Family Embiotocidae 410surfperches Coastal marine rarely in freshwater North Pacific

Dorsal fin continuous, with 6-11 spines (except 15-19 in Hysterocarpus traski) and 9-28 soft rays; anal fin with three spines and 15-35 soft rays; lateral line high on body, complete (but not on caudal fin); scales cycloid, generally 35-75 in lateral line; caudal fin forked. Viviparous (impregnation by the male is aided by the thickened forward end of the anal fin, and embryos may rely on connections to maternal tissue for developmental requirements). Maximum length about 45 cm, attained in Rhacochilus toxotes.

Eighteen species occur in the Pacific off western North America with one in freshwater (Nelson et al., 2004), and three or four occur offJapan and Korea. Hysterocarpus traski is in freshwater in California (but reduced from its former range and rarely extending into brackish-water estuaries). Cymatogaster aggre-gata, an otherwise marine species, extends into estuaries and the lower portions of coastal rivers in North America.

Thirteen genera, Amphistichus, Brachyistius, Cymatogaster, Ditrema, Embiotoca, Hyperprosopon, Hypsurus, Hysterocarpus, Micrometrus, Neoditrema, Phanerodon,

Molde Pico Pajaro

Rhacochilus, and Zalembius, with about 23 species (based, in part, on references given in Nelson, 1994).

Family POMACENTRIDAE (411)—damselfishes. Marine (rarely brackish); all tropical seas (primarily Indo-Pacific).

Nostril usually single on each side (Chromis and Dascyllus have species with double nostrils, a condition that may be difficult to see); body usually high (generally terete in the plankton-pickers) and compressed; mouth small; lateral line incomplete or interrupted; anal fin with two spines (very rarely three); subocular shelf present; palate toothless; single continuous dorsal fin with 8-17 and usually 11-18 soft rays (but base of spinous portion longer than soft). Maximum length about 35 cm. Parental care of eggs by males.

Damselfishes present many problems to the taxonomist because of the many species complexes and color patterns that vary with individuals and between localities in a species. Considerable morphological diversity exists in many of the genera. The classification of this family is based primarily on Allen (1991). Tang (2001) confirmed a monophyletic Pomacentridae and subfamily Amphiprioninae (but Premnas was recovered within Amphiprion, and is thus considered a junior synonym); Chrominae and Pomacentrinae were not found to be monophyletic but no changes are made to these subfamilies.

Twenty-eight genera with about 348 species. Many new species have been described since Nelson (1994), primarily by G. R. Allen and by J. E. Randall. The region from the Philippines to Australia has the most species. The fossil record was reviewed in a paper by D. R. Bellwood and L. Sorbini in 1996.

Subfamily Amphiprioninae (Anemonefishes). Transverse scale rows 50-78 (most members of the following subfamilies have fewer than 40); all the oper-cles usually serrate (all the opercles not serrate in the other subfamilies); dorsal fin with 10 spines, rarely nine or 11 (most members of the following subfamilies have 12-14 spines) and usually 14-20 soft rays; color variable, 0-3 white transverse bands.

These fish live in coral reefs and show a commensal relationship with large sea anemones, living about and within them for protection (nematocyst discharge is inhibited).

One genus, Amphiprion (synonym Premnas) (Tang, 2001), found in coastal tropical Indo-West Pacific waters, with about 27 species.

Subfamily Chrominae. Upper and lower edges of caudal peduncle usually with two or three short spiny procurrent caudal rays. Dascyllus appears to have a commensal relationship with coral.

Five genera, Acanthochromis, Altrichthys, Azurina, Chromis, and Dascyllus.

Subfamily Lepidozyginae. Body elongate; upper and lower edges of caudal peduncle without projecting spiny caudal rays; small papillalike structures on inner edge of posterior circumorbitals.

one species, Lepidozygus tapeinosoma, a plankton-picker found throughout much of the tropical Indo-West Pacific.

Subfamily Pomacentrinae. Body orbiculate to moderately elongate; upper and lower edges of caudal peduncle without projecting spiny caudal rays.

In the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, one of the species of Neopomacentrus, N. taeniurus, the Freshwater Demoiselle, enters estuaries and penetrates the lower reaches of streams. In the western tropical Atlantic, a species of Stegastes, S. otophorus, the Freshwater Gregory, also occurs in estuaries and the lowermost reaches of streams.

Twenty-one genera, Abudefduf (sergeant-majors), Amblyglyphidodon, Amblypomacentrus, Cheiloprion, Chrysiptera, Dischistodus, Hemiglyphidodon, Hypsypops, Mecaenichthys, Microspathodon, Neoglyphidodon, Neopomacentrus, Nexilosus, Parma, Plectroglyphidodon, Pomacentrus, Pomachromis, Pristotis, Similiparma, Stegastes (synonym Eupomacentrus), and Teixeirichthys.

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