Info

Become branched in the former, den Hartog (1980) mentions that Discosomafungiforme may be a Ricordea sp. and that he also found what he believed to be a Ricordea sp. in Singapore, possibly R. yuma. Natural Habitat In the Solomon Islands we found R. yuma in a calm, clear, green-water lagoon at about 15 metres (45 ft.) growing on intact Pavona cactus skeletons part of a reef slope built almost entirely by Pavona. This species is most commonly imported from Indonesia and Singapore. Aquarium Care...

Forams

Foraminiferans are primitive creatures closely related to amoeba. Unlike amoeba they build a calcareous home. Some forams are unattached and capable of crawling over the rocks, plants or sand. Many are sessile, attached to the rocks by the calcium carbonate they deposit. One common species on live rock is bright red, and it is often mistaken for a small colony of Tubipora, the pipe organ coral which has a skeleton with the same colour (see chapter 1). Homotrema forms small red burs and crusts...

Absorption

As we just mentioned, absorption of dissolved food and pre-orally digested material can occur through the surface of the anemone, but for large prey items digested in the coelenteron it occurs through phagocytosis via endodermal cells throughout the mesenteric filaments. Absorption occurs here for sugars and free amino acids liberated by the digestive process accomplished by extracellular protease enzymes. Pinocytosis and phagocytosis carry the extracellularly digested material into the cells...

Algal symbiosis

The symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae in certain species of anemones gives them a built-in source of food. These zooxanthellae are microscopic round golden brown single-celled organisms that live in the cells of the tentacles and oral disc of the anemone. The clownfish host anemones all possess zooxanthellae, as do most of the species covered in this book. Therefore they require light of sufficient intensity and spectral quality in order to maintain this...

Anemones

Sea anemones present several challenges for the collector. They are soft bodied so care must be used to avoid tearing the tissue when collecting them. They have the ability to contract rapidly, which may result in them disappearing into a crevice in the coral or a hole in the sand. Sand dwelling anemones are generally easiest to collect. They often attach to a small solid object such as a shell buried in the sand, and can be removed intact simply by excavating the sand. Anemones attached to...

Aquariums for Corallimorpharia

Corallimorphs are not very demanding regarding water quality or water motion. Therefore they may be maintained in the simplest possible aquaria. This combined with their attractive appearance makes them an excellent choice for novice aquarists. While they may be maintained in more sophisticated reef aquaria, corallimorphs can be grown quite well in old-style undergravel-filtered aquaria or in the modern natural systems employing live sand, rock, and little more than an airstone or water pump...

Asexual Reproduction

As mentioned in the previous section on reproduction, corallimor-pharians exhibit a variety of asexual reproduction methods. Although few studies have been performed to ascertain the frequency of asexual reproduction in corallimorpharians, Chen el al (1995a) did find that up to 25 of the polyps in colonies of Rhodactis indosinensis were in the process of asexual reproduction in the summer months. In aquaria, the rapid spread of corallimorphs, especially those in the zooxanthellate families...

Briamim 183188 262189184 190 261

Bristle worms 358, 417 Brittle Stars 434 Broccoli coral 193, 225, 229 Bromide 357 Brood pouches 114 Brown Jelly 317,443-444 Brown, 449 Bryopsis 436 Bubble corallimorph 338 Bubble tips 376-378 Bubble-Tip Anemone 378 Buddemeier 315 Budding in corallimorphs 80, 119-120, 372 Bulb-Tentacle Sea Anemone 378 Bulb-tip anemone 378, 392 ButterflyfLsh 358 Button Anemone 388 Button polyps 61, 299-300, 303 Cactus Gorgonian 281 Caja de Muertos 139 Calcinus californiensis 440 Calcinus laevimanus 441 Calcinus...

Budding

Budding of new polyps off the stalk of corallimorphs has been observed in Discosoma spp. and Amplexidiscus spp. This form of reproduction can be stimulated by an injury or tear in the stalk, but it also occurs spontaneously, independent of injury. It is most typical for very large polyps to employ this reproductive method. The resulting offspring may remain attached to the stalk or share the same pedal disc for months, it may twist and become severed from the parent, or the parent oral disc may...

Chemical Compounds

As we mentioned above, we were unable to find any reference to the presence of allelochemicals in corallimorphs. However, Hamner and Dunn (1980) observed that prey appeared to be narcotized within the sac Amplexidiscus fenestrafer forms to trap prey. Presumably the mucus released from the gastrovascular cavity into the oral cavity during feeding contains a toxic agent that immobilizes the prey. Miles (1991) also clid not observe mesenterial filaments within the sac formed by feeding D....

Classification

Corallimorpharians occur throughout the world and are found at all depths in temperate and tropical seas. However, they are a small order with only some forty to fifty species described (den Hartog, 1987). Corallimorphs are generally considered to be inter mediate in form between stony corals and sea anemones. Although they superficially resemble sea anemones in lacking a calcareous skeleton, anatomically they more closely resemble stony corals they lack basilar muscles, they may have tissue...

Colt Coral Alcyonium

Alcyonium can be propagated like Siriulaha, by cutting off branches with a scissors. The tricky part is to get the slippery cutting to attach to something. Several ways have been devised to achieve that end, but by far the best one is the use of cyanoacry-late glue. In our experience, severing really large branches is problematic in that they frequently suffer from bacterial infections. Once severed they flop over and secrete mucus, and may be lost in a few days. The treatment with antibiotics...

Deflated Flaccid Anemone

Anemones normally deflate on a rhythmic cycle of expansion and contraction, and this may send the aquarist into throws of alarm. Long term contraction is often but not always a sign of a problem, such as infection or predation by a bristle worm or fish. In Entac-maea quadricolor the process of asexual reproduction via longitudinal fission is preceded by several days of deflation followed by tearing of the oral disc through the mouth and then through the column. It is easy to appreciate why such...

Diet

Although anemones are opportunistic feeders, the majority of prey items captured are various types of crustaceans, due no doubt to the abundance and diversitv of crustaceans in their environment. Insects may even be taken occasionally (Ayre, 1984). Fish, worms, and algal fragments are among other prey items. Although gastropod molluscs are not common prey for most anemones, they are a major component of the diet of some sand dwelling anemones such as Heteractis main (Shick, 1991), and may be...

Extracellular Digestion

The role of mesenteric filaments of anemones in extracellular digestion was demonstrated by Nicol (1959) in Calliactis parasitica. Components of the food caused the filaments to release extracellular digestive enzymes. The filaments envelop the prey and thus concentrate the enzymes in a small volume right on the food mass. Digestion occurs at the interface of mesenterial filaments and food. Ishida (1936) believed slime aided extracellular digestion, and Krijgsman and Talbot (1953) observed a...

Family Parazoanthidae

'Acrozoanthus belongs to the family Zoanthidae, despite its externa similarity to Parazoanthus spp. and the fact that it is associated commensally with another organism. Its internal anatomy is like members of the family Zoanthidae, and it is a distinct, valid genus (J. S, Ryland, pers. comm.). We have incorrectly placed Acrozoanthus in Parazoanthidae but were unable to change this layout of the book before printing. It is likely that the following species, Yellow polyp also belongs to the...

Family Ricordeidae Watzl 1922

Body rather firm and flat, tentacles simple and short, w ith rounded, clavate or capitate tips, never with distinctly differentiated acrospheres (den Hartog, 1980). Tentacles arranged radially from the mouth, with up to twfenty tentacles in each row (den Hartog, 1980). The oral disc and tentacles cannot be completely withdrawn, just as in the Discosomatidae, but trumpeting is possible when light levels are inadequate. Genus Ricordea Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860 Due to their wide range of...

Filtration and Water Quality

Zoanthids are fairly tolerant of poor water quality. They are commonly found in turbid, so-called polluted areas in canals and harbours, as well as intertidal areas and on the reef. Poor water quality with high levels of nitrate, phosphate and dissolved organics cause other problems that can then indirectly affect zoanthid health. The most obvious of these is excessive algae growth. Cyanobacteria and hair algae can easily overgrow and smother zoanthids. Do not allow massive growths of...

Genus Corynactis All man 1846

Corynactis spp. are found in all the world's oceans. Their polyps tend to be somewhat smaller than the other genera but can cover wide areas of substratum due to their gregarious growth habit. They have numerous well-formed tentacles, the tips of which have well-developed acrospheres. Due to the presence of we 11-developed sphincter muscle Corynactis can easily withdraw its oral disc and tentacles enclosing itself within its body wall (den Hartog, 1980). Temperate species are the most common...

Genus Dendronephtbya

Dendronephthya is a widespread genus, w ith over 250 described species that occur throughout the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea (Williams, 1993). This genus is badly in need of revision so it is likely that the number of species will decrease. Colonies can be very tree-like in appearance with long slender branches. Some colonies have short branches with clusters of polyps at the ends in umbrella-like shapes while others can be more globular on the ends. These different forms have been described as...

Genus Pseudocotynactis den Hartog 1980

Pseiidocorynactis spp. are very beautiful, fairly large, coral-limorphs that are the favourite of underwater photographers the world over. The large, conspicuous, often brightly coloured acros-pheres of Pseudocotynactis catibbeorum are, unfortunately, only visible when the tentacles are extended at night. During the day the polyps are completely closed and retracted. The polyp base can be up to 4 cm in diameter. When fully expanded they are trumpet-shaped with the column differentiated into a...

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Natural Habitat Lives in shallow water with its tentacles brightly illuminated and its column shaded, with pedal disc attached to a rock in sand or gravel. Common on reef flats among rubble and sand. Aquarium Care Phymanthus spp. are among the most beautiful anemones and veiy easy to care for. They adapt to low light and intense light. Feed at least once per month. Feeding several times per week will enhance growth. This anemone is ideal in a reef aquarium too. It tends not to wander, and it is...

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Coeloplana extends its nearly invisible long delicate tentacles to trap food from the passing water J. C. Delbeek Often aquarists notice what appear to be long feather-like hairs floating in the aquarium. The hairs appear to retract and elongate sporadically. They collapse into a tangled ball and then unfurl into perfect order in mere seconds. These belong to the platyctene comb-jellyfish genus Coeloplana. These odd, flattened jellyfish resemble flatworms to the untrained eye. Some species are...

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Caribbean, one basically encrusting the other forming upright branches that have not encaisted over another gorgonian. The sheet or encrusting form has erroneously been given the name Erytbro-podium polyantbes Duchassaing and Michelotti (see Bayer, 1961). It is also possible that there is more than one encrusting species in the Caribbean as there are differences in the size and colour of polyps and pinnule development, as well as the thickness and consistency of the encrusting sheets (J....

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Reproduction Transverse fission is possible when artificially performed (J. Sprung, pers. obs.). Sexual reproduction is the only known means of reproduction in the wild. Spawning is most pronounced in spring but occurs throughout the year. Separate sexes typical, though hermaphrodites are known (Jennison, 1981). Not reported to reproduce in captivity. Scientific Name Entacmaea quadricolor(Riippell and Leuckart, 1828) Common Name Bubble-Tip Anemone, Bulb-tip anemone, Bulb-Tentacle Sea Anemone,...

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Scale bar is 0.2 mm. After Williams, 1993. Common Name Finger Leather, Soft finger Colour Whitish, gray, yellow, brown, green. many species with very different appearance. Some have fat branches, some have thin branches, some have no branches at all, forming thick encrusting sheets with raised lobes, some appear more like tree fungus (bracken). The characteristic that links them

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Natural Habitat Rare ciyptic inhabitant of Caribbean reefs. Found on the underside of ledges, growing on coralline algae or sponges. Usually occurs as a solitary polyp or at most just a few-polyps. A large group of clonemates colonizing a surface of several square feet or metres seldom occurs with this species, though sometimes they can be abundant in shallow seagrass beds. Aquarium Care Easy to care for, as with most Discosoma. Adapts to strong illumination but prefers moderate illumination....

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It is also possible for anemones to wander over the wall of an overflow drain, plug up the drain or sufficiently block the flow of water to cause an overfilling of the aquarium and a small flood on the floor. This is less likely than the powerhead accident, but it is possible. One can prevent this occurrence by either avoiding an overflow altogether in the design or by having the overflow located someplace where the anemone can't possibly wander (a real challenge ). One can also create a baffle...

Movement

In one of the few7 studies done on corallimorpharian locomotion Chadwick (1991) showed that the temperate coral limorph, Coryn-actis cal if o mica, could move up to 14 mm a month. Not a very rapid movement, but given enough time, colonies can cover wide areas. The slow rate of movement compared to other anthozoans such as sea anemones, should not come as a surprise since, unlike sea anemones, corallimorphs lack basal muscles, thereby severely limiting their ability to move laterally. No formal...

Nutrition

As in stony and soft corals, the role of zooxanthellae in zoanthid nutrition has created some debate, not only amongst scientists but also amongst aquarists. Zoanthids can obtain nutrition in a variety ways via the translocation of nutrients from zooxanthellae, from the capture of zooplankton, from the capture of detritus and by direct uptake of dissolved nutrients in sea water. Zooxanthellae have long been known as providers of nutrition to their coral partners, about this there is no debate....

Other Unsuitable Tankmates

We want to also mention that slow swimming fishes are also not very suitable tankmates with large clownfish host anemones, unless the aquarium is quite large, which would minimize potential contact with the anemone. In small aquaria, fish such as drag-onettes (Manclarinfish, Scooter Blenny), seahorses, pipefish, boxfish, pufferfish, and others are likely to be severely stung or eaten by the anemone. Also, if a fish is rare and a treasured pet, do not place an anemone in the same aquarium

Polyp anatomy

True sea anemones are solitary polyps. Many species reproduce asexually, resulting in large stands of adjacent clones, but these stands of identical individuals are not colonies in the strict sense because thev are not interconnected. The body of an anemone can be thought of as a hollow tube, closed at one end and open at the other, kind of like a sock. The major portion of the sea anemone is formed by the column, which has at its aboral end a flattened pedal disc for attaching to the...

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Perfect Saltwater Aquarium

Tentacles are similar in appearance to the vessicles on the pseudo-tentacles of Lebrunia danae, and small C. lucida may be confused with Lebrunia. Natural Habitat On Caribbean reefs. May be found expanding from a hole in solid reef or from a hole in sand or gravel at the base of the reef, with the pedal disk attached to the reef or a large solid rock. Difficult to collect because the pedal disk is most often deeply buried in the rock or sand. Several symbiotic or commensal shrimp species may be...

Scientific Name Paraiemnalia sp

Colour Gray, brown, sometimes greenish Distinguishing Characteristics Paraiemnalia spp. form encrusting mats with digitate branches that bear retractile OR contractile polyps. Two forms are common, one with branches as wide as a finger, the other with much finer branches. There are about five species, with some intermediate in appearance. Gosliner el at (1996) call the thicker branched one Paraiemnalia cf. clavata and the fine branched one P. cf. thyrisoides, though it is impossible to identify...

Scientific Name Pseudopterogorgia spp

Common Name Sea plume, Feather Gorgonian, Purple Frilly Colour Gray, brown, purple, yellow Distinguishing Characteristics Sea plumes are most often shaped like feathers, or groups of feathers, but there are a few-species (seldom available to hobbyists) that do not have this shape. The most common species available to hobbyists are P. americana, P. acerosa, and P. elisabethae. Pale to deep purple with brown polyps is the usual colour. Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae,, the so-called Purple Frilly...

Scientific Name Undescribed possibly new genus or Parazoanthus or Acrozoanthus sp

Common Name Yellow Polyps, YellowT Encrusting Anemones, Bali-poly p, Pa razoa n th us g rac ilis * This name has been in common use in the aquarium literature but is not the correct scientific name for this species (Fossa and Nilsen, 1995). Therefore we have listed it as one of the common names. Distinguishing Features Polyps with zooxanthellae. Overall quite similar to those of Acrozoanthus and Parazoanthus. They are slightly smaller than Acrozoanthus and are not associated with the tubes of...

Specialized Structures

In 1976, while observing photos taken of Discosoma (Rhodactis) sanctithomae in Curacao in 1973, J.C. clen Hartog noticed that stony corals adjacent to Discosoma colonies showed necrotic areas and that the corallimorphs possessed odd looking white vesicles on the tips of their marginal tentacles. Upon closer examination of preserved specimens he found that the swollen tips of these tentacles contained larger and more numerous homotrich nematocysts than normal marginal tentacles, and postulated...

Tankmates

Corallimorphs are compatible with many types of fish and invertebrates. Amplexidiscus fenestrafer is an exception since it traps and eats fish. Pseudocorynactis from the Indo-Pacific are also quite capable of snaring small fish with their sticky tentacles. Angelfish and butterflyfish may nip at or eat certain corallimorphs. Bristle worms also will eat corallimorphs, usually at night. Most corallimorphs will sting and injure or kill stony corals. Some are killed by stony corals, however (see...

Translocation

We mentioned that the ectoderm is partially isolated from the endoderm by mesoglea, and that absorption of dissolved food over the surface of the anemone is an important source of nutrition for the ectoderm. In fact some of the products of digestion of large prey taken into the in coelenteron do migrate across the mesoglea to supply nutrition to the ectodermal cells. The products The zooxanthellae are clearly visible inside this young Entacmaea quadricolor that was spawned and reared in...

Transverse Fission

This method is common in Discosoma spp, and it results in short distance transport of the offspring. Transverse fission increases in frequency when the colony becomes crowded as a result of offspring produced by budding and pedal laceration. When crowded, some of the polyps extend their columns into long stalks that cause the oral disc to project upwards into the water current. The currents tend to cause the oral disc to turn and twist, forming a pinched point in the stalk. Within a few days...

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The molecular oxygen produced is not so problematic. When the anemone is illuminated by high intensity light, the energetic UV wavelengths in the presence of photosensitizing agents such as chlorophyll and flavins act synergistically to produce singlet oxygen and the superoxide radical (0 ), which is very reactive and readily forms hydrogen peroxide H7O2 (Shick, 1991). If you've ever poured hydrogen peroxide on a cut or put it in your hair you know it is also very reactive, and not something...

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This large specimen of Stichodactyla mertensii was releasing great plumes of sperm during a coral mass spawning event after the November full moon in the Solomon Islands. Divers observing the anemone shined their underwater lights on it, which seemed to stimulate the anemone to erupt Photo Julian Sprung Spawning usually begins with male anemones releasing sperm into the water. The sperm exits via the mouth usually, but depending on the species of anemone it may also be released from the tips of...

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Perfect Hermit Crab Habitat

Hermit crabs have long been known to associate with anemones. The anemones are attached to the shell in which the hermit crab dwells, providing protection to the crab. In return the anemone has a safe substrate that moves to new sources of food as the hermit crab scavenges (hermit crabs are messy eaters), but stays in a habitat within suitable parameters for the anemone's survival. Calliactis species are well known anemones that associate with hermit crabs. When they move into a new, larger...

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Aquarium Care Although this species has brown polyps, it does not contain symbiotic zooxanthellae, so it does not need light. Do not place it on rock. Inexperienced aquarists often make this mistake, and the Studeriotes then flops over and rapidly dies. It should be placed on the bottom in a thick sand or gravel layer where it will anchor itself with root-like tendrils. It will expand the polyparium and polyps when it receives strong water currents. Feed with Artemia nauplii, Daphnia, or...

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After Bayer, 1973 The two unidentified stoloniferans on this page may be Comularia spp. This genus is characterized by very small polyps connected by stolons, with no sclerites. Polyps and stolons are protected by a horny perisarc. Phil Alderslade, based on examined specimens, advised us that these two stoloniferans are probably Cerveraspp., which have been confused with Comularia. Similar Species Similar to Clavularia but much smaller. There is another similar...

S imilar Species Ep izoa n th us spp

Natural Habitat Found encrusting other organisms such as sponges, hydroids and gorgonians. Aquarium Care Must be fed a diet of zooplankton, or a plankton substitute such as powdered flake food, baby brine shrimp, Daphnia, pureed shrimp, crab, or fish meat. Reproduction Presumably asexual reproduction is by extension of the membranous sheath and budding. Little is known about Parazoanthus sp. growing on a sponge. J. Sprung Parazoanthus axinelliae from the Mediterranean Sea. One of the few...

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The Blue Coral, Heliopora coerulea has a dense stony carbonate and embedded iron salts which give it a blue colour. The live animal is brown, and has tiny eight-tentacled polyps which identify it as a type of octocorallia. It is therefore a soft coral with a hard skeleton. J. Sprung Soft corals of the genus Dendronephthya are what typically comes to mind for most people when they hear the description soft coral. These soft-bodied colonies have sharp spiny sclerites that give them a tough...

Fun Facts Of Zoanthus

Parazoanthus sp. growing over a hydroid in the Solomon Islands. J. Sprung Prolific asexual reproduction results in the typical compact growth form of these Zoanthus spp. photographed in an aquarum. J. C. Delbeek genus. It is not uncommon to find colonies several meters in diameter on reef flats these can sometimes even he formed by hundreds of clones of a single polyp (Mather and Bennett, 1993). Extensive growths of Zoanthus spp. for example, are often found along shorelines, literally covering...

Discharge of Cnidae

The capture of prey by anemones usually involves the use of cnidae to seize the prey. In most anemones thus far studied the cnidome (complement of cnidae) consists of only three types spirocysts that are glutinant and hold the prey microbasic p-mastigophores that penetrate and capture the prey and b-mastigophores that are used both to penetrate and capture the prey and for defense (Shick, 1991 Mariscal, 1974b). Toxins injected into the prey also help to immobilize it. The discharge of...

Trace Elements

The importance of trace elements to the health of sea anemones is recognized but far from well-understood. The function of the different elements can be related to pigment formation and the metabolism of the symbiotic zooxanthellae, but it can also be important for growth and tissue repair of the host anemone. Aquarists have noted positive effects from the addition of trace quantities of iodide, bromide, copper, and zinc, for example, which are included in the ingredients of many commercially...

Scientific Name Macrodactyla doreensis Quoy And Gaimard 1833

Common Name Corkscrew Anemone, Sebae Anemone, Sand Anemone, Long Tentacle Anemone (L.T.A), Red Base Anemone, Long Tentacle Red Based Anemone, Purple Long Tentacle Anemone Colour Many colours and patterns. Brown, green, gray, blue, or Purple. Often with radiating stripes on oral disc extending onto tentacles. Column is usually reddish orange with distinctive white verrucae. Distinguishing Characteristics Tentacles sparse, more concentrated toward the periphery so that oral disc is clearly...

Sexual Reproduction

Records of sexual reproduction in corallimorpharia are not common in the scientific literature. Most deal only with observa- tions of the presence of gonads or gametes in collected specimens (e .g. den Hartog, 1980, 1987 Dunn and Hamner, 1980). Only two studies have investigated sexual reproduction in coralfimorphar-ians, Holts and Beauchamp's 1993 paper on Corynactis califor-nica and Chen et al.1 s 1995a paper on Rhodactis indosinensis. Corynactis californica has been shown to be gonochoristic...

Shrinking

Anemones that do not receive adequate light to maintain their populations of symbiotic zooxanthellae that provide them with much of their nutrition usually shrink gradually. The shrinking involves consumption of tissues as a means of making up for the deficit in energy7 from the zooxanthellae. If an anemone is shrinking, increase the light intensity and feed the anemone at least once per week to promote growth. Try a variety of foods. If the anemone refuses food do not try to force feed it....

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Similar Species Condylactis develop bubble tipped tentacles and so may be confused with Entacmaea quadricolor. Young specimens with beaded tentacles look like H. aurora or B. annulata. Natural Habitat Common among Halimeda opuntia algae in shallow seagrass (Tbalassia testudinum) beds in Florida and the Caribbean. Also found along rocky shores imbedded in rock crevices and on reefs in sand or on rock. Aquarium Care Easily cared for when given sufficient light. Can be maintained with a few...

Bacterial Infections In Gigantea Anemones

Of the disc, and usually has a more folded disc shape, though that is highly variable depending on illumination. The tentades of some specimens of S. haddoni do move like those of S. gigantea when illuminated strongly. It is possible that S. gigantea hybridizes with S. haddoni. Natural Habitat In shallow lagoon environments on rock or in sand or mud, with strong illumination. Sometimes abundant on inteitidal mudflats. At low tide they experience stagnant conditions and may even be partly...

Scientific Name Ricordea florida Duchassaing and Michelotti 1860

Common Name Ricordea, Florida False Coral Colour Green, blue, brown, gray, fluorescent orange, pink, copper, yellow, and combinations of these colours. Distinguishing Characteristics Tentacles with rounded or clavate tips look like small berries arranged in a radial pattern over the surface of the oral disc. Tentacles never have distinctly differentiated acrospheres at tips nor pimple-like projections off of the tentacles. Marginal tentacles often more elongate than discal tentacles. Firm...

Uptake of Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Matter

We just mentioned that the host anemone may eat the clown-fishes' solid waste. The clownfish also provide an on-site source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (via ammonium excreted from the gills), and this benefits the symbiotic zooxanthellae. Of course the vast quantity of water passing over an anemone carries with it small quantities of dissolved inorganic nutrients, so with proper water flow an anemone has all the food it needs brought right to it. Anemones capture organic matter as well and...

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Spp. nudibranchs have a shape that is quite similar to the shape of Convolutriloba retrogemma. The flatworm and the nudibranch both I ave tails ' and the shape of the head and overall silhouette is the same. A possible origin of this evolution of similar shape we will discuss shortly. Good candidates to try for flatw orm control include Chelidonura electra, C. inornata, C. amoena, C. castanea, C. flavolohata, C. fuIv punctata, C. livida, C. hirun-dinina, Cpunctata, C. sandrana, C. tsurugensis,...

The Identification and Care of Soft Corals

The eight tentacled cnidaria encompass a broad range of forms that captivate the observer with their movement and palette of colour. While a handful of scientists attempt to classify them, which is no easy task, others are analyzing them for natural products chemistry in the search for new medicines see chapter one . Meanwhile aquarists have been growing the lovely soft corals of the tropical reefs at home in miniature reef aquariums where they thrive just like flowering plants in a garden, To...

Water Motion

As with most sessile invertebrates, zoanthids rely on water motion to bring food and dissolved substances to them and to rid themselves of wastes. Moderate water motion with the occasional strong burst are appreciated by zoanthids. Good water motion will also encourage faster growth ol the colony. Finally, good water motion will prevent the accumulation of detritus between the polyps. If detritus and sand are allowed to accumulate between the A colony of brillant green polyps, undesirable algae...

Scientific Name Pseiidocorynactis caribbeorum den Hartog 1980

Colour Column brown, orange, or reel, often mottled. Tentacles clear and nearly colorless except for the ball-like tips which are typically orange, sometimes white. Oral disc often spotted with white markings. Distinguishing Characteristics Inconspicuous during the daytime because it remains closed. At night this corallimorph opens to become an exquisite starburst of colour, with bright orange balls held erect out from the oral disc. Similar Species Most similar to some species of Corallimorph...

Scientific Name Pacifigorgia spp

Common Name Red Sea Fan, Panamic Sea Fan Colour Red, orange, brown with whitish polyps. Distinguishing Characteristics Growth in one plane. Reddish colour, stiff horny skeleton, white or clear polyps. Not photosyn-thetic. Three species are available occasionally. Two of them are shown here. Described species include P. adamsii and P. Irene. Similar Species There are numerous other bright red sea fans in the Indo-Pacific with whitish polyps. Natural Habitat Rock walls in areas with surge along...

Sea Stars

There are several species of very tiny sea stars Asterina spp. that proliferate vegetatively in reef aquaria. They divide spontaneously and the severed parts regenerate the missing legs quickly. In our experience these sea stars are generally harmless, but we have seen one species eat small polyped stony corals, while another species seems to eat coralline algae. Most species are scavengers that eat detritus. Because of the possibility that some species eat corals we view these sea stars with...

Temperature

The metabolic functions of sea anemones work within a range of temperatures. Exposure to temperatures beyond this range will injure or kill the anemone in a very short period of time. In this book we describe the tropical sea anemones commonly kept in aquaria, but we have also included a couple of subtropical temperate species because they sometimes end up for sale to aquarists keeping tropical aquariums. In general, tropical species suffer if the temperature falls below 20 C 68 F or rises...

Asexual reproduction Stich odact j ia

Mertensii and S. gigantea 123 Atlantic Anemone 376 Atlantic beaded anemone 372 Atlantic Carpet Anemone 404 ATP 106 Aurora Anemone 388 Autotomy 119 Autozooids 24-25 Autozooids, 251 B-rhabdoids 104 Bacteria that attack and kill anemones 359 Bacterial infection 363 Baeolidia nodosa 427 Bali-polyp 307 Bartholomea annulata 371 budding in 372 Basal laceration 118 Basitrichs 104 Beaded Sea Anemone 388 Berghia 371, 426-427 Berthelinia 437 Bilateral symmetry 100 Bingman, Craig 444 Biology of Soft Corals...

Scientific Name Bartholomea annulata

Colour Clear brown, gray, or pale blue with white bands on tentacles. Distinguishing Characteristics Long stringy, often curly tentacles with pale bands on them. Similar Species Similar to Aiptasia but grows larger and has distinctively longer tentacles with numerous swollen bands. Also could be confused with Capnea lucida, which has bead-like vessicles on the tentacles. Natural Habitat Lives in mud, sand or gravel in shallow water, often in large numbers. Also found attached to the underside...

Scientific Name Briareum asbestinum

Common Name Corky Sea Fingers, Encrusting Gorgonian, Briareum Distinguishing Characteristics Briareum is a beautiful soft coral from the Caribbean that may form flat crusts, knobby crusts, upright branches like a gorgonian but without a horny skeleton, or it may encrust and kill other gorgonians, using the skeleton for support. The appearance is similar to the star polyps from the Indo Pacific, see earlier comments on the re-classification of these. The polyps, which often have a white streak...

Purchasing Healthy Specimens

When acquiring zoanthids there are a few things one should be on the look-out for. Avoid any colonies that have polyps with brown, jelly-like masses on them. This is a protozoan infection that can rapidly spread throughout an aquarium see volume one . Zoanthids with this condition have usually been weakened in some way, making them susceptible to infection. The polyps themselves should be open and brightly coloured with no bleaching evident. If the polyps are dark brown in colour and lack...

Predators Pests Commensals And Good Guys

Reef Pest Snails

Aquarists often wonder whether a new creature they observe is a beneficial organism or a potential trouble maker. In this chapter we want to provide a broad overview of some of the creatures that make reef keeping difficult, some that make it easy, and some that just make reef keeping interesting. Reef aquarists know that certain types of polychaete worms can wreak havoc on other invertebrates. We discuss two particularly nasty worms here, and refer the reader to volume one for additional...

Xi11

Malcom Shick, University of Maine, for supporting our work and for sharing his extensive reference list of publications about anemones Terry Siegel for sharing his ideas, speculations as well as networking skill, and for his photographs of Plexaurella reproducing and the strange Sinu-laria that forms hard twigs yes it really did make them Elliot Sprung for his expertise with Photoshop, patience and perfectionism. This book would not have been possible to complete without your effort and...

Heterodactyla Hemprichii

Heteractis Malu

This large H. malu photographed on a reef slope in the Solomon Islands has elongate tentacles with corkscrew shape, which makes it really look a lot like Macrodactyla doreensis. J. Sprung Another H. malu with long tentacles that make it closely resemble Macrodactyla doreensis. J. Sprung

The Identification and Care of Anemones Kept in Aquariums

Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa Subclass Hexacorallia Genera Arach nan thus, Anthoactis, Cerianthus, and Pachyceri-anthus are tropical genera Common Name Tube anemone, Cerianthus anemone Colour Brown, purple, green, pink, blue Distinguishing Characteristics Lives in soft grayish tube partially buried in the sand or mud bottom. The tube is made from fired nematocysts. Short tentacles around the mouth. Long tapering tentacles on rest of oral disc. Often has commensal phoronid worms on tube....

Scientific Name Phyllodiscus semoni Kwietniewski 1897

Colour Mottled brown green and lavender with white column and tentacles. The overall colour of the anemone is dark greenish brown because of the mass of finelv branched vessicles. Distinguishing Characteristics Looks like a clump of dark seaweed. White tentacles and column are hidden by a distinctive mass of dark, highly branched vesicles containing symbiotic algae True tentacles emerge at night when the anemone feeds. Similar Species Resembles Actinodendron. The night vs. day extension of...

Scientific Name Pseudocorynactis sp

Common Name White Ball Anemone, Orange Ball Anemone, Fiji Corallimorph Colour Column red orange, maroon, or brown, having clear slightly pigmented tentacles with white tips or orange tips. Distinguishing Characteristics Largest of the family Coral-limorphidae. Pedal disc to at least 10 cm. Oral disc to at least 10 cm with tentacle span to at least 20 cm. Tentacles numerous with ball tips. Tentacles expanded both day and night. Column thick but soft. Tentacles EXTREMELY sticky. Similar Species...

Scientific Name Discosoma Paradiscosoma neglecta Duchassaing and Michelotti 1860

Colour Green or brown with darker and lighter mottling Distinguishing Characteristics Large projecting tongues at edge of oral disc. Small papillae on oral disc. Disc diameter to 11 cm. Disc may lay flat against rock or cup up by folding up the edge of the oral disc. Similar Species Most similar to D. carlgreni, but differs from it primarily on the basis of D. carlgreni having larger tentacles on the oral disc while D. neglecta has larger tongues projecting from the margin of the disc....

Nephtheids

Nephthea and Capnella species readily reproduce by dropping daughter colonies formed by natural separation of branch tips. Given strong light and water motion these colonies rapidly grow and produce offspring with little intervention required. The aquarist may speed up the process by cutting branches with a scissors. The cuttings may be attached to small stones or dead coral branches with cyanoacrylate gel. Star Polyps, Clove Polyps and Anthelia These soft corals grow like algae, rapidly...

Scientific Name Swiftia exserta

Common Name Orange Sea Fan, Soft Red Sea Fan, Orange Tree Colour Orange with red polyps Distinguishing Characteristics Bushy large gorgonian, sometimes fan shaped but with loose branches. Large red polyps are distinctive. Natural Habitat Caribbean. Medium depth to deep reefs with high profile, deepwater hardbottoms, and on deep shipwrecks. Not usually found shallower than 17 m 50 feet . Occurs in clear or slightly turbid water with strong current. Aquarium Care Not very hardy in captivity but...

Adaptations Of Animals

Invertebrates Stone and False Corals, Colonial Anemones. Engel-bert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal, germany, 134 pp. Wilkerson, F. P., Muller-Parker, G. and Muscatine, L. 1983 Temporal patterns of cell division in natural populations of endosymbiotic algae. Limnol. Oceanogr28, 1009-1014. Wilkerson. F. P. and Muscatine, L. 1984 Uptake and assimilation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by a symbiotic sea anemone. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, 221, 71-86. Wilkerson, F. P. and Trench, R. K....

Lebrunia Coralligens

Lebrunia coralligens in its typical habitat imbedded in coral P. Humann adapted to indirect light and will retract from intense direct illumination. This anemone has a potent sting that aquarists should be wary of. It also may wander and injure corals in an aquarium, so we do not recommend it for a reef aquarium with prized specimens that could be injued or lost. It is not entirely out of the question to include it in a reef aquarium, but use caution Reproduction Pedal laceration and...

Family Alcyoniidae Lamouroux 1812

The family Alcyoniidae includes soft corals in which the polyps are contained in fleshy, membranous, or lobed masses. Polyps are dimorphic in some genera and monomorphic in others, and they are mostly evenly distributed, though they may be confined to a polyparium or capitulum that is separate from a polypless stalk. There are approximately twenty genera worldwide. See chapter one for more information on colony organization and shapes. Formerly known as Cladiella in aquarium literature....

Pseudopterogorgia Elizabethae

External Fertilization

Gorgonians are predominantly arborescent in nature, though a few single unbranched stem species do occur they are subdivided into two main groupings determined by the nature of their central supporting structure. In the Scleraxonia this is called an axis and in the Holaxonia, the central core. This structure is a product of the coenenchyme, and as such is produced by the colony, not the polyps. The Scleraxonia have a central axis composed of horny material called gorgonin, and usually, fused...

Oye

Chelidonura Varians

Chelidonura varians approaching the flatworm Convolutriloba. J. Sprung In the blink of an eye Chelidonura varians slurps up the flatworm. J. Sprung We regret to report that Chelidonura varians are not very long lived. We have seen them lay nests of eggs, which they spin like a cocoon, but we have not been able to raise any young. It is possible that one or more of the numerous species in this genus would exhibit better survival in captivity, or that a captive culture effort could be made to...

How To Acclimate An Anemone

The hybrid clownfish known as Amphiprion leucokranos, here living among the tentacles of Heter-actis crispa in a bed of encrusting soft coral, Sinularia sp. Fish with A. leucokranos characteristics are produced by crosses between Amphiprion chrysopterus and either A sandaracinos or A. perid-eraion. This fish is likely the offspring of a cross between Amphiprion chrysopterus and A. sandaracinos. This specimen is unusual because it has a complete headbar, an uncommon feature that makes it look...

Genus Capnella

Colonies are arborescent but some species may also be lobed. The lobes tend to be crowded with incurved polyps Mather and Bennett, 1993 . Sclerites on the interior are often globular, while those on the exterior of the branches and stalk tend to be shorter capstans, consisting of two distinct paits. There is an externally projecting, leaflike part and a more spindle-like basal portion that may or may not have high warts or root-like outgrowths Verseveldt, 1977 . There are currently 17 species...

Zoanthus Sociatus

Colour Brown usually, often with green oral disc. Sometimes mostly green, sometimes with white marbling or white stripes. The shade of brown ranges from straw colored to chocolate, often with slight reddish hue like cinnamon. Distinguishing Features Gigantic polyps compared to other members of the genus. Polyps to at least 5 cm 2 in. diameter. Otherwise quite like other members of the genus. Similar Species Protopalythoa variabilis from the Caribbean wlien found in deep water may resemble this...

What Are Mesenterial Filaments

The different types, suffice it to say that some are specialized for capturing food items e.g. spirocysts while others play defensive or aggressive roles e.g. homotrichs see den Hartog, 1980, for a complete description of the various types . Nematocysts can be found in tentacles, the swollen tips of tentacles acrospheres , the mesenterial filaments and the body column, and are used as taxo-nomic characters for identification purposes see den Hartog, 1980 . Figure 3.2 Some types of nematocysts...

Scientific Name Heteractis aurora

Common Name Sand Anemone, Beaded Sea Anemone, Mat Anemone, Aurora Anemone, Button Anemone Colour Usually grayish white with white banding on the central part of the oral disc around the mouth. Sometimes greenish, rarely purple. Distinguishing Characteristics Beaded tentacles. Heteractis aurora seldom contains large adult clownfish or sexually mature pairs. It is thus termed a nursery anemone Fautin and Allen, 1992 . Similar Species Quite similar to Phymantbus species, which also have beaded...

Similar Species Parazoanthus spp

Natural Habitat Epizoantbus spp. are found in close association with sponges, hydroids and pagurid crabs. Several species are found growing witliin the body wall of hexactinellid sponges, encrusting hydroids and covering the carapace of deep water pagurid crabs. The zoanthids cover the carapace of the crab, eventually dissolving it awray, completely enclosing the crab, a condition knowrn as carcinoecium Hyman, 1940 . Not all species are exclusively associated with a host sponge or other...

Defensive and other notable structures Acontia and mesenterial filaments

We just mentioned that these thread-like processes, which serve primarily a digestive function, can also be used for defense against predators or other anemones encroaching on the territory. The extrusion of these whitish threads through the mouth or column wrall of an anemone is usually a sign of physical distubance such as rough handling, excessive wrater flow, inadequate water flow, or stinging by a neighboring invertebrate, for example. It can also be a sign that something is wrong about...

Heteractis Magnifica

A lovely pale green H. magnifica with Amphiprion perideraion. clownfish such as A. chrysopterus with it. The anemone requires less food when clownfish are present. With inadequate lighting this anemone shrinks and eventually dies. Reproduction Asexual reproduction is occasional in the natural environment J. Sprung, pers. obs. and probably occurs by longitudinal fission. Sexual reproduction not reported in captivity. Scientific Name Heteractis magnifica Quoy and Gaimard, 1833 Common Name...

Scientific Name Thalassianthus aster

Common Name None Colour Grayish white Distinguishing Characteristics Looks like a cluster of soft coral polyps, like Anthelia, Xenici or Cluvuluria. Natural Habitat Reef flats or back reef margins among rock rubble. Aquarium Care Strong light and water motion. This is a pest species that can be difficult to eradicate. It stings and kills many coral species. Nevertheless it is a beautiful anemone, worthy of a small display by itself. Reproduction Asexual reproduction is typical, via longitudinal...

Scientific Name Palythoa spp

Colour Golden brown, to cream, polyps often darker, will darken in aquaria with inadequate lighting. Sometimes with fluorescent green or yellow tentacles. Distinguishing Features Thick encrusting growth coenenchyma embedded with sand grains polyps open during the day and night zooxanthellate single sphincter muscle few mesenteries 15-20 mesenteries not mesh-like Mather and Bennett, 1993 . Palythoa mammillosa forms thicker, more cushion-like growths than the other species.

Scientific Name Eunicea spy

Colour Usually pale gray with gray or brown polyps, but may be tan, yellow, or rarely, purple. Distinguishing Characteristics Sclerites in the axial sheath are mostly spindles, or blunt spindles and capstans, the latter being more typical of thicker branches and the main stem. These sclerites are often purple, sometimes violet or nearly colourless. Eunicea species usually have characteristic knobby projections for calyces that afford an Acropora- ike appearance w hen the polyps are closed....

Scientific Name Cavernularia obesa

Colour Brown or light tan with white tipped polyps. Sclerites of Cavernularia. Scale bar is 0.05 mm. After Williams, 1993. Distinguishing Characteristics Soft clavate club shaped colony. Primary polyp forms a muscular peduncle, like the column and foot of a sea anemone, which buries and anchors the coral in the substrate. The upper portion of the primary polyp forms a reduced axis. Secondary polyps are arranged around the entire length of the primary polyp. Sclerites are usually smooth needles...

Scientific Name Rhodactis cf inchoata Carlgren 1943

Common Name Hairy Mushroom Anemone, Tonga Blue Mushroom Colour Blue, turquoise, purple, rusty red-orange. Distinguishing Characteristics In large polyps the tentacles on the oral disc are highly branched and look like stony coral polyps. A distinct type of tentacle at the disc margin forms a row of toes This species does not have a naked margin, but it sometimes curls the margin underneath the oral disc so that the tentacles are not apparent. Similar Species lliere are several related species...

Family Anthothelidae

Scientific Name Diodogorgia nodulifera Common Name Finger Sea Fan. Yellow Finger, Red Finger Colour Two colour morphs. One is bright orange-yellow with red calyces and white polyps. The other is deep red with red calyces and white polyps. Distinguishing Characteristics Brittle breaks easily. Does not grow very large, usually about 10 cm 4 in tall, up to 25 cm 10 in , and generally not more than 25 cm 10 in across. The sclerites on the interior are reddish. Not photosynthetic. Similar Species...

Scientific Name Lobophytum spy

Sclerites of Lobophytum, Scale bar is 0.2 mm. After Williams, 1993. Common Name Devil s hand, finger leather, Lobophyton Please note that the correct spelling of the genus is Lobophytum. Aquarists often confuse the spelling, changing the ending urn to on because of the spelling of the closely related Sarcophyton. Colour Pale brown or gray with white tentacled polyps. Occasionally yellow or greenish. Distinguishing Characteristics This genus is very closely related to Sarcophyton, and some...

Scientific Name Scleronephthya sp

Pink Orange cauliflower Colour Pink, orange, yellow, red Distinguishing Characteristics Contracted colonies can have a rather fleshy and lobular appearance with short stalks from which the branches extend. When expanded it is obvious that the polyps Scleronephthya sp. J. C. Delbeek Scleronephthya sp. J. C. Delbeek Scleronephthya sp. Note the sclerites. A. Storace

Plexaurella Dichotoma

Plexaurella Dichotoma

J. Sprung Two quite different species of Plexaurella. The lower specimen has round pores like Pseudoplex-aura, but it does not have purple sclerites inside. J. Sprung Closeup of Plexaurella, showing the typical slit-pore-like calyces J. Sprung Common Name Corky sea fingers, Slit-pore sea rod Colour Light brown, almost yellow, with darker brown polyps. Distinguishing Characteristics Plexaurella species have a corky appearance when the polyps are retracted. P....

Scientific Name Chironephthya sy

Common Name among aquarists Dendronephthya Colour Pink, purple, red, yellow, orange. Distinguishing Characteristics Branchy soft corals with appearance somewhere between gorgonians and Dendronephthya, with brightly colored spicules and polyps. In some species drooping branches arise from an upright stalk, in others the entire colony is upright Gosliner, et a ., 1996 . The branches tend to be rather stout and end abruptly, there is no tapering off as in other soft corals. The polyps are located...