Series Percomorpha

The Percomorpha, the most derived euteleostean clade, was recognized by Rosen (1973a). Problems and changes in its classification are reviewed by Johnson (1993). In this taxon the pelvic girdle is directly or ligamentously attached to the cleithrum or coracoid of the pectoral girdle, and there is a ven-trally displaced anterior pelvic process (stiassny and Moore, 1992). However, its monophyly was challenged by Johnson and Patterson (1993) who recognized a monophyletic group comprising their smegmamorphs (the mugilomorphs, atherinomorphs, gasterosteiforms, synbranchiforms, and elassomatids) and, as herein recognized, the scorpaeniforms, perciforms, pleuronectiforms, and tetraodontiforms, as the Percomorpha. of the groups recognized here in the Percomorpha, they thus excluded the stephanoberciforms, beryciforms, and most zeiforms (but included mugilomorphs and atherinomorphs). While identifying this major difference, and although the Johnson and Patterson

(1993) definition of Percomorpha is widely used and supported from much recent research, I retain a similar composition to that recognized in Nelson

(1994) until questions of the monophyly of Smegmamorpha and the phyloge-netic position of other nominal taxa given ordinal status are better resolved, as expected in the near future. See above discussion under superorder Acanthopterygii.

Some nine orders with 245 families, 2,212 genera, and 13,173 species are placed in this series.

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