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WP846 W0846 pH 6.5-7.5 20-25 soft-medium 4 (f Australia Propagated from cuttings j WP970 W0970 pH 5-8-7.2 20-28 soft-medium _ 3 This plant is usually found in the tropical parts of North America. It was considered as a species of the genus CratioLt. A perennial herb with light red to purple, non-hairy stem bearing leaves in whorls of 3. The purplish green aerial leaves arc 2-4 cm long and 0.3-0.7 cm broad. The leaves will turn deep purple or pinkish when the ' arc grown submerged. This plant...

Araceae

FtfWP261 ftf.W02Il t 22-28 f with climbing habit Propagated from cuttings With its natural habitat in the jungles of Central America, these are indoor ornamental plants with attractive foliage. S. podophyllum (goose foot plant) has leaves that are arrow shaped and light green when young which will become palmately lobed at maturity. This creeping or climbing plant is attractive when placed among the darker green plants. The leaves of 5. podophyllum 'Red Knight' are tinged with pink which can...

Scrophulariaceae

Caladium Bicolor Aquarium

Unlike other Bacopa species, this Brazilian species, B. lanigera, is more suitable for the terrarium. It has an erect hairy stem with opposite leaves. The leaves are short petioled (almost sessile) of about 3 cm long and 2.5 cm broad. The bright green leaf blade has conspicuous cream coloured veins. Originated in Peru and Brazil, the members of this genus are tropical perennials with tuberous roots and arrow shaped leaves. C. bicolor ar. 'Frieda Hemple' is about 45 cm in height and has papery...

Echinodorus Harbich Propagation

Ft WP554 ft2 WP695 ftfWP1080 fWP637 WP959 pH 6-7.5 j 18-28 soft-hard J 3 < f> Cultivar Propagated from the adventitious plantlets on the floral stalk or from eyes of rhizome A very beautiful hybrid berween . horemanii Red' and Eibitwtionts x. 'Barthii'. The submerged ruby red leaves with prominent creamy veins on short petioles can give a very good contrast. Leaves are lanceolate and arc 15-35 cm long and 3-5 cm broad. A good solitary plant, that can be ideally placcd in mid to background...

Acanthaceae

These are tropical perennials mainly from Malaysia. They are grown for its attractive foliage. The shape and size of the leaves vary. Leaves are usually grayish green stained with purple red and deep purple on the reverse side. They arc either cordate with dentate margins H. colorata) or elliptical with highly puckered leaf blades H. colorata var. exotica). Another variety H. colorata var. exotica 'Narrow Leaf has puckered leaf blades, but narrower than that of H. colorata var. exotica. The...

Eriocaulonaceae

The genus, Eriocaulon, includes about 400 species, and is widely distributed throughout the world. This genus is mostly made up of wetland and aquatic species. All these plants (commonly called pipeworts) are easily recogniscd by the inflorescence, which is globe like with tightly packed flowers on a long stalks. Two species, E. cincreum and E. setaceum from South Asia are gaining recognition as good aquarium plants. E. cinereum has submersed leaves in basal rosettes, which are linear and 2-8...

Alismataceae

WP1127 pH 5.8-7.2 j 20-28 soft- hard _ 4 ( > S. America S Propagated from runners Rataj reported this plant in 1975 from the state Mato Grosso of Brazil. A rosette plant bears very linearly lanceolate leaves with long pointed tips. Leaves arc about 40cm long and 0.5cm broad and pale green. Only the midrib of the leaf is very conspicuous and the lateral veins arc very diffused. These leaf characters will mislead the hobbyists to identify it wrongly as long and narrow leafed Vallimeriiis....

Pontederiaceae

This genus comprises about 10 species extending from Africa to America. They grow in still water and in marshy areas. H. dubiu is a native of Mexico, Cuba and the United States . The feeble stem of H. dub a is about 1 m long on which long narrow leaves (about 7.5 cm long and 0.5 mm broad) are arranged alternately. The leaves arc often undulate and curved. They produce bright yellow flowers above the water surface. It is a hardy species which can grow over a wide range of temperature and hard...

Peliosanthes Aquaria

WP365 ftf WP386 ft W0365 J 18-28 mjg Plant with leaves in 2 rows on a compressed stem P bpagatcd from This plant is characterised with lance shaped leaves with conspicuous parallel veins. The leaf blade tapers at both ends, brownish green in colour and are gently arched especially in the older plants. It can adapt to terrarium conditions , but should be kept in the shaded areas. 122-28 ,-Propagated bv division of rhizome Schismatoglottis species ft WP206 ftfWP343 .fWO206 g 22-28 mtm

Brassicaceae

Aquarium Plant Brassicaceae

Rorippa aqiuitica ftjf VP195 fWP310 WOl95 pH 7-7.5 jj 20-25 medium hard-hard - 2 ft USA JB Propagated from seeds and leaf division This genus is represented by 70 species. R. aqtuttica from U.S.A is the commonly cultivated species of this genus. This plant is considered as the most beautiful aquatic plant of the family Brassicaceae. The young plant has leaves in rosettes which are deeply incised. Emergence of the stem coincides with flowering. The leaves borne by the stem are alternate the...

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The aquarium hobby is said to have originated in the 18th century. For the past three centuries, the aquarium hobby has evolved from merely keeping fish in containers to simulating the natural habitat using aquatic plants, driftwood and natural stones. Today, the aquarium is a very special confinement of space where fauna and flora coexist in a balanced environment. The hobby has also taken a quantum leap in deploying aquarium ecology techniques such as filtration systems, carbon dioxide supply...

Hydrocharitaceae

Hydrocharitaceae Saltwater

This genus, a native of Africa and Madagascar, is a true aquatic. Lagarosiphon carries numerous male flowers and a few female flowers in the sparhe. a feature that is lacked by two other genera Egeria and HydrilLt of the same family. Leaves arc arranged irregularly on an erect slender stem perpendicular to the stem , bright green and 1-2 cm long L. madagascarensis or are about 2 cm long, recurved and substantially stififer with minutely toothed margins L. major . L. madagascarensis demands very...

W

Echinodortis parviflorus Ecbinodoriis peruensis ft WPlll fWP4l8 ft WOlll fWP624 PH 6.5-7.5 20-25 soft-hard _ 4 S. Amcrica Propagated from the adventitious plantlets on the floral stalk WP875 ftfWP955 ft WP957 WP874 fWP954 WP956 pH 6-7.8 i 20-30 soft-hard __ 3 Cultivar Q m.m Propagated from the adventitious plantlets on the floral stalk Oriental Aquarium, Singapore, discovered this mutant from the micropropagated plants of normal Ozelot plants. The leaves arc light green to dark green with dark...

I

Cryptocoryne Blassii

Blyxa alternifollus WP159 WO 159 pH 6-7 J 24-28 soft __4 A demanding plant which is widely distributed in Asia. Even though a true aquatic, it is not commonly found in an aquarium. This plant requires very consistent and stable conditions such as low carbonate hardness 2-3KH , low general hardness and the pH value of 6-7. If any conditions changed, growth will be affected and it will take a long time for it to re-establish. The leaves are grass blades-like with tapering tips arranged in...

Lamiaceae

This genus includes perennial herbs which are native to North America. The ' are commonly known as false head dragons. P. purpurea, a wetland species, can grow submersed as well. The leaves arc in rosette and about 17 cm long and 5 cm broad. They arc elliptic to lanceolate and dark green in colour. Submersed plants can reach 10 cm in height. This plant produces show ' purplish flowers arranged in terminal rhizomes when they grow in its natural habitat. Additional CO, fertilisation is necessary...

Eichhomia Diversifolia

Dieffenbachia Dieffenbachia exotica Dieffenbachia Dieffenbachia pit Didiplis Dracaena Dracaena deremensis Dracaena Dracaena godseffiana'Florida Beauty' 170 Dracaena marginata var. colorama 170 Dracaena Dracarna Echinodorus parviflorus 'Tropica' 82 F.chinodorus Echinodorus var. Echinodorus 'Red Echinodorus 'Red Echinodorus Echinodorus Echinodorus 'Rubin Narrow Leaf 83 Echinodorus Echinodorus Echinodorus schlueteri Echinodorus Echinodorus species Echinodorus species Echinodorus species 'Long...

Mjt iy

Common Types Aponogeton

Aponogeton capuroni WP024 V0024 WP025 pH 5.8-6.5 J 20-27 soft _ 4 Propagated from tubers Southern Madagascar This African species has ornamental leaves of up to 20 cm long and 4.5 cm broad emerging from a rhizome. The leaf lamina is crinkly and wavy. A. capuroni prefers soft acidic water. Aponogeton crispus j WP026 f VP266 -fcW0026 WP027 PH 6.5-7.3 23-28 soft-hard __ 4 j- f Propagated from seeds South East Asia An Asian species tends to cross breed easily with A. eiongatus, A nutans and A...

Najas

Najas indica jfWP160 pH 6.5-7.2 f 24-28 soft-medium hard _ 4 lt f S. E. Asia Propagated from stems f Tropical West Africa ip. Propagated from cuttings This genus contains marsh dwelling small herbs. The popular aquarium species, N. pedicellate and N. crassicaulis are of African origin. N. pedicellata, small perennial herb has an upright stem which can grow up to 50 cm. The leaves are lanceolate, opposite and 1.5-5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm broad. Under strong light the leaf develops a yellowish...

Asteraceae

Trichocoronis Rivularis Oak

S. rivularis syn Trichocoronis rivularis is a native of Mexico. The leaves of these plants bear great resemblance to the Oak foliage, hence they arc commonly called Mexican Oak Leaf Plant. A herbaceous plant with trailing stem when grown as emersed but erect when they arc grown submerged. The leaves are opposite, light to dark green with dentate margins. Another form, S. rivularis 'Variegatus' produces leaves with creamy white veins on green leaf blade. These arc very adaptable to aquarium...

Ammannia Multiflora

Alternanthera sessilis WP012 ftfWP292 W0012 pH 5.8-7 i 22-28 soft-medium hard _ 3 Tropics Propagated from seeds amp cuttings Most Aliernantherns can adapt under submerged conditions except for A. sessilis which is essentially a terrestial plant and cannot be kept submerged for more than a few months. It can be a beautiful addition to a terrarium and paludarium where it can thrive well in semi-submerged conditions. This plant produces numerous tiny flowers in white bracts on the leaf axes, The...

Haloragaceae

Aquarium Myriophyllum Propinquum

This genus comprises of about 40 species and is widely distributed around the world. They are commonly known as milfoils. The species originating from America arc largely aquatic while most of the Australian species are amphibious in nature. These fragile plants have considerable ornamental value. They can be used to decorate the back and corners of the tank with depth of 30-60 cm. Abundant light is the only prerequisite for these plants otherwise they are adaptable to almost all conditions in...

Lythraceae

Didiplis diandra syn Peplis diandra is a native of North America. This plant has needle shaped opposing leaves on multi branched stem. The leaves are 5-10 cm long and 0.1 to 0.15 cm broad. They are light green and will turn pink when they are closer to the light source. They arc ideal foreground plants and can tolerate wide range of light and water conditions. The genus Echinodorus comprises more than 30 species that are collected from its original habitat South and Central America and also...

Code Symbols

- Temperature - General Hardness soft soft-medium medium-hard hard Strong Lighting pC ' Medium Lighting - Planting Position 1 - Foreground 3 - Mid-ground - Country or Region of Origin - Stem Plant b - Rosette Plant V - Rosette Plant with Bulb - Rosette Plant with Tuber - Lasy The codes used in this handbook refer to Oriental Aquarium-Singapore plant order codes. Special thanks to iVlr. Takashi Amano Photo credits Takashi Amano Aqua Design Amano Co., Ltd Pages 4, 6,7, 11, 18, 19, 20, 21,35 amp...

Hymenophyllaceae

Trichomanes Javanicum Terrarium

These ferns are mainly found in tropical lowlands and rain forests. The taxonomy of this genus is volatile and many species are ascribed to other genera. T. javanicum aqua fern from Malaysia has erect brown stem bearing pinnately dissected leaflets. Another species, Trichomanes sp. generally known as Borneo fern has erect brown stems and leaflets borne by these slender stems arc entire and dark green with fringed margins. These fern should be attached to wood work or rocks in the terrarium in...

Liliaceae

Dieffenbachia Root Pic

Plants belonging to this genus love moisture. They arc-hardy with stiff tapering leaves. The foliage may be brownish green and glossy C species var. 'Compacta' distinctly variegated or brownish green laminae with bright red edges C. species ar. Red Edge' . Regular pruning will keep the plants short. I hey can be grown as marginal plants along the edge of the pond and should be kept in brightly-lit areas to maintain its vibrant colour. Cordyline species 'Compacta ft WP364 ftf VP336 j V0364 22-30...

Benus i v

Alternanthera Reineckii

As mentioned above, all these plants are suited to any type of aquarium because of its flexibility with respcct to temperature, water hardness and light. However, the rhizome should not be buried in the substrate instead it should be attached to rocks or driftwood. ftfWP992 pH 5-8 i 18-30 soft-hard 3 Creeping plant f Propagated from the eyes of the rhizome or from the plandets on the leaf Microsoriumpteropus 'Tropica' WP969 Dnfrwood pH 5-8 18-30 soft-hard __ 3 fCultivar Creeping plant f...

Mayacaceae

The family Mayucaceae is a monogencric having only one genus . There are about 10 species which grow in the tropical and sub-tropical South America and South West Africa. M. fluviatilis is a small herbaceous plant with a fragile stalk less than 0.1 cm in thickness on which slender leaves arc arranged alternately. The submerged leaves arc yellowish green and are 0.8-1.2 cm long and about 0.1 cm broad. It produces violet flowers. Another species M. sellou'iana has underwater leaves longer 1.2-2...

Family

Many species of this genus are suitable for the aquarium. However, A. ficoidea 'Bettzickiana' horn Brazil is non aquatic. These bushy plants do not grow more than 15 cm and are available in three different colours. The ruffled leaves are light green A. ficoidea 'Bettzickiana Aurea' , green A. ficoidea 'Bettzickiana Green or red bronze A. ficoidea 'Bettzickiana Red . A narrow leafed form, A. ficoidea 'Bettzickiana Red Narrow Leaf is also available now. As terrarium plants, they produce very...

C

tladium bicolor var. 'Frieda Ueinple' 164 CaLuiium CjiLtmus species 'Bamboo Plant' 165 Cabomba 'abomba Cabotnba Cabomba Cjtbomba Cardamine Cxratoplryllum Ceratoplryllum detnersum 'M xico' 57 Ceratopteris Ceratopteris Ceratopteris Chamaedorea Chladophora negagropila 'Moss Balls' 23 Chloropbytun Christmas Moss 'South America' 26 Cordyline species Cordyline species 'Red Crassula Crinum Crinum natans 59 Crinum natans Crinum Cryptoeoryne Cryptocoryne Cryptoeoryne Cryptocoryne Cryptocoryne cordata...

Excessive Filamentous Algae Growth Aquarium

Bolbitis Hydrophylla

Using this table we can decide how much CO, to be injected for the desired pH against carbonate hardness. Plant require Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur in relatively large amount major or macro elements when compared to other important elements such as Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Boron, Copper and Molybdenum. Even though the second group of elements microelements is required in very small amounts, these elements together with macro elements are vital...

H

Hemigraphis Hemigraphis colorata 'Exotics Narrow Hemigraphis Hemigraphis Hetttigrapbis species Heteranthera Heteranthera Hottonia Houttuynia Hydrilla Hydrocharis Hydrodeis Hydrocotyle Hydrocotyle Hydrocotyle Hydro triebe HygrophiLi HygrophiLi corymbosa 'Compacta' 101 HygrophiLi corymbosa var. angustifolia 100 HygrophiLi corymbout var. salicifoiia 100 HygrophiLi corymbosa var. siamensis 101 var. siamcnsis'Small HygrophiLi HygrophiLi difformis HygrophiLi HygrophiLi HygrophiLi polyspermy Broad...

Butomaceae

Butomaceae

The genus Hydrocleis includes 9 species. H. nympbaeoides is a native of tropical South America and is often cultivated in the aquatic green house in botanical gardens along with gigantic water lilies like Victoria regia and V. cruziana. The floating leaves of this perennial water plant are glossy and leathery with a long petiole. The heart shaped or egg shaped leaf blade are dark green, 10 cm in length and 7 cm in breadth. The stolon lateral stem growing on or above the ground is profusely...