From Ocean to Aquarium

Colette Wabnitz

The global trade in marine ornamental species

Colette Wabnitz, Michelle Taylor, Edmund Green and Tries Razak


UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

219 Huntingdon Road Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1223 277314 Fax: +44 (0) 1223 277136 E-mail: [email protected] Website:

Director: Mark Collins

The UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre is the biodiversity assessment and policy implementation arm of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the world's foremost intergovernmental environmental organization. UNEP-WCMC aims to help decision makers recognize the value of biodiversity to people everywhere, and to apply this knowledge to all that they do. The Centre's challenge is to transform complex data into policy-relevant information, to build tools and systems for analysis and integration, and to support the needs of nations and the international community as they engage in joint programmes of action.

UNEP-WCMC provides objective, scientifically rigorous products and services that include ecosystem assessments, support for implementation of environmental agreements, regional and global biodiversity information, research on environmental threats and impacts, and development of future scenarios for the living world.


Major financial support from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation is gratefully acknowledged, as is some contributing support from the Bloomberg Foundation.


This report would not have been possible without the participation of many colleagues from the Marine Aquarium Council, particularly Aquilino A. Alvarez, Paul Holthus and Peter Scott, and all trading companies who made data available to us for inclusion into GMAD. The kind assistance of Akbar, John Brandt, John Caldwell, Lucy Conway, Emily Corcoran, Keith Davenport, John Dawes, MM Faugere et Gavand, Cedric Genevois, Thomas Jung, Peter Karn, Firoze Nathani, Manfred Menzel, Davide di Mohtarami, Edward Molou, Wolfgang Mueller, James O'Carroll, Jan Olsen, Gayatri Reksodihardjo-Lilley, Martin Selch, Claude Schuhmacher, Craig Shuman, Derek Thomson, Caroline Raymakers, Paul West, and Miriam and Danny Winkels is also very much appreciated.

The authors would like to thank Helen Corrigan for her help with the analyses of CITES data, and Sarah Ferriss for assisting in assembling information and analysing Annex D and GMAD data on Hippocampus spp. We are grateful to Neville Ash for reviewing and editing earlier versions of the manuscript.

Thanks also for additional comments to Katharina Fabricius, Daphne Fautin, Bert Hoeksema, Caroline Raymakers and Charles Veron; for providing reprints, to Alan Friedlander, Julie Hawkins, Sherry Larkin and Tom Ogawa; and for providing the picture on p 41, to Yvonne Sadovy.

We are grateful to Marie-Annick Moreau and Kristin Lunn for information on Banggai cardinalfish and to Craig Shuman for information on the sea anemone fishery in the Philippines.


Photos illustrating this report were kindly provided by the following. © as listed

Front cover and title page, left to right:

A. Edwards, F. Benzoni, C. Genevois, O. Hoegh-Guldberg. Back cover: C. Genevois.

Pages: Francesca Benzoni: p 28; Eran Brokovich: p 16 (right]; CSIRO: p 39 (both); Alasdair Edwards: pp 6, 36, 43 (both]; Cedric Genevois: pp 11, 25 (left), 30, 38, 50; Edmund Green: pp 8 (lower),

25 (right), 46, 48, 53 (left), 55; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg: pp 9 (both), 37, 45, 55; Ofri Johan: pp 24, 34, 56 (right); Marc Kochzius: pp 7 (lower right ), 16 (left), 17, 18, 21 (left), 33, 47 (right), 56 (left); Ed McManus: p 26; George Mitcheson/ National Geographic Society: p 41; Project Seahorse: pp 10 (A. Vincent), 21 (A. Vincent), 35 (D. McCorry), 52 (A. Vincent); Peter Scott: pp 7 (upper two and lower left), 8 (top), 12, 13, 14 (both), 47 (left), 53 (right), 57, 58; Colette Wabnitz: pp 15, 40; Zoological Survey of India, Chennai: p 29.

© UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 2003

Citation:Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E., Razak, T. 2003. From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

URL: A Banson production Printed in the UK by Swaingrove Imaging

The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of UNEP or contributory organizations. The designations employed and the presentations do not imply the expressions of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNEP or contributory organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authority, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries

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