120-216. As noted by D. G. Smith, in B hlke 1989 432-40 , this family is poorly diagnosed and is of uncertain affinity. Four genera, Congresox, Cynoponticus, Muraenesox, and probably Sauromuraenesox, with about eight species. Family NEMICHTHYIDAE 85 snipe eels. Marine bathy- and mesopelagic Atlantic,...

Family Grammatidae Grammidae 343basslets Marine tropical western Atlantic

Lateral line on body interrupted or absent pelvic fin with one spine and five soft rays spines in dorsal fin 11-13 eggs with filaments. Maximum length about 10 cm. Species of this family and some members of the above few families e.g., Pseudochromis and LLiopropoma are especially colorful and are popular as marine aquarium fishes. Two genera, Gramma 4, West Indies and Liopogramma 8, tropical western Atlantic , with 12 species e.g., Gilmore, 1997 Sazima et al., 1998 .

Superorder Lampriomorpha

Order LAMPRIFORMES Lampridiformes, Allotriognathi 41 opahs. No true spines in fins premaxilla excludes maxilla from gape unique type of pro-trusible upper jaw maxilla, instead of being ligamentously attached to the ethmoid and palatine, slides in and out with the highly protractile premaxilla pelvic fins with 0-17 rays swim bladder, whe present, physoclistous orbitosphe-noid present in some. Monophyly for this group is established by Olney et al. 1993 , and their study should be consulted for a...

Family Nemipteridae 376threadfin breams Marine tropical and subtropical Indo West Pacific

Threadfin Salmon

Dorsal fin continuous, with 10 spines and nine soft rays anal fin with three spines and seven or eight soft rays caudal fin in some with filament off upper lobe six branchiostegal rays gill membranes free from isthmus subocular shelf and accessory subpelvic keel well developed opisthotic intercalar well developed lost or fused in the three related families 24 vertebrae. Nemipterids, part of the sparoid assemblage, appear to be most closely related to lethrinids. As proposed in a 1980 study by...

Superorder Atherinea Order Atheriniformes 49silversides

Pelangia Mbutaensis

Usually two separated dorsal fins, the first, if present, with flexible spines, and the second preceded by a single flexible spine in most species Parenti, 1993, suggested that the second dorsal fin is homologous with the single dorsal fin of Cyprinodontiformes anal fin usually preceded by a spine lateral line absent or very weak branchiostegal rays 4-7 narial openings paired pectoral fins inserted high on body in most pelvic fins abdominal most species , subabdominal, or thoracic in position...

Family Citharinidae 109citharinids Freshwater Africa

Fusiform Fish

Maxilla reduced and lacking teeth body deep dorsal and anal fins relatively long, dorsal with 16-24 rays and anal with 19-31 rays. Maximum length about 84 cm. Three genera, Citharinus with six species and the monotypic Citharinops and Citharidium J. Daget in Daget et al. 1984 212-16 . Family PARODONTIDAE 110 parodontids. Freshwater, benthic mountain streams of eastern Panama and most of South America. Peculiar fishes with ventral mouths and teeth modified for scraping algae off rocks...

TFamily Cimolichthyidae One genus Cimolichthys

Five genera, Enchodus, Eurypholis, Palaeolycus, Parenchodus, Rharbichthys, and Saurorhamphus. Chalifa 1996 gave anatomical details on a large Enchodus. Family SCOPELARCHIDAE 193 pearleyes. Marine Antarctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific absent from Arctic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea . Cycloid scales present on entire body and postorbital region, 40-65 along lateral line strong teeth on tongue, usually hooked large tubular eyes, directed upward or slightly dorso-anteriad...

Family Alepocephalidae 171slickheads Deepsea all oceans

Osmeroidei Tree

Teeth usually small gill rakers long and numerous shoulder sac apparatus absent photophores present pectoral fin rays 7-18 branchiostegal rays 5-8 12 in the pikelike Bathyprion scales absent in some. Most commonly found below 1000 m. Leptochilichthys, with three species, deep-sea, rare but widespread, was placed in its own family, Leptochilichthyidae, in Nelson 1994 . About 23 genera e.g., Alepocephalus, Asquamiceps, Aulastomatomorpha, Bajacalifornia, Bathyprion, Bathytroctes, Bellocia,...

Family Claroteidae 155claroteids Freshwater Africa

Galeichthys Eggs

Dentary at the symphysis with a ventral process body moderately elongate four pairs of barbels dorsal and pectoral fins with strong spines adipose fin present. Formerly placed in Bargidae, but recognized in a separate family by Mo 1991 . The Auchenoglanididae were included as a subfamily of Claroteidae by Mo 1991 as followed by Teugels 2003 , but recognized by de Pinna 1998 , as here, as a sister group to Malapteruridae. Seven genera, Amarginops, Bathybagrus, Chrysichthys, Clarotes,...

Superorder Acanthopterygii

Cladogram Acanthopterygian

Greenwood et al. 1966 gave equal rank to the Atherinomorpha and their Acanthopterygii present Percomorpha . In 1969 D. E. Rosen and C. Patterson combined them under the category Acanthopterygii, and Rosen 1973a defined the group. As described in Lauder and Liem 1983 , acanthopterygians have a more mobile upper jaw than the teleosts below this level except for the Lampriformes . This is due largely to the presence of a well-developed ascending process on the premaxilla. There is a secondary loss...

Subdivision Euteleostei

This taxon contains all the remaining teleost fishes. There is less than desirable convincing evidence that it is monophyletic, although, as noted by Johnson and Patterson 1996 , monophyly is supported by the pattern of supraneural development and presence of a stegural and caudal median cartilages in the caudal skeleton. Formerly, in Nelson 1994 , the Ostariophysi was recognized here at the start of the Euteleostei as suggested by Rosen 1973a and subsequently by others. However, the...

Superorder Paracanthopterygii

Many subsequent studies suggested that the para-canthopterygians are probably not monophyletic and indeed possibly poly-phyletic e.g., Gill, 1996 Wiley et al., 2000 Miya et al., 2003, 2005 . The molecular evidence of Wiley et al. 2000 and Miya et al. 2001, 2003, 2005 suggested that Gadiformes and Zeiformes as herein recognized are sister taxa. Miya et al. 2005 , in their molecular study using mitochondrial genome sequence, included the Polymixiidae in their...

Superorder Ostariophysi

Gordichthys

Basisphenoid absent orbitosphenoid present, except in gonorynchiforms mesocoracoid usually present dermopalatine absent postcleithrum absent in gonorynchiforms and siluriforms, one in most cypriniforms, and three in some characiforms and gymnotiforms swim bladder present except in Gonorynchus and usually divided into a smaller anterior chamber, which is partially or completely covered by a silvery peritoneal tunic and a larger posterior chamber reduced or absent in some groups minute,...

Family Chaunacidae 232coffinfishes or sea toads Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Body globose skin covered with denticles illicium, but no other spinous dorsal rays mouth oblique gill opening behind base of pectoral fin anal fin rays 5-7 body color pink to deep reddish-orange. Maximum size about 35 cm. Two genera, Bathychaunax 2, and two undescribed and Chaunax 12 , with 14 species Caruso, 1989 . The species occur between depths of 90 m to more than 2,000 m. Family OGCOCEPHALIDAE 233 batfishes. Marine all tropical and many subtropical seas absent from the Mediterranean Sea...

Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha

Britz 2004 made some interesting finds on their reproduction and early life history. Most osteoglossomorphs exhibit some kind of parental care mouthbrooding occurs in Osteoglossum and Scleropages . Unlike most teleosts, adult osteoglossomorphs, except Pantodon and Hiodon, which do not exhibit parental care, possess only the left ovary, the right being absent. Of two major studies of this group, Li and Wilson 1996 and Hilton 2003 , I am more impressed with the...

Series Mugilomorpha

There has been much disagreement concerning the relationships of the one family placed in this order. Berg 1940 placed the three families Atherinidae, Mugilidae, and Sphyraenidae in the order Mugiliformes at the subperciform level. Gosline 1971 considered the suborder Mugiloidei as a perciform and included the families Polynemidae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Melanotaeniidae, Atherinidae, Isonidae, Neostethidae, and Phallostethidae. Gosline considered his suborder...

Family Phallostethidae 250tusked silversides and priapiumfishes Freshwater and marine Southeast Asia

All members are compressed and nearly transparent. Dentatherina was recognized in Atherinidae before L. R. Parenti's 1984 study in which she considered it and the phallostethines to be sister taxa this hypothesis was strengthened by Dyer and Chernoff 1996 and the clade is recognized on the basis of several osteological features. Dentatherinines and phallostethines are frequently recognized in separate families e.g., Ivantsoff, 1999 Parenti and Louie, 1998 but are placed in the same family by...

Family Parabrotulidae 225false brotulas Marine scattered parts of Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Pectoral Colette From The Deep

Scales absent body eel-like mouth small, lower jaw protruding in front of upper dorsal and anal fins confluent with caudal fin, dorsal fin with 37-50 rays, caudal fin with 4-6 rays, and anal fin with 34-43 rays dorsal fin origin posterior, well behind pectoral fin two nostrils on each side of head no sensory pores on head neuromasts free pelvic fins absent pectoral fin small, with 6-8 rays ovaries bilobed vertebrae 54-73. Maximum length about 6 cm. Nelson 1994 noted reasons for placing and for...

Family Leptoscopidae 440southern sandfishes Marine occasionally in estuaries Australia and New Zealand

Mouth moderately oblique lips fringed eyes dorsal or nearly so lateral line on middle of side body with scales pelvic fins widely separated dorsal and anal fins long. In New Zealand, Leptoscopus macropygus is known to occur also in the lower reaches of slow rivers McDowall, 1990 . Three genera, Crapatulus, Leptoscopus, and Lesueurina,, with five species Nelson, 1994 P. R. Last et al. in Carpenter and Niem, 2001 . Family AMMODYTIDAE 441 sand lances. Marine cold to tropical, Arctic, Atlantic,...

Family Synaphobranchidae 80cutthroat eels Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Synaphobranchidae

Gill openings low on body, at or below insertion of pectoral fin this fin is absent in a few species vertebrae 110-205 third hypobranchial directed forward from midline, meets third ceratobranchial at a sharp angle larvae with diagonally elongated eyes termed telescopic , lens at anterodorsal end. Ten genera and about 32 species C. H. Robins and C. R. Robins in Bohlke, 1989 207-53 Chen and Mok, 1995 Sulak and Shcherbachev, 1997 . Subfamily Ilyophinae dysommatinae arrowtooth eels or mustard eels...

Family Ophidiidae 222cuskeels Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Dorsal fin rays usually equal to or longer than opposing anal fin rays anus and anal fin origin usually behind tip of pectoral fin scales present some with one or more spines on opercle supramaxillary present larvae without a vexillum pelvics rarely absent. Maximum lengths about 1.6 m, attained by Genypterus capensis, and 2.0 m, attained in Lamprogrammus shcherbachevi. Four subfamilies with 48 genera and about 222 species Nielsen et al., 1999 Lea and Robins, 2003 . Fossils include the Tertiary...

Superorder Cyprinodontea

Interarcual cartilage connects the epibranchial of the first gill arch with the infrapharyngobranchial of the second gill arch small or absent small second and third epibranchials interhyal absent lower caudal fin lobe with more principal rays than the upper lobe. In addition, all species of this order have a fixed or nonprotrusi-ble upper jaw. The loss of premaxillae movement is associated with the above noted loss of the interhyal and, in at least the...

Family Notopteridae 66featherfin knifefishes or Old World knifefishes

Chitala Chitala

Freshwater, sometimes brackish Africa to Southeast Asia. Maxilla toothed anterior prongs of the swim bladder pass forward to the ear lateral to the skull intracranially in Xenomystus and Papyrocranus also true for mormyrids anal fin long 94-141 rays or 100 or more rays in anal and caudal combined and confluent with a reduced caudal fin dorsal fin small to absent pectoral fin rays 11-17 pelvic fins small 3-6 rays to absent sub-opercular absent lateral line scales 120-180 ventral scutes 25-52...

Family Prochilodontidae 112flannelmouth characiforms Freshwater South America primarily the northern half south to

Mouth protractile, forming a sucking disc lips enlarged jaw teeth present, numerous and small predorsal spine present. Superficially resemble the cyprinid Labeo. Maximum length 74 cm TL., attained in Prochilodus lineatus. Three genera, Ichthyoelephas 2 , Prochilodus 13 , and Semaprochilodus 6 , with about 21 species Vari, 1983 Castro and Vari, 2003 . Unnamed clade of Family ANOSTOMIDAE Family CHILODONTIDAE. Mandible relatively short upper and lower pharyngeal dentition enlarged two or more...

Family Plesiopidae 344roundheads Marine Indo West Pacific

Notograptidae

Third branchiostegal ray extending farther posteriorly than adjacent rays resulting in a projection on the margin of the branchiostegal membrane except in Calloplesiops lateral line incomplete or disjunct. Maximum length about 20 cm. Two subfamilies, 11 genera, and about 46 species e.g., Mooi, 1995, 1999 . Subfamily Plesiopinae Roundheads OR Longfins Scales on gill cover and often on top of head dorsal fin with 11-15 spines and 6-21 soft rays anal fin with three spines and 7-23 soft rays pelvic...

Superorder Cyclosquamata

Pseudotrichonotus Altivelis

Second pharyngobranchial greatly elongated posterolaterally, extending away from third pharyngobranchial, with elongated uncinate process of second epibranchial contacting third pharyngobranchial, and as noted byJohnson, 1992 third pharyngobranchial lacking cartilaginous condyle for articulation of second epibranchial swim bladder absent medial processes of pelvic girdle fused. The specialization in the gill arches is apparently not known in any other teleost...

Superorder Galeomorphi

Palaeospinax

Anal fin present members of the other superorder with living species, the Squalomorphi, lack the anal fin, except for the Hexanchiformes . The recognition of galeomorphs as a monophyletic group follows the many works of Leonard J.V. Compagno e.g., Compagno 1988, 2001 . The composition is the same as the division Galeomorphii of de Carvalho 1996 , superorder Galea of Shirai 1996 , and superorder Galeomorphi of Compagno 2001 all have the same four orders as here. The sequencing of the orders is...

FOrder Lycopteriformes Incertae sedis

Ostariostomidae

Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous freshwater eastern Asia. Includes the well-known genus Lycoptera. Li and Wilson 1996 , on the basis of four synapomrphies, regarded the Lycopteridae as stem-group osteoglos-somorphs, sister to all extant clades. In what I regard as a minor difference, Hilton 2003 placed it incertae sedis, finding it to be either the sister group of all other osteoglossomorphs he sampled or of Eohiodon Hiodon. Order HIODONTIFORMES 21 mooneyes. Placement of...

Family Hepsetidae 125African pikes Freshwater tropical Africa

Pictures Hepsetus Odoe

Elongate pikelike body long snout and large mouth with a few large canines and smaller pointed teeth dorsal fin with seven rays placed before origin of anal fin which has nine rays each also with two rudimentary rays pelvic fin with nine rays lateral line scales 49-58, cycloid adipose fin present. Maximum length 65 cm SL. Eggs are laid in a nest of floating foam. This species is considered to be a gamefish. One species, Hepsetus odoe T. R. Roberts in Daget et al., 1984 138-39 Poll and Gosse,...

FSuperfamily Hypsidoroidea tFamily Hypsidoridae

Hypsidoris Oregonensis

Teeth on a well-developed maxilla similar to the condition in diplomystids one suprapreopercle six infraorbital bones 17 principal caudal fin rays. Two species, Hypsidoris farsonensis from the Early Middle Eocene of Wyoming and H. oregonensis from the Middle Eocene of Oregon Grande and de Pinna, 1998 . Superfamily Loricarioidea. Seven families with 156 genera and 1,187 species. Family AMPHILIIDAE 128 loach catfishes. Freshwater tropical Africa. Three pairs of barbels nasal barbels absent dorsal...

Family Channidae 487snakeheads Freshwater tropical Africa and southern Asia

Capros Aper

Body elongate long dorsal and anal fins pelvic fins usually present some Asian species of Channa lack the pelvics , with six rays no fin spines cycloid or ctenoid scales lower jaw protruding beyond upper suprabranchial organ for air breathing present. Maximum length about 1.2 m. Distribution maps and descriptive information for the species are given in Courtenay and Williams 2004 . Two genera, Channa 26, synonym Ophicephalus and Parachanna 3 , with about 29 species Courtenay and Williams, 2004...

Class Thaliacea salps

Larvae and adults transparent pelagic adults may be solitary or colonial . They tend to be planktonic but are generally capable of weak movements. Remarkable life cycles are characteristic of this group, with sexual and asexual reproductive stages occurring. Order PYROSOMIDA. Marine seas except the Arctic. Tubular colonies with a common atrial chamber. They can emit a strong phosphorescent light. The colonies usually vary in length from about 3 cm to 1 m. Order DOLIOLIDA Cyclomyaria . Marine...

Subphylum Cephalochordata Acrania in part

The notochord extends to the anterior end of the body, in front of the brain. No cranium no vertebrae no cartilage or bone heart consisting of a contractile vessel no red corpuscles liver diverticulum segmented musculature epidermis with a single layer of cells protonephridia with solenocytes for excretion endostyle present with iodine-fixing cells, it may be homologous with the thyroid of vertebrates , produces mucus that entraps food particles true brain absent, but two pairs of cerebral...

Family Nomeidae 480driftfishes Marine tropical and subtropical seas

Anabantoid Gill Arch

Pelvic fins present in adult two dorsal fins, the first with 9-12 slender spines and the second with 0-3 spines and 15-32 soft rays anal fin with 1-3 spines and 14-30 soft rays. Maximum length about 1 m. The 10-cm Nomeus gronovii Man-of-War Fish is circumtropical and usually found with the Portuguese Man-of-War Physalia . The fish swims unharmed among the stinging tentacles. Three genera, Cubiceps, Nomeus, and Psenes, with about 16 species P. R. Last in Carpenter and Niem, 2001 Haedrich, 2003 ....

Class MYXINI

Deepwater Myxine glutinosa lacks a vitreous body, has a poorly differentiated retina, and is buried beneath muscle Locket and J0rgensen, 1998 . The external nasohypophyseal opening is terminal, and it is through this opening that respiratory water passes backward to the gills unlike lampreys . Hagfishes are scavenger feeders, mostly eating the insides of dying or dead invertebrates and other fishes. They are the only craniate in which the body fluids are isosmotic with seawater. The mucous...

Family Halosauridae 72halosaurs Deepsea worldwide

Maxilla and premaxilla toothed branchiostegal membranes completely separate, rays 9-23 dorsal fin entirely anterior to anus, with 9-13 soft rays, no spines lateral line cavernous and extending full length of body, lateroven-trally scales relatively large, fewer than 30 longitudinal rows on each side. Three genera with 15 species. Halosaurus, with eight species, occurs in many areas of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific, usually confined to continental margins. Halosauropsis macrochir is in the...

Family Clupeidae 97herrings shads sprats sardines pilchards and menhadens

Clupanodon Dorsal Scutes

Primarily marine, some freshwater and anadromous worldwide mostly tropical . Two long, rodlike postcleithra in most mouth usually terminal or nearly so or somewhat superior, usually inferior only in Dorosomatinae teeth small or absent abdominal scutes usually present the Dussumieriinae round herrings usually lack abdominal scutes, except for a single pelvic scute anal fin usually with 12-29 rays, up to 38 in Dorosomatinae scales in lateral series about 40-50 usually 5-10 branchiostegal rays...

Family Congiopodidae 309racehorses pigfishes or horsefishes Marine Southern Hemisphere

Snout relatively long body without scales, skin sometimes granular only one nostril on each side gill opening reduced, above pectoral base lateral line usually well developed dorsal fins joined separate in Zanclorhynchus , with 8-21 spines and 8-14 soft rays anal fin with 0-3 spines and 5-10 soft rays pectoral fin with 8-12 rays vertebrae 28-39. Maximum length about 80 cm. Species of this family tend to be benthic and occur up to 500 m in depth. Mandrytsa 2001 placed Alertichthys and...

Family Loricariidae 134suckermouth armored catfishes Freshwater Costa Rica Panama and South America

Body with bony plates mouth ventral, with or without noticeable barbels ventral lip papillose adipose fin, when present, usually with a spine at anterior border relatively long intestine 23-38 vertebrae. Members of this family may be found from low elevations to swift-flowing streams up to 3,000 m. Pleco or plecostomus is a name used in the aquarium trade for species in several genera of this family. This is the largest family of catfishes, with more species being described every year. The...

TSuperorder Porolepimorpha

Branchiostegal rays 0-3, gular plates present caudal fin heterocercal or diphycercal. Unfortunately, a stable cladistic classification of members of this group, which may be paraphyletic, does not exist. Campbell and Barwick 2001 critically discussed problems arising in hypothesizing, in cladistic analysis, relationships in lungfishes in particular, whether or not Diabolepis is, as regarded by some, the sister group of the Dipnoi. Some of the fossil families recognized in Cloutier and Ahlberg...

J S N

Mugiliformes

SEQUENCE OF CLASSES AND ORDERS with ordinal number.family numbers used in text Myxini Petromyzontida Placodermi Chondrichthyes Tetrapoda 1 Certodontiformes 62.513-515 Tetraodontiformes 60.503-511 Pleuronectiformes 59.489-502 Perciformes 58.329-488 Scorpaeniformes 57.303-328 Synbranchiformes 56.300-302 Gasterosteiformes 55.289-299 Zeiformes 54.283-288 Beryciformes 53.276-282 Stephanoberyciformes 52.267-275 ECyprinodontiformes 51.257-266 Beloniformes 50.252-256 Atheriniformes 49.246-251...

Family Sternoptychidae 180marine hatchetfishes Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Six to 10 branchiostegal rays, three on epihyal posterior ceratohyal 3-7 usually six branchiostegal photophores pseudobranch present reduced or lost in most other stomiiforms . Ten genera and about 67 species. Subfamily Maurolicinae. Body elongate, never extremely compressed adipose fin present or absent 19-38 anal fin rays photophores present on isthmus, six on branchiostegal membrane. This taxon is probably paraphyletic Harold and Weitzman, 1996 . Seven genera, Araiophos, Argyripnus,...

Family Monocentridae Monocentrididae 279pinecone fishes Marine tropical and subtropical Indian and Pacific

Tropical Saltwater Fish

Body covered with large, heavy platelike scales phosphorescent luminous bacteria light organs on lower jaw pelvic fin with one large spine and two to four small soft rays two dorsal fins, the first with 4-7 strong spines alternating from side to side and the second with 9-12 soft rays anal fin with 10-12 soft rays no spines pectoral fin with 13-15 rays branchiostegal rays eight. Maximum length about 21 cm. Two genera, Cleidopus and Monocentris, with four species Kotlyar, 1996 . They occur...

Family Echeneidae Echeneididae 363remoras sharksuckers Marine Atlantic Indian and Pacific

Remora Fish

Body elongate, head flattened, and lower jaw projecting past upper jaw scales small, cycloid dorsal and anal fins lacking spines, each with about 18-45 soft rays swim bladder absent branchiostegal rays 8-11 26-41 vertebrae sucking disc on head developed from a transformed spinous dorsal fin, the spines of which are split to form 10-28 transverse movable lamina inside a fleshy margin . The remora presses the disc against other fishes and creates a partial vacuum by operating the movable disc...

Family Engraulidae Engraulididae and Stolephoridae 95anchovies Marine occasionally freshwater Atlantic Indian and

Suspensorium inclined forward with head of hyomandibular well in front of quadrate, hind tip of upper jaw maxilla extending well behind eye in most species and jaw articulation well behind eye mesethmoid projecting in front of vomer and supporting a paired sensory rostral organ snout blunt, prominent, projecting beyond tip of lower jaw in most species only just beyond in some Old World anchovies gill rakers 10-50 or more on lower limb of first arch, 90 or more 100 or more on both limbs in...

TSubclass Astraspida

Thick, glassy enameloid caps on the tubercles of the ornamentation eyes small and laterally placed gill openings at least eight, relatively large and with no cover paired fins absent Janvier, 1996 . fOrder ASTRASPIDIFORMES. Marine North American and Siberian, Upper Ordovician to Lower Silurian, jawless vertebrates, comprising at least Astraspis including Pycnaspis . The poorly known Ordovician Eriptychius placed in the Eriptychiida e.g., Gagnier, 1993 Janvier, 1996 is placed here by some...

TFamily Araripichthyidae Position uncertain

Elopomorpha

Body deep dorsal and anal fins with long base pelvic fins and skeleton absent pectoral fins attached low on body caudal fin forked teeth in jaws absent pre-maxilla protractile and forming border of upper jaw supramaxilla present supraorbitals absent. J. G. Maisey and S. Blum in Maisey 1991 208-15 note many similarities between this taxon and the lampriforms. However, they do not find evidence to support earlier suggestions that it is an acanthopterygian or a beryciform. They also cast doubt on...

Family Channichthyidae Chaenichthyidae 431crocodile icefishes Marine Antarctic and southern South America

Chaenichthyidae

Gill membranes united mouth nonprotractile snout produced and depressed spinous dorsal fin present pelvic fins broad or elongate vertebrae 22-31. Maximum length 75 cm. Most or all species are without red blood cells, and their blood is nearly colorless. The muscles lack myoglobin. Survival is probably permitted by the fish living in extremely cold, well-oxygenated water and having skin respiration and a large volume of blood that is efficiently circulated. Eleven genera, Chaenocephalus,...

Family Centriscidae 299shrimpfishes Marine Indo Pacific

Extremely compressed, razorlike body with sharp ventral edge body almost entirely encased by thin bony plates that are expansions of the vertebral column first dorsal spine long and sharp at extreme end of body, followed by two shorter spines soft dorsal fin and caudal fin displaced ventrally no lateral line mouth toothless. Swimming is in a vertical position, snout down. Maximum length up to 15 cm. As with many of the other gasterosteiform families, there are many Tertiary fossils known....