Family Trichodontidae 434sandfishes Marine North Pacific

Mouth nearly vertical, with fringed lips; preopercle with five sharp spines; body scaleless; two dorsal fins, separated, the first with 8-16 spines and the second with 0-1 spine and 12-20 soft rays; anal fin with 0-1 spine and 28-32 soft rays; vertebrae 44-52. Normal habitat is lying partly buried in the bottom. Maximum length about 30 cm.

Two species, Arctoscopus japonicus (Alaska to Korea) and Trichodon trichodon (northern California to Alaska) (Mecklenburg, 2003).

Family PINGUIPEDIDAE (435)—sandperches. Marine; Atlantic coast of South America and Africa, Indo-Pacific (to New Zealand and Hawaii), and off Chile.

Pelvic fins below or slightly in front of pectorals, with one spine and five soft rays; mouth protractile and terminal; caudal fin truncate to deeply crescentic, with 13 or 15 branched rays; dorsal fin continuous, with 4-7 short spines and 19-27 soft rays; anal fin with 17-25 rays, first one or two may be spinelike; lateral line continuous; gill membranes united, free from isthmus, vertebrae 30-37.

The genera Pinguipes, Prolatilus, and Pseudopercis, with five species, are endemic to South America (one species of Parapercis occurs in South America) (Rosa and Rosa, 1998). See comments below under Cheimarrhichthyidae.

Five genera, Kochichthys, Parapercis, Pinguipes, Prolatilus, and Pseudopercis, with about 54 species (Rosa and Rosa, 1998; Randall and McCosker, 2002; Imamura and Matsuura, 2003).

Family CHEIMARRHICHTHYIDAE (436)—New Zealand torrentfishes. Freshwater (young are known from the sea); rivers of New Zealand.

Pelvic fins well in front of pectorals, wide apart, mouth nonprotractile and inferior; caudal fin with 13-15 branched rays; dorsal fin has three to five spines and 18-21 soft rays, the anterior three or four spines are short and stout and separated from the remainder of the continuous fin; anal fin with one or two spines and 15 soft rays; 15 pectoral rays; about 50 scales along lateral line; vertebrae 31-33. Maximum length about 15 cm.

The one species was placed its own family in previous editions (Nelson, 1976, 1984, and 1994); this placement, as opposed to recognition in the Pinguipedidae, was supported in the 1989 study by T. W. Pietsch, and recently by the systematic studies of Rosa and Rosa (1998) and Imamura and Matsuura (2003); the latter argued against a close relationship with Paracercis. However, a cladistic analysis involving all trachinoid genera is desirable to demonstrate whether or not Cheimarrichthys and the Pinguipedidae together form a mono-phyletic taxon. McDowall (2000) gave life history, ecological, and biogeo-graphic information.

One species, Cheimarrichthys fosteri (McDowall, 1990).

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