Apiaceae

They are commonly known as pennyworts. This genus includes 100 over species, but only a few species can adapt to submersed growth. H. leucocephala and H. verticillata originate from America while H. vulgaris comes from Europe and Africa. Another species H. sibthorpioides is found in South East Asia. H. leucocephala has kidney shaped leaves with cernate margins. The petiole runs in to deepest point of the cut on the leaf lamina. H. sibthorpioides has leaves that are nearly lobed to form 2-4...

Araceae

This plant is from Peninsular Malaysia. They can reach 30-60 cm in height. The leaves are elliptical with a pointed tip and cordate base. There arc silvery blotches along the mid rib of the leaf laminae. The petiole is sheathed up to half from the base. The plant may bear 5-10 leaves. A typical indoor plant which can also adapt to terrarium conditions. They prefer to grow under medium light conditions in humid environment.

Cyperaceae

These marsh dwelling plants are capable of growing underwater in presence of strong light. The leaves arc arranged in rosettes. They are narrow and hair like and are up to 20 cm long ( acicularis), about 7 cm long ( . parvula) and more than 10 cm long ( . viv para). E. acicularis and E. parvula produce runners while E. viv para produces new plants at the tip of the leaves, as the name indicates. Both of these species acicularis and . parvula are particular...

FamiF

Aeschynomene fluitans J WP1024 pH 6-7.5 22-30 Floating plant with spongy stem f Propagated from seeds and cuttings This species is native of Okavango in Africa, where it creeps on the water surface. The floating stem bears pinnately compound leaves which are alternate and sensitive to touch, but the reaction is slow. They produce yellow show ' flowers (butterfly-like), typical for the specics belonging to this family. It is generally known as the 'Giant Sensitive Fern' even though it is not a...

Family

AzolLt is a minute fern found in water bodies as a floating plant or growing on moist medium as land forms. A. caroliniana was originally from subtropical America but later introduced to Europe. A very small plant with tiny scale like leaves often reddish or green in colour with red margins. The hairy leaves are borne on small branched stem. It is nor suitable for the aquarium as it forms a floating cover and prevents the other plants from receiving light. It is more suitable for terrariums...

Floating Plants

This is a rather loose classification than purely scientific, and the plants may be non-flowering or flowering. This kind of grouping helps novice to identify the plants according to the requirements. The plants belonging to this group have leaves that are floating. Many of them have well developed root systems suspended in the water column. Generally the long stemmed floating plants have lateral stems (stolons) growing on or above ground, which can develop roots at the nodes. The short-stemmed...

Gentiaceae

N. itidica from the tropics, N. crenata from Australia, and, N. peltata from Europe are three Nymphoides species other than the banana plant (N. aqiutticd) usually found in an aquarium. The species, N. crenata and N. indica are robust perenniab with long petiole floating leaves and floating stolons up to 2 m long. N. indica, N. crenata and N. peltatum arc cultivated in the aquarium for their attractive floating leaves and flowers while N. aquatica for its unique banana like tubers. The floating...

Gh 812 Gh 1218 Gh 1830 Gh

Are used up to fix the H' and from this point onwards the pH will start dropping. Likewise, pH will go higher when carbonate hardness increases. The buffering capacity of the carbonate hardness can be summarised by the following equation in presence of CO,. CO, + H,0 < > H2C03 < > H- + HCO < > CO, * + 2IT When carbon dioxide (CO,) is added into the tank the reaction shifts to right, generate more H* ions , and the pH drops. During photosynthesis, the plants use CO, hence, the...

Hydr0char1taceae

These plants are annuals and there are about 40 species in this genus. They can be found widely distributed in the tropics from northern Africa, southern tropical Asia to Australia. It is one of the more beautiful aquatic plants but cultivation of this requires experience as it is a demanding plant. The species O. alismoides often grows as a weed in its natural habitat, the rice fields. The very young plants develop ribbon shaped leaves in rosettes and almost sessile. Mature plants have leaves...

Hydrocharitaceae

This genus has only one species, H. verticillata which is distributed worldwide. The bright green translucent leaves are arranged in whorls of 3-6 on a profusely branched stem. The leaves are lanceolate and 1.5-2.5 cm long and 0.1-0.2 cm broad with toothed margins. Hydrilla differs from Egeria by its roughly textured leaves due to the dentate margin as well as the spiny growth on the lower side of the mid rib. Flowers are very small and white while Egeria produces bigger flowers. They can...

Info

Even rhough only 3 or 4 species are reported, the complexity of this genus is much greater. Juvenile plants are free floating while the adult ones can either float or be rooted. ('. pttriodes is a free floating plant bearing large oval leaves in deep water, but roots in shallow waters. The fronds of C. tbalictrotdes and C. stfiquosa are deeply incised. C. thalictroides produces deep pinnate fronds only when they have grown to more than 16 cm long. For smaller plants, the fronds arc more or less...

L

Lagarosiphon iMgarosiphon Ijtgenandra Lagenandra Lilaeopsis ULteopsis species' Umnobium LimnophiLi Limrtophila LimnophiLi ' Brown LimnophiLi LimnophiLi LimnophiLi species Lindemia Linderjiia rotundifolia 'Variegated' 109 Lobelia Lobelia cardinalis 'Small Form' HO Ijtdwigia Ludwigia Ludwigia Ludwigia Ludwigia inclinata Ludwigia Ludwigia Ludwigia palustris Ludwigia Ludwigia iMdwigia species ___________________________114 Ludwigia repens 114 Lysimachia l.ysimachia nummuiaria 'Aurea' 115

Lamiaceae

Pogostemon stellanis is a native of Tropical Asia. An annual (or sometimes perennial) herb which can adapt very well to a wide range of aquarium conditions. The linear leaves with pointed tips arc in whorls of 4-10 and about 3-7 cm long and 0.2-0.7 cm broad. Leaf colour is brownish red to maroon when grown submerged. This plant produces terminal spike inflorescence with deep violet flowers. A strikingly beautiful plant that can be planted in bunches in the centre of the aquarium.

Lentibulariaceae

A large genus, comprising about 260 species, is mainly distributed in the tropics. U. aurea is an attractive species and can be used to decorate the aquarium. The slender stem can reach 70 cm with leaves divided in to fine segments are light green to yellow green in colour. They have specialised bladder like organs to catch plankton. It produces yellow flowers borne by long stalks above the water surface (rarely in aquarium). This floating species is very hardy and can grow in a wide range of...

M

Marsilea Marsilea Marsilea Mayara Mayaca sello win Micranthemum Micranthemum Microcarpaea Microsorium Microsorium pteropus'Narrow Leaf' 33 Microsorium pteropus Microsorium pteropus 'Windelov' 34 Myriophyllum Myriophyllum Myriophyllum Myrioplryllum Myriophyllum Myriophyllum Myriophyllum x Myriophyllum Myrioplryllum Myriophyllum Myriophyllum Myriophyllum

Menyanthaceae

They are aquatic perennials growing in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The false water lilies, as the)' are called, grow almost exclusively floating leaves borne on thin petioles rising from the stiff rhizome. N. aquatica. commonly known as 'Banana Plant', inhabits shallow waters of the United States. The rhizome develops banana like tubers in a bunch which are 2-4 cm long. The submerged leaves are green, round with a lobed base and undulating margins. The floating leaves are...

Nymphaeaceae

There are about 20 species and all can thrive in the aquarium. They arc commonly known as yellow pond lilies and arc usually found in the temperate latitude of Northern Hemisphere. These plants usually grow in still or slow flowing deep waters. N. jap nica is a native of Japan and has a stout rhizome with a rosette of leaves. The submerged leaves have arrow shaped leaf laminae with petioles of varying length. The bright green translucent leaf laminae is up to 30 cm long and 12 cm broad with...

Onagraceae

This novelty, L. sedioides, is from South America. It has a creeping stem from which shoots will emerge. The leaves arc arranged in pscudo whorls and the gap between the pseudo whorls gets narrower as the shoots reach the water surface, hence giving the impression that the leaves are in dense rosettes. The floating leaves are diamond shaped with serrated margins at the upper halves while the lower halves are not serrated. The young leaves are yellowish green with reddish petioles. As the leaves...

P0lyg0naceae

T his genus, almost worldwide in distribution has approximately 150 species. Only a few of the species can grow underwater while most of them inhabiting in the wet land or periodically flooded locations. The species P. pedunculare is from South East Asia. T he stem is upright with long internodes. The leaves (5-8 cm long and 2.5-3 cm broad) are aJrernate with characteristic stem clasping sheath. They are bright green and the leaf blade is more or less triangular. The floating leaves arc linear...

Palmae

This genus is native to Southern Mexico and Guatemala. This solitary stemmed palm, C. elf gam will flower when it is more than 30 cm in height. Even though they can grow up to 2 m tall in its natural habitat, this slow growing species can be kept in a terrarium. The crown is compact with pinnately compound leaves with no visible stem when it has its first blossoms. A beautiful plant which enhances the natural look of any terrarium. Chamaedorea elegans ftfWP49Q i 22-28 m

Pontederiaceae

Presently this species, . crassipes, is almost globally distributed due to its invasion in water bodies after having been introduced from Africa, its natural habitat. A floating plant with spathulate leaves borne on a swollen petiole. The inflated spongy tissue of the petiole enables the plant to float. It has a robust root system that forms a tangled mass, sometime as long as 20 cm. This plant bears beautiful blossoms which resembles that of a hyacinth, hence the name water hyacinth. It is...

Primulaceae

Hottonia palustris fWP1096 WP1013 pH 6.2-7 g 10-20 soft-medium hard _ 3 (5* Europe f The species H. inflate inhabits the cold and temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere (United States and Venezuela). This plant has finely divided leaves which are bright green while the leaves on the lower half of the stem have silver ' tints. They only thrive well in cold water aquariums with a temperature range from 10 C to 22 C. These plants should be planted in-groups and regular pruning will encourage...

Pteridaceae

C. pteroides from Asia and America is more or less a floating plant, but it can root in very shallow waters. The leaves are in rosettes of 4-6. The leaf blade is lance-shaped or heart shaped and lobed or sometimes whole with toothed margin. Young plants often develop on the margin or on the rib of the leaf blade. The profusely branched roots are a good hiding place for fry and also a spawning place for many fishes. They prefer soft acidic water. Ceratopteris pteroides J WP508 pH 5.5-6.8 18-30...

Salviniaceae

soft-hard f Cosmopolitan Floating fern Propagated from fragmented shoots S. nutans is distributed in the warmer parts of Europe and in eastern Asia. It is a free floating aquatic fern with whorls of 3 leaves, 2 floating and one submerged. The floating leaves are elliptical to ovate and up to 2 cm long. They are light green in colour with dense stiff hairs on the upper surface. The submerged leaves are finely dissected and serve as nutrient absorbing organs. A fast multiplier hence, frequent...

Saururaceae

H. cordate grows wild in Japan, China, India, Indonesia and Taiwan. This perennial with root runners often grows as weeds in ditches along the roadside in its natural habitat. The leaves are cordate, dark green, 4-8 cm long and 3-6 cm wide. It produces spike inflorescence with 4 large white bracts at its base. This bog plant can be cultivated along the pond margins or in terrariums. There are reports that it can adapt to aquarium conditions better than its related Saururtts sp.

Selaginellaceae

S. wildenowii ( peacock fern) is a native of Vietnam, Malaysia and the Himalayas. This robust growing plant will be upright when young, but soon develops the tendency to climb and can reach 6 m high. The light brown stem (often supported by stilt root) bears spreading fronds of shimmering peacock blue. This plant can be used to decorate terrari-ums as they like humid environment.

Terrarium Plants

This group comprises assorted plants from both flowering and non-flowering types. Plants under this category are generally moist-lovingThey cannot tolerate very wet or fully submerged conditions. As these plants prefer damp conditions for their robust growth, they are good candidates for decorating terrariums and pond edges. Acorns arc generally found in cold temperate zones, but some species are also found in sub-tropical areas for example A. calamus var. angustifolius. Acorns arc generally...

Trapaceae

The water chestnut, as it is often called, is distributed throughout the world. This annual plant produces linear submerged leaves as well as rosettes of floating leaves up to 50 cm in diameter. The blades borne on reddish petioles (dilated in the middle) are rhomboidal and sharply dendate in front. The leaves are light green and glossy on the upper side. This plant can beautify the garden ponds, where it can blossom and bear chestnut like fruits. Trapa natans WP214 4WP248 pH 6-7.2 18-28 ft*...

Tv

Pogostemon stellatns 'Narrow Leaf Enstralis stellata ft WP122 fWP285 WP623 ft .WOI22 pH 5-7 i 22-28 soft-medium _ 3 The species P. stellntus Narrow Leaf, being a very decorative plant, becomes more attractive when they arc planted in groups. The leaves arc arranged in whorls. The cmersc plant has 3-6 leaves in one whorl while the submerse plant has 3-10 leaves in one whorl. This is an extremely demanding plant which requires nutrient rich medium. CO. injection and bright light. A good indicator...

V

4 22-28 -Propagated by division of the rhizomes The genus, Aglaonema, was originally found in Malaysia and Philippines. Height of this genus varies from 30-90 cm depending on the species. The lance leaf blade is dark green and waxy (A. simplex) or with silver)' markings along the veins ( A. commutatum var. 'Silver Queen ) or narrow and long (A. sp 'Narrow Leaf). They are suitable as marginal plants, grown at the edge of ponds where its root system can absorb nutrients from the water while its...

Bpq

Vallisneria americana var. americana 146 Vallisneria americana var. americana Vallisneria americana var. americana americana 'Rubra Serpen ta' 147 Vallisneria americana var. biwaensis 147 Vallisneria americana vax. natans 147 Vallisneria asiatica var. bisvaensis 147 Vallisneria Vallisneria gigantia var. bisvaensis 147 Vallisneria natans var. bisvaensis 147 Vallisneria Vallisneria spiralis Vallisneria spiralis Vallisneria spiralis var. contortionist 149 Vesicularia Vesicularia species

Genus

PH 5.5-7.5 5-25 medium-hard -jjj- _ 1 ( Temperate zone i Eleocharis acicularis is a hardy species and fairly well distributed in the temperate zones of America, Asia Europe and Australia. This particular species can be cultivated in unhealed tanks in temperate regions as it can sustain growch at temperatures as low as 5 C. Thinning is necessary when this plant is overcrowded in the aquaria in order to stimulate new growth. Being cold hardy, this plant is suitable to be grown along the edges of...

Scrophulariaceae

Caladium Bicolor Aquarium

Unlike other Bacopa species, this Brazilian species, B. lanigera, is more suitable for the terrarium. It has an erect hairy stem with opposite leaves. The leaves are short petioled (almost sessile) of about 3 cm long and 2.5 cm broad. The bright green leaf blade has conspicuous cream coloured veins. Originated in Peru and Brazil, the members of this genus are tropical perennials with tuberous roots and arrow shaped leaves. C. bicolor ar. 'Frieda Hemple' is about 45 cm in height and has papery...

Echinodorus Harbich Propagation

Ft WP554 ft2 WP695 ftfWP1080 fWP637 WP959 pH 6-7.5 j 18-28 soft-hard J 3 < f> Cultivar Propagated from the adventitious plantlets on the floral stalk or from eyes of rhizome A very beautiful hybrid berween . horemanii Red' and Eibitwtionts x. 'Barthii'. The submerged ruby red leaves with prominent creamy veins on short petioles can give a very good contrast. Leaves are lanceolate and arc 15-35 cm long and 3-5 cm broad. A good solitary plant, that can be ideally placcd in mid to background...

Acanthaceae

These are tropical perennials mainly from Malaysia. They are grown for its attractive foliage. The shape and size of the leaves vary. Leaves are usually grayish green stained with purple red and deep purple on the reverse side. They arc either cordate with dentate margins H. colorata) or elliptical with highly puckered leaf blades H. colorata var. exotica). Another variety H. colorata var. exotica 'Narrow Leaf has puckered leaf blades, but narrower than that of H. colorata var. exotica. The...

Eriocaulonaceae

The genus, Eriocaulon, includes about 400 species, and is widely distributed throughout the world. This genus is mostly made up of wetland and aquatic species. All these plants (commonly called pipeworts) are easily recogniscd by the inflorescence, which is globe like with tightly packed flowers on a long stalks. Two species, E. cincreum and E. setaceum from South Asia are gaining recognition as good aquarium plants. E. cinereum has submersed leaves in basal rosettes, which are linear and 2-8...

Alismataceae

WP1127 pH 5.8-7.2 j 20-28 soft- hard _ 4 ( > S. America S Propagated from runners Rataj reported this plant in 1975 from the state Mato Grosso of Brazil. A rosette plant bears very linearly lanceolate leaves with long pointed tips. Leaves arc about 40cm long and 0.5cm broad and pale green. Only the midrib of the leaf is very conspicuous and the lateral veins arc very diffused. These leaf characters will mislead the hobbyists to identify it wrongly as long and narrow leafed Vallimeriiis....

Peliosanthes Aquaria

WP365 ftf WP386 ft W0365 J 18-28 mjg Plant with leaves in 2 rows on a compressed stem P bpagatcd from This plant is characterised with lance shaped leaves with conspicuous parallel veins. The leaf blade tapers at both ends, brownish green in colour and are gently arched especially in the older plants. It can adapt to terrarium conditions , but should be kept in the shaded areas. 122-28 ,-Propagated bv division of rhizome Schismatoglottis species ft WP206 ftfWP343 .fWO206 g 22-28 mtm

Brassicaceae

Aquarium Plant Brassicaceae

Rorippa aqiuitica ftjf VP195 fWP310 WOl95 pH 7-7.5 jj 20-25 medium hard-hard - 2 ft USA JB Propagated from seeds and leaf division This genus is represented by 70 species. R. aqtuttica from U.S.A is the commonly cultivated species of this genus. This plant is considered as the most beautiful aquatic plant of the family Brassicaceae. The young plant has leaves in rosettes which are deeply incised. Emergence of the stem coincides with flowering. The leaves borne by the stem are alternate the...

By

The aquarium hobby is said to have originated in the 18th century. For the past three centuries, the aquarium hobby has evolved from merely keeping fish in containers to simulating the natural habitat using aquatic plants, driftwood and natural stones. Today, the aquarium is a very special confinement of space where fauna and flora coexist in a balanced environment. The hobby has also taken a quantum leap in deploying aquarium ecology techniques such as filtration systems, carbon dioxide supply...

W

Echinodortis parviflorus Ecbinodoriis peruensis ft WPlll fWP4l8 ft WOlll fWP624 PH 6.5-7.5 20-25 soft-hard _ 4 S. Amcrica Propagated from the adventitious plantlets on the floral stalk WP875 ftfWP955 ft WP957 WP874 fWP954 WP956 pH 6-7.8 i 20-30 soft-hard __ 3 Cultivar Q m.m Propagated from the adventitious plantlets on the floral stalk Oriental Aquarium, Singapore, discovered this mutant from the micropropagated plants of normal Ozelot plants. The leaves arc light green to dark green with dark...

I

Cryptocoryne Blassii

Blyxa alternifollus WP159 WO 159 pH 6-7 J 24-28 soft __4 A demanding plant which is widely distributed in Asia. Even though a true aquatic, it is not commonly found in an aquarium. This plant requires very consistent and stable conditions such as low carbonate hardness 2-3KH , low general hardness and the pH value of 6-7. If any conditions changed, growth will be affected and it will take a long time for it to re-establish. The leaves are grass blades-like with tapering tips arranged in...

Eichhomia Diversifolia

Dieffenbachia Dieffenbachia exotica Dieffenbachia Dieffenbachia pit Didiplis Dracaena Dracaena deremensis Dracaena Dracaena godseffiana'Florida Beauty' 170 Dracaena marginata var. colorama 170 Dracaena Dracarna Echinodorus parviflorus 'Tropica' 82 F.chinodorus Echinodorus var. Echinodorus 'Red Echinodorus 'Red Echinodorus Echinodorus Echinodorus 'Rubin Narrow Leaf 83 Echinodorus Echinodorus Echinodorus schlueteri Echinodorus Echinodorus species Echinodorus species Echinodorus species 'Long...

Mjt iy

Madagascar Lace Plant Seed Propagation

Aponogeton capuroni WP024 V0024 WP025 pH 5.8-6.5 J 20-27 soft _ 4 Propagated from tubers Southern Madagascar This African species has ornamental leaves of up to 20 cm long and 4.5 cm broad emerging from a rhizome. The leaf lamina is crinkly and wavy. A. capuroni prefers soft acidic water. Aponogeton crispus j WP026 f VP266 -fcW0026 WP027 PH 6.5-7.3 23-28 soft-hard __ 4 j- f Propagated from seeds South East Asia An Asian species tends to cross breed easily with A. eiongatus, A nutans and A...

Najas

Najas indica jfWP160 pH 6.5-7.2 f 24-28 soft-medium hard _ 4 lt f S. E. Asia Propagated from stems f Tropical West Africa ip. Propagated from cuttings This genus contains marsh dwelling small herbs. The popular aquarium species, N. pedicellate and N. crassicaulis are of African origin. N. pedicellata, small perennial herb has an upright stem which can grow up to 50 cm. The leaves are lanceolate, opposite and 1.5-5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm broad. Under strong light the leaf develops a yellowish...

Asteraceae

Trichocoronis Rivularis Oak

S. rivularis syn Trichocoronis rivularis is a native of Mexico. The leaves of these plants bear great resemblance to the Oak foliage, hence they arc commonly called Mexican Oak Leaf Plant. A herbaceous plant with trailing stem when grown as emersed but erect when they arc grown submerged. The leaves are opposite, light to dark green with dentate margins. Another form, S. rivularis 'Variegatus' produces leaves with creamy white veins on green leaf blade. These arc very adaptable to aquarium...

Ammannia Multiflora

Alternanthera sessilis WP012 ftfWP292 W0012 pH 5.8-7 i 22-28 soft-medium hard _ 3 Tropics Propagated from seeds amp cuttings Most Aliernantherns can adapt under submerged conditions except for A. sessilis which is essentially a terrestial plant and cannot be kept submerged for more than a few months. It can be a beautiful addition to a terrarium and paludarium where it can thrive well in semi-submerged conditions. This plant produces numerous tiny flowers in white bracts on the leaf axes, The...

Haloragaceae

Aquarium Myriophyllum Propinquum

This genus comprises of about 40 species and is widely distributed around the world. They are commonly known as milfoils. The species originating from America arc largely aquatic while most of the Australian species are amphibious in nature. These fragile plants have considerable ornamental value. They can be used to decorate the back and corners of the tank with depth of 30-60 cm. Abundant light is the only prerequisite for these plants otherwise they are adaptable to almost all conditions in...

Lythraceae

Pics Artificial Hybridisation

Didiplis diandra syn Peplis diandra is a native of North America. This plant has needle shaped opposing leaves on multi branched stem. The leaves are 5-10 cm long and 0.1 to 0.15 cm broad. They are light green and will turn pink when they are closer to the light source. They arc ideal foreground plants and can tolerate wide range of light and water conditions. The genus Echinodorus comprises more than 30 species that are collected from its original habitat South and Central America and also...

Code Symbols

- Temperature - General Hardness soft soft-medium medium-hard hard Strong Lighting pC ' Medium Lighting - Planting Position 1 - Foreground 3 - Mid-ground - Country or Region of Origin - Stem Plant b - Rosette Plant V - Rosette Plant with Bulb - Rosette Plant with Tuber - Lasy The codes used in this handbook refer to Oriental Aquarium-Singapore plant order codes. Special thanks to iVlr. Takashi Amano Photo credits Takashi Amano Aqua Design Amano Co., Ltd Pages 4, 6,7, 11, 18, 19, 20, 21,35 amp...

Hymenophyllaceae

Trichomanes Javanicum Terrarium

These ferns are mainly found in tropical lowlands and rain forests. The taxonomy of this genus is volatile and many species are ascribed to other genera. T. javanicum aqua fern from Malaysia has erect brown stem bearing pinnately dissected leaflets. Another species, Trichomanes sp. generally known as Borneo fern has erect brown stems and leaflets borne by these slender stems arc entire and dark green with fringed margins. These fern should be attached to wood work or rocks in the terrarium in...

Liliaceae

Dieffenbachia Root Pic

Plants belonging to this genus love moisture. They arc-hardy with stiff tapering leaves. The foliage may be brownish green and glossy C species var. 'Compacta' distinctly variegated or brownish green laminae with bright red edges C. species ar. Red Edge' . Regular pruning will keep the plants short. I hey can be grown as marginal plants along the edge of the pond and should be kept in brightly-lit areas to maintain its vibrant colour. Cordyline species 'Compacta ft WP364 ftf VP336 j V0364 22-30...

Benus i v

Alternanthera Reineckii

As mentioned above, all these plants are suited to any type of aquarium because of its flexibility with respcct to temperature, water hardness and light. However, the rhizome should not be buried in the substrate instead it should be attached to rocks or driftwood. ftfWP992 pH 5-8 i 18-30 soft-hard 3 Creeping plant f Propagated from the eyes of the rhizome or from the plandets on the leaf Microsoriumpteropus 'Tropica' WP969 Dnfrwood pH 5-8 18-30 soft-hard __ 3 fCultivar Creeping plant f...

Mayacaceae

The family Mayucaceae is a monogencric having only one genus . There are about 10 species which grow in the tropical and sub-tropical South America and South West Africa. M. fluviatilis is a small herbaceous plant with a fragile stalk less than 0.1 cm in thickness on which slender leaves arc arranged alternately. The submerged leaves arc yellowish green and are 0.8-1.2 cm long and about 0.1 cm broad. It produces violet flowers. Another species M. sellou'iana has underwater leaves longer 1.2-2...

C

tladium bicolor var. 'Frieda Ueinple' 164 CaLuiium CjiLtmus species 'Bamboo Plant' 165 Cabomba 'abomba Cabotnba Cabomba Cjtbomba Cardamine Cxratoplryllum Ceratoplryllum detnersum 'M xico' 57 Ceratopteris Ceratopteris Ceratopteris Chamaedorea Chladophora negagropila 'Moss Balls' 23 Chloropbytun Christmas Moss 'South America' 26 Cordyline species Cordyline species 'Red Crassula Crinum Crinum natans 59 Crinum natans Crinum Cryptoeoryne Cryptocoryne Cryptoeoryne Cryptocoryne Cryptocoryne cordata...

Excessive Filamentous Algae Growth Aquarium

Bolbitis Hydrophylla

Using this table we can decide how much CO, to be injected for the desired pH against carbonate hardness. Plant require Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur in relatively large amount major or macro elements when compared to other important elements such as Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Boron, Copper and Molybdenum. Even though the second group of elements microelements is required in very small amounts, these elements together with macro elements are vital...

H

Hemigraphis Hemigraphis colorata 'Exotics Narrow Hemigraphis Hemigraphis Hetttigrapbis species Heteranthera Heteranthera Hottonia Houttuynia Hydrilla Hydrocharis Hydrodeis Hydrocotyle Hydrocotyle Hydrocotyle Hydro triebe HygrophiLi HygrophiLi corymbosa 'Compacta' 101 HygrophiLi corymbosa var. angustifolia 100 HygrophiLi corymbout var. salicifoiia 100 HygrophiLi corymbosa var. siamensis 101 var. siamcnsis'Small HygrophiLi HygrophiLi difformis HygrophiLi HygrophiLi HygrophiLi polyspermy Broad...

Butomaceae

Butomaceae

The genus Hydrocleis includes 9 species. H. nympbaeoides is a native of tropical South America and is often cultivated in the aquatic green house in botanical gardens along with gigantic water lilies like Victoria regia and V. cruziana. The floating leaves of this perennial water plant are glossy and leathery with a long petiole. The heart shaped or egg shaped leaf blade are dark green, 10 cm in length and 7 cm in breadth. The stolon lateral stem growing on or above the ground is profusely...