External dedicated circulatory pumps have the advantage of not being an obstruction within the aquarium, and not contributing as much heat to the water as submersible powerheads. When using an external pump, the location of the intake is important. We have seen many aquariums equipped with recirculating pumps with the intake plumbed through the wall of the aquarium (either a side or the bottom), and outfitted with a strainer to prevent fish from being slurped into the motor. This technique works fine for fish-only aquariums, but is a disaster in the reef tank. Don't make this mistake Wandering clownfish anemones, loose mushroom anemones, algae, sea cucumbers and other creatures end up against the strainer and often, through the pump. They become reef puree. The design of choice with this arrangement is simply to put the intake in the overflow. This arrangement can also be used for feeding the protein skimmer from the overflow.
With suitable lighting, you can add photosynthetic invertebrates. Hardy choices include green star polyps, leather mushroom soft corals, and disc anemones. It makes no difference how many (within reason) of these species are included, nor does it matter in what order they are added. Adding additional fish should be done with their temperaments in mind. Larger, more aggressive fish should be added last. Once established, a properly designed saltwater aquarium can thrive for many years with little attention apart from routine maintenance.
Several species of Pavona have been grown in reef aquaria, getting their start as small colonies attached to live rock with other invertebrates such as mushroom anemones or soft corals. Aquarists with a sharp eye can spot such little treasures and grow nice colonies from them. Pavona cactus (Forskal, 1775) and Pavona decussata (Dana, 1846) are the most often encountered species.
There are two main growth forms in the Alcyoniina massive fleshy colonies and arborescent colonies with a thin coenenchyme. More massive colonies have a thick coenenchyme, heavily embedded with spicules. Colonies generally consist of a stalk topped by a rounded, mushroom-like cap that bears the polyps called the capitulum. The stalk can be elongated or short while the capitulum can be smooth and rounded (e.g. some Cladiella, Heteroxenia, Xenia), thrown into folds (e.g. Sarcophyton) or can have numerous polyp bearing lobes projecting from it (e.g. some forms of Cladiella, Lobophytum, and some forms of Sinularia). Arborescent forms fall into two groups. The Nephtheidae reach a large size but the trunk has very little coenenchyme. Instead these corals rely on abundant and spacious gastrovascular canals within their trunks to maintain their shape via hydrostatic pressure. As a result, members of the Nephtheidae can collapse and shrink to a small size when their gastrovascular canals expel...
Distinguishing Characteristics The polyps expand like mushroom anemones, obscuring any trace of the skeleton, which is made up of separate corallite columns connected by epitheca. Two species, Blastomussa merleti (Wells, 1961) and B. wellsi, Wijsman-Best, 1973 are imported. Blastomussa merleti has corallites around 5 mm in diameter, while B. wellsi has larger, 10 mm or greater diameter corallites. by mushroom anemones placed next to it, and may be harmed by
We are confident that the level of impact on the natural habitat from collection of soft corals is quite sustainable. They are generally collected with only fragments of shells, gravel, or broken branches of dead coral, so they hardly effect any removal of solid reef substrate. Furthermore, the aquarium industry is setting up numerous mariculture operations, coral farms, for cultivating these fast-growing species attached to mined upland rocks. Some of these operations are being set up in the island nations where collection from the wild has been practiced, thereby keeping the industry at its source, supporting the livelihood of the native people and giving them incentive to conserve their reefs. The collection of corallimorpharia is usually also a harmless activity to the reef, involving the removal of small dead coral and shell fragments with attached, fast growing vegetatively produced disc anemones. In some cases, however, relatively large chunks of reef weighing several pounds...
Based on GMAD importers' data (1988-2002), the most commonly traded soft coral genera worldwide are (ordered by genera most traded) Sarcophyton (leather mushroom toadstool coral), Sinularia (finger leather soft finger digitate leather coral), Xenia (pulse coral), Cladiella (cauliflower finger colt blushing coral), Clavularia (clove polyp), Anthelia (waving hand polyp), Lobophytum (finger leather coral), Nephthea (broccoli coral), Dendronephthya (carnation strawberry coral) and Cespitularia (blue xenia). Sarcophyton spp. is the most commonly traded soft coral. This mushroom-like zooxanthellatexiii species is hardy, fast growing and easily propagated in aquarium conditions. Under the Sarcophyton genus at least five species are known to be traded as aquarium specimens S. ehrenbergi, S. glaucum, S. latum, S. tenuispiculatum and S. trocheliophorum. As reported by importers in GMAD these five species made up 17 per cent of the total amount of soft corals traded (importers' data 1988-2002).
Macroalgae reach their greatest diversity and abundance in shallow habitats with a sandy or muddy bottom. Inshore habitats, too, may harbor all the species just mentioned, along with many more, including various forms of Caulerpa. The latter is not calcified, and leaks organic matter into the water, so the aquarium housing it needs adequate skimming. Soft corals of the more tolerant varieties, such as Sarcophyton, mushroom polyps, and LPS (large-polyped scleractinian) corals, such as Trachyphyllia, are at home in a habitat with abundant, noncalcified seaweeds, but SPS (small-polyped scleractinian) corals would not be appropriate. A dense growth of macroalgae dominated by Caulerpa also comes close to duplicating a patch denuded of Turtle Grass and sub
Commonly traded coral genera, based on CITES export and import data 1999-2001, include Acropora (staghorn, cluster, bluetip, bush, cat's paw or bottlebrush coral), CatalaphylUa (elegance coral), Euphyllia (anchor or hammer coral), Galaxea (galaxy coral), Goniopora (flowerpot coral), Heliofungia (mushroom coral), LobophylUa (lobed brain coral), Plerogyra (bubble or grape coral), Trachyphyllia (open brain coral), Turbinaria (cup coral) and Scleractinia. However, the last is likely to include a large proportion of traded live rock67. These findings are corroborated by data within GMAD showing the same genera as the top ten species in trade from both
The nature of the phosphor coating on the inside of the white tube is what gives fluorescent lamps their spectral-output characteristics. Photosynthetic organisms have pigments that absorb strongly in the red and blue regions of the spectrum, although accessory pigments allow energy to be These are modest lighting levels, with the minimal gathered from light of many wavelengths. It is wiser to pro-wattage appropriate for fishes and nonphotosynthetic in- vide a balanced white light for shallow-water species and vertebrates. The moderate level can be sufficient for the to emphasize the blue wavelengths in aquariums for species less demanding soft corals such as Lobophytum, Pachyclavu- that come from greater depths. Most of the brand-related I aria y Sarcophyton, and even such large-polyped stony corals claims for fluorescent aquarium lamps revolve around their as Fungia, Plerogyra (Bubble Coral), Trachyphyllia (Open special spectral qualities. Hobbyists should remember that Brain...
There are many organisms that are adapted to zones where the water velocity is very slow most of the time, and they expand during these periods of calm, and retract in stormy or more turbulent times. These include mushroom anemones and some stony corals such as Cynarina lac ry ma lis, Nemenzopbyllia turbida, and Plerogyra sinuosa. These should be placed somewhere in the tank where the currents are very slight.
Most corallimorphs prefer indirect light or shade, so creating an aquarium for them does not entail the installation of a high intensity light source. The brightly fluorescent coloured blue, red and green disc anemones commonly called elephant ears do not tolerate bright light. They shrivel up and become pale when over illuminated. The few types which live in bright sunny areas also Multicoloured mushroom tolerate and thrive in less intense light. When properly placed in
However, we do not share the same view. We have even seen dead coral rocks covered with Aiptasia offered for sale as anemone rock . Do NOT buy such rocks These small anemones can easily sting and irritate corals and clams to death and should not be allowed to gain a foothold in the aquarium. Aiptasia are usually introduced along with live rock when setting up a new aquarium. They can also arrive on pieces of rock with corals on them, or with zoanthid and mushroom anemone colonies. Parasitic flatworms are usually distinguished by the fact that they are always found on their hosts. They are generally light grey to brown in colour and many species have a stripe down the back. Although many types of corals can be affected, mushroom anemones (Discosoma sp., Actinodiscus sp.) are the most often infected. Large polyped hard corals can also be infected, especially Elegance Coral (Catalaphyllia jardinei) and Bubble coral (Plerogyra sinuosa). Soft corals that can be infested include Sinularia,...
Supersaturation of oxygen, as can occur from too strong illumination or the administration of pure oxygen into a pressurized oxygen reactor , will also stimulate the ejection of acontia filaments. In the case of Corallimorpharia (mushroom anemones), rough handling can stimulate the release of acontia. In this case, however, the filaments are typically reabsorbed by the coral in a few hours no harm done.
Marble shrimp are shy and only venture about the aquarium at night. It is during these forays that the shrimp can attack tridacnid clams, corals, mushroom anemones and small polyped corals such as zoanthids (Achterkamp, 1985a Wilkens, 1990). We do not recommend that you keep these shrimp in a reef tank but if you wish to do so you should keep a close eye on the health of your corals and clams. Unfortunately, these shrimp will feed on most corals in the aquarium including stony corals, mushroom anemones and
Stick with shallow-water species, such as leather corals and mushroom polyps, that are tolerant of less than pristine water quality. No beginning marine aquarist should start with SPS (small-polyped scleractinian) corals under any circumstances. Spend time developing aquarium-keeping skills to avoid the needless sacrifice of demanding species.
Estimate of annual global trade ranging between 11 and 12 million pieces. Although difficulties associated with accurate coral identification probably make species data less reliable for corals than for fish, it is clear that species in seven genera (Trachyphyllia, Euphyllia, Goniopora, Acropora, Plerogyra, Catalaphyllia) are the most popular, accounting for approximately 56 per cent of the live coral trade between 1988 and 2002. Sixty-one species of soft coral are also traded, amounting to close to 390,000 pieces per year Sarcophyton spp. (leather mushroom toadstool coral) and Dendronephthya spp. (carnation coral) are two of the most commonly traded species. However, whilst the biology of the former makes it a hardy, fast-growing and easily propagated species under aquarium conditions, Dendronephthya spp. usually die within a few weeks, mainly due to the fact that they lack photosynthetic symbionts and rely on filtering particles and nutrients in the water column for food.
On the other hand, you may find this look too busy. You will aquascape for a calming effect. Use a dark substrate, a plain black background, minimal current, and shallow-water invertebrates such as mushroom corals and zoanthids. Choose a fish more laid-back in its behavior, a dwarf lionfish, perhaps. This design will appear more relaxed.
The taxonomy of false corals, also known as disc anemones, mushroom corals, or mushroom polyps in the aquarium trade, is in something of a shambles, and none of the names applied to them in the aquarium literature may be correct. This should pose few problems for you, however, since they all require the same basic care. Moderation in all things seems to suit them best. They prefer lower light levels and gentler currents than most of the sessile invertebrates kept in reef tanks.
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