Family Scoloplacidae 132spiny dwarf catfishes Freshwater South America Peru Bolivia Brazil and Paraguay

Body with two bilateral series of odontode-bearing plates and one midventral series of plates; rostral plate with numerous recurved odontodes; odontodes on many other parts of body; dorsal fin with stout smooth spine and 3-5 soft rays; anal fin with 5 or 6 soft rays; adipose fin absent; caudal fin with 10-12 principal rays; vomer absent; exoccipitals absent. Maximum length about 20 mm SL. This is the second-most recent family of catfish to be discovered in the sense that the first species in it was not described until 1976 (Lacantuniidae is the most recent of extant fish families).

One genus, Scoloplax, with four species (Schaefer, 2003a).

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