Family Paralepididae 196barracudinas Marine all oceans Arctic to Antarctic

Dorsal fin origin in middle of trunk, fin rays 7-16 (fin absent in Anotopterus, but adipose fin well developed); anal fin base long, with 20-50 rays (14-16 in Anotopterus); pectoral fin rays 11-17; body scales present or absent; no swim bladder; vertebrae 53-121. Superfically resemble sphyraenids. Maximum length about 1 m.

Anotopterus pharao (Daggertooth) (lower figure), recognized in its own family, Anotopteridae, in Nelson (1994), as sister to the paralepidids, is placed in this family. Genera were previously assigned to subfamilies, based in part on whether the pectoral fins were small and short and vertebrae 60-121 or whether the pectoral fins were large and elongate (about head length or longer) and vertebrae 53-60 (for Sudis only). Subfamilies are not recognized here pending a complete cladistic study. Much of the earlier systematic work of this family was from the research of R. K. Johnson, A. Post, and R. R. Rofen.

Thirteen genera, Anotopterus, Arctozenus, Dolichosudis, Lestidiops, Lestidium,, Lestrolepis, Macroparalepis, Magnisudis, Notolepis, Paralepis, Stemonosudis, Sudis, and Uncisudis (synonym Pontosudis), and about 56 species (Sato and Nakabo, 2002a; Thompson, 2003a; Fukui and Ozawa, 2004).

Suborder Giganturoidei. Two families.

Family BATHYSAURIDAE (197)—deepsea lizardfishes. Marine; circumglobal, generally deeper than 1000 m, tropical to temperate latitudes.

Head very depressed; upper jaw long, extending well past rear of eye; scales along lateral line enlarged; dorsal fin rays 15-18; anal fin rays 11-14; pectoral fin rays 15-17; pelvic fin rays 8; dorsal adipose fin present or absent; bran-chiostegal rays 8-13. These bottom-dwelling deepsea fishes are hermaphrodites. Maximum length 78 cm SL.

The one genus was previously recognized in the Synodontidae. Johnson et al. (1996), in a detailed analysis of synapomorphies, showed that its relationships were outside the Synodontoidei; Baldwin and Johnson (1996) placed it in it own family in the the suborder Giganturoidei. Although the cladistic results of Sato and Nakabo (2002a) differ from those of Baldwin and Johnson (1996), there is agreement on the placement given here.

One genus, Bathysaurus (synonym Macristiumi), with two species (e.g., Russell, 2003).

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