Captions

The captions, where possible, identify the fishes, the family they belong to, their range, feeding habits, aquarium lighting, temperament, aquarium decor, and swimming habits, as well as the specific gravity of the water that best suits them, optimum temperature, greatest size, and the minimum capacity of the aquarium that best suits them.

SYMBOLS:

Feeding:

represents prepared foods, usually frozen. Very few marine fishes will do well on flake food although some types are quite nutritious.

represents invertebrates. Although the symbol is obviously a worm, most marine fishes prefer crustaceans and/or molluscs. Many fishes have specific diets and must be supplied certain invertebrates or they will decline (ex. some butter-flyfishes need live coral polyps). Please refer to the family write-ups in this book as well as other TFH marine fish books for more detailed information.

^ represents live fishes.

ih represents plant matter. This is usually in the form of algae and can be provided rather easily by growing your own in the tank or buying prepared algal foods from your dealer.

Light: These symbols represent the amount of light recommended for the tank. Remember, however, that some fishes are nocturnal and will be seen only when light levels are low. Others arc at their best during the days, showing their colors off in direct sunlight.

O Bright with occasional sunlight ♦) As dark as possible as long as fishes are visible

Aggressiveness/Compatibility: Here again there is commonly no cut-and-dried distinction. A fish may be quite peaceful when small, but its appetite grows with its size and it may soon be foraging on the other tankmates. Others may be aggressive only during spawning seasons.

V Peaceful community fish ^ Not recommended for beginners

Tank Decoration:

represents a tank that should be supplied with plant life (normally algae). In some instances algae must be supplied because the inhabitants of the tank feed on it; in others it is decorative.

JE* represents coral for the tropical tanks and rocks for the more temperate aquaria.

represents a balance between the two where corals (or rocks) are used along with plants for decoration. The new reef tanks would come under this designation.

represents a sand or gravel bottom. Sand is required by some fishes (burrowers, etc.), while marine aquarists use dolomite or similar material in order to maintain the proper pH balance.

Tank Level: Fish Locality: Many species are tied to one area of the tank. There are bottom species (like flatfishes) and surface fishes (like needlefishes) and some that will stay just about in the middle range all the time. Most species of marine fishes are wanderers and will swim pretty much around the tank investigating every corner.

Bottom swimmer

E3 Swims in middle of water

E23 No special swimming level _ Top swimmer

°C: the temperature in degrees centigrade at which the species is most comfortable. There is of course a range at which the fish will live that extends above and below this figure.

sg: specific gravity. Again, this is an optimum figure. Specific gravity can be easily obtained by use of a simple hydrometer.

cm: the length of a fish (standard length). This is the maximum length a fish is said to attain. Most specimens seen are normally much smaller, and aquarium specimens are generally smaller yet. Many species grow so large only juveniles are kept by aquarists. An inch equals 2.54 cm.

L: the smallest possible size of the tank needed for an average adult of that particular species, given in liters. A gallon is equal to about 3.8 liters. Range Number:

Range numbers give approximate ranges of the species. Ex. Indo-Pacific = 6-9; Indo-West Pacific = 7-9. Family Number:

Family numbers follow the species name. The list of families is given on pp. 24 and 25.

The Fishes Indian Pacific

europe north america atlantic ocean pacific ocean oceania africa indian ocean south america australia new zealand atlantic ocean

Geographic regions are keyed to numbers for easy species caption reference. These regions are highly arbitrary and many species do not confine themselves to these limits. Also species may inhabit only a small portion of the delimited area. But this does give a reasonable approximation of the fishes' range which should help aquarists determine the environment needed for proper maintenance of the fishes.

1. Temperate Western Atlantic. 9. Northern and Western Indian Ocean.

2. Tropical Western Atlantic. 10. Red Sea.

3. Tropical Eastern Pacific. 11. New Zealand.

4. Temperate Eastern Pacific. 12. Temperate Australia.

5. Temperate Western Pacific. 13. Tropical Eastern Atlantic.

6. Oceania. 14. Temperate Eastern Atlantic.

7. Tropical Western Pacific. 15. Mediterranean Sea.

8. Great Barrier Reef.

Systematic List of the Families of Fishes of the World (after Nelson, 1984)

Myxiniformes

1 Myxinidae

Peí romyzontiformcs

2 Petromyzontidac Chimaeriformes

3 Callorhynehidac

4 Chimaeridáe

5 Rhinqchimaeridac ííexanchiformes

6 Chlamydoselachidae

7 Hexanchidac Hcicrodontiformes

8 Heterodontidac Lamniformes

9 Rhincodontidae

10 Orcctolobidac

I I Odontaspididae

12 Lamnidae

13 Scyliorhinidae

14 Carcharhinidac

15 Sphyrnidae Squaliformes

16 Squalidae

17 Pristiophoridae

18 Squatinidae Rajiformes

19 Frist idae

20 Torpcdinidac

21 Rhinobatidae

22 Rajidae

23 Dasyaridac

24 Potanvotrygonidac

25 Hcxatrygonidae

26 Myliobatididae

27 Mobulidac Ccracodontiformes

28 Ccratodoruidae Lepidosireniformcs

29 Lepidosirenidae 50 Protoptcridac

Coclacanihiformes

31 Latimeriidae Polyptcriformcs

32 Polyptcridae Acipenseriformes

33 Acipensendae

34 Polvodoniidae Lcpisosteiformcs

35 l.episosteidac Amiiformes

36 Amiidae Osteoglossiformcs

37 Osteoglossidac

38 Pantodontidae

39 Iliodontidae

40 Notopteridae

4 1 Mormyridae

42 Gymnarchidae Elopiformcs

43 Elopidac

44 Megalopidae

45 Albulidae

46 Halosauridac

47 Notacanthidae

48 Lipogcnyidac Anguilliformes

49 Anguillidae

50 Hetercnchclyidae

51 Moringuidae

52 Xenocongridae

53 Myrocongridac

54 Muraenidae

55 Nemicluhvidae

56 Cyematidac

57 Synapbobranchidae

58 Ophichthidac

59 Nettastomatidae

60 Colocongridac

61 Macrocephenchelyidac

62 Congrídae

63 Derichthyidae

64 Serrivomeridae

65 Saccopharyngidae

66 Liurypharvngidac

67 Monognathidac Clupciformes

68 Dcnticipitidae

69 Clupeidac

70 Engraulididae

71 Chiroccntridac Gonorynchiformes

72 Chanidae

73 Gotiorvnchidac

74 Kncriidae

75. Phractolacmidac Cypriniformcs

76 Gyprinidac

77 Psilorhynchidac

78 Ilomalopteridae

79 Cobitididac

80 Gyrinocheilidac

81 Catostoniidae Characiformcs

82 Cirharinidac

83 Hemiodomidae

84 Curimatidac

85 Anostomidac

86 Hrythrinidae

87 Lebiasinidae

88 Gasteropclccidae

89 Ctenoluciidae

90 I lepsciidac

91 Cliáracidae Silurifornics

92Diplomystidac

93 Icialuridae

94 Bagridae

95 Cranoglanididac

96 Siluridae

97 Schilbidac

98 Pangasiidae

99 Amblycipitidac

100 Amphiliidae

101 Akvsidae

102 Sisoridac 105 Glariidae

104 Heieropneustidae

105 Chacidae

106 Olyridac

107 Malapterurídae

108 Ariidac

109 Plotosidac

110 Mochokidac 1 11 Doradidac

112 Auchenipteridae 1 13 Pimclodidac

114 Ageneiosidae

115 liclogcnidac

116 Cetopsidae

117 Hypophthalmidae

118 Asprcdinidae

1 19 Trichomycteridac

120 Callichrhyidae

121 Loricariidac

122 Astroblepidac Gynmoiifornncs

123 Stcrnopygidae

124 Rhamphichthvidae

125 Hypopomidae

126 Apteronotidac

127 Gymnoúdae

128 HÍcctrophoridac Salmoniformes

129 Esocidac

130 Umbridae

131 Argeminidae 1 32 lkuhylagidae

1 3.3 Opisthpproctidae

134 Álepocephalidae

135 Searsiidac

136 I.epidogalaxiidae

137 Osmeridae

138 Plecoglossidac

139 Salangidae

140 Sundasalangidae

141 Retropinnidae

142 Galaxiidae

143 Salmonklac

Stomiiformes

144 Gonostomatidac:

145 Siemoptychidae

146 Photichthyidac

147 Chauliodoniidae

148 Stomiidác

149 Astroncsthidae

150 Melanostomiidae

151 Malacostcidac

152 Idíacanihidac-Aulopiformes

153 Aulopididae

154 Chlorophlhalmidae

155 Scopclarchidac 1 56 Noiosudidae

157 Synodontidae

158 Giganturidac 15y Paralepididac

160 Aáotopieridae

161 llvcrmanncllidac

162 Omosudidae

163 Alcpisauridac

164 Pseudotrichonoiidae Myctophiformes

165 Ncoscopclidac

166 Myctophidae Pcrcopsiformcs

167 Percopsidae

168 Aphredoderidae

169 Amblyopsidac Gad ¡formes

170 Muraenolepididae

171 Moridac

172 Mclanonidac

173 Bregmacerotida«

174 Gadidac

175 Mcrluccüdae

176 Macrouridae Ophidiiformes

177 Ophidiidae

178 Carapklac

179 Bythitidae

180 Aphyonidae Batrachoidiformes

181 Batrachoididae

182 Lophiidac

183 Antcnnariidae

184 Brachionichthyidac

185 Chaunacidae

186 Ogcocephalidai:

187 Caulophrynidac

188 Ccratiidae

189 Gigantactinidac

190 Ncoccratiidae

191 Linophrynidae

192 Oneirodidae

193 Thaumatichihyidae

194 Ccntrophrynidac

195 Diceratiidac

196 Himantolophidac

197 Mclanocctidac Gobicsociformcs

198 Gobiesocidae

199 Alabctidac Cyprinodont »formes

200 Exocoeiidae

201 Ilcmiramphidac

202 Bclonidac

203 Scomberesocidac

204 Oryziidac

205 Adrianichthyidae

206 Horaichihyidae

207 Aplochcilidae

208 Cvprinodontidae

209 Goodeidae

210 Anablcpidac

211 Jenynsiidae

212 Poeciliidae Athcriniformcs

213 Atherinidae

214 Isontdac

215 Mclanotacniidac

216 Ncostethidae

217 Phallosreihidae Lampriformcs

21S I-ampridae

219 Velifcridae

220 Lophotidae

221 Radiicephalidac

222 Trachipicridac

223 Rcgalccidac

224 Stylephoridae

225 Atclcopodidac

226 Mvrapinnidae

227 Eucacniophoridac

228 Mcgulomyctcridac Bcryciformcs

229 Monocentrididae

230 Trachichthyidac

231 Anomalopidae

232 Dirctmidac

233 Anoplogastridac

234 Berycidac

235 Holoccntridac

236 Polymixiidac

237 Stcphanoberycidae

238 Mclamphaidae

239 Gibbcriehthyidae

240 Rondelet iidae

241 Barbourisiidac

242 Cctomimidac Zciformes

2-13 Purazenidac

244 Macrurocytlidac

245 Zcidac

246 Orcosomatidac

247 Grammicolcpididac

248 Caproidae Gltterosteiformcs

249 Hypoptychidac

250 Aulorhynchídae

251 Gastcrosieidae Indostomiformcs

252 Indostomidae

Pegasiformes

253 Pcgasidac Syngnuihiformcs

254 Aulostomidae

255 Fistulariidac

256 Macrorhamphosidac

257 Cemrisctdae

258 Solcnosiomidac

259 Syngnaihidac Dactyl optcriformes

260 nactyloptcridac Synbranchiformes

261 Synbranchidne Scorpacnlformes

262 Scorpacnidae

263 Synanceiidae

264 Caracamhidac

265 Aploactinidac

266 Pataecidac

267 Cpngiopodidac

268 Triglidac

269 Platycephalidac

270 I loplichthyidac

271 Anoplopomatidae

272 Hcxagrammidac 27 3 Zaniolcpididac

274 Normanichthyidae

275 Ereuniidac

276 Cot iidae

277 Couocomcphondae

278 Comephoridac

279 Psychrolutidac

280 Agonidac

281 Cycloptcridac Pcrciformcs

282 Ccntropomidac

283 Percichihyidac

284 Serranidae

285 Grammistidae

286 Pseudpchroniidac

287 Grammidae

288 Plesiopidae

289 Acanthoclinidac

290 Glaucosoniatidae

291 Tcraponidae

292 Banjosidae

293 Kuhliidac

294 Centrarchidae

295 Percidae

296 Priacanthidae

297 Apogonidae

298 Dinolesudac

299 Sillaginidae

300 Malacanthidae

301 L.abracoglossidac

302 Lactariidac

303 Pomatornidac

304 Rachycentridac

305 Echeneididae

306 Garangidac

307 Nematistiidae

308 Coryphacnidac

309 Apolcciidac

310 Menidae

311 Leiognathidae

312 Bramidae

313 Caristiidae

314 Arripidac

315 Emmclichthyidac

316 Lutjanidac

317 Caesionidae

318 Lobondac

319 Gerreidac

320 Hacmulidae

321 Inermiidae

322 Sparidac

323 Centracanthidae

324 Lcthrinidae

325 Ncmipteridac

326 Sciacnidae

327 Mullidac

328 Monodnctylidac

329 Pcmphcrididae

330 Leptobramidac

331 Baihyclupcidac

332 Toxotidae

333 Coracinidae

334 Kyphosidac

335 Ephippididac

336 Scatophagidae

337 Rhinoprcnidac

338 Chactodontidae

339 Pomacanthidae

340 Enoplosidae

341 Pentacerotidae

342 Nandidae

343 Oplcgnathidae

344 Cichlidae

345 Embiotocidae

346 Pomaccntridae

347 Gadopsidae

348 Cirrhitidae

349 Chironemidae

350 AplodactyIidae

351 Chcilodactylidac

352 Lairididae

353 Owsioniidac

354 Ccpolidac

355 Mugilidae

356 Sphyraenidae

357 Polyncmidac

358 Labridae

359 Odacidac

360 Scaridac

361 Bathymasceridac

362 Zoarcidae

363 Stichaeidae

364 Cryptacanthodidac

365 Pholididac

366 Anarhichadidac

367 Ptilichthyidae

368 Zaproridac

369 Scytalinidac

370 Bovichrhyidae

371 Notoiheniidac

372 Harpagilcridae

373 Bathydraconidac

374 Channichthvidac

375 Opistognathidac

376 Congrogadidae

377 Chiasmodoniidac

378 Champsodomidac

379 Nótograpiidae

380 Pholidichthyidae

381 Trichodontidae

382 Trachinidae

383 Uranoscopidac

384 Trichonotidac

385 Creed iidae

386 Lepioscopidae

387 Pcrcophidae

388 Mugiloididac

389 Cheimarrhichthyidae

390 Triptcrygiidac

391 Dactyloscopidae

392 Labrisomidac

393 Clinidac

394 Chaenopsidae

395 Blcnniidac

396 Icostcidac

397 Schindlcriidae

398 Ammodytidac

399 Callionymidae

400 Draconetiidae

401 Rhyacichthyidae

402 Elcoirididac

403 Gobiidac

404 Gobioididac

405 Trypauchcnidae

406 Kracmeriidae

407 Microdcsmidac

408 Kurtidac

409 Acanthuridae

410 Siganidae

411 Scombrolabracidae

412 Gempyhdae 4 13 Trichiuridae

414 Scombridac

415 Xiphiidae

416 Luvaridac

417 lstiophoridae

418 Amarsipidac

419 Ccntrolophidac

420 Nomcidae 121 Ariommatidac

423 Stromateidae

424 Anabaniidae

425 Bclontiidac

426 Helostomaiidae

427 Osphronemidae

428 Luciocephalidac

429 Channidae

430 Mastacembelidae

431 Chaudhuiiidac Plcuronectiformes

432 Pscttodidac 133 Ciiharidac

434 Bothidae

435 Pleuronectidac

436 Cvnoglossidac

437 Solcidae Tecraodonc ¡formes

438 Triacanthodidae

439 Triacanthidae

440 Balistidae

441 Ost rae iidae

442 Triodontidae

443 Tetroodontidac

444 Oiodontidac

445 Molidae

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