Suborder Lepidosirenoidei. Pectoral and pelvic fins filamentous, without rays; scales small; air bladder (lungs) paired; larvae with external gills; adults esti-vate in dry season. Fossils that may belong here include the Paleozoic Gnathorhiza. Cloutier and Ahlberg (1996) placed both genera in the same family, Lepidosirenidae.
Family LEPIDOSIRENIDAE (514)—South American lungfishes. Freshwater; Brazil and Paraguay.
Five gill arches and four gill clefts; body very elongate.
One species, Lepidosiren paradoxa. This was the first living lungfish to be formally described, in 1837.
Family PROTOPTERIDAE (515)—African lungfishes. Freshwater; Africa.
Six gill arches and five gill clefts; body moderately elongate. Maximum length about 1.8 m.
One genus, Protopterus, with four species (however, a revision of all species may result in more being recognized).
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