peristome - mouth, region around the mouth.

phagocytosis - intake of small particles of food via invagination of the surface of the cell. See pinocytosis. pharynx - see acti no pharynx.

pinocytosis - intake of dissolved matter by cells via formation of invaginations on their surface that seal off to become liquid-filled bubble-like vesicles called vacuoles within the cell. The vacuole membrane then disintegrates, releasing the engulfed material in the cytoplasm (cytosol) of the cell. When this process involves the intake of solid food via invagination of the surface of the cell it is called phagcxytosis.

pinnules - lateral branches on the tentacles of a polyp that give it a feather-like appearance.

polyparium - see capitulum.

protandry (protandric) - a type of hermaphroditism in which the individual is a functional male first, then develops into a functional female.

rachis - the upper polyp-bearing region of a pennatulacean (sea pen ).

retractile - the state in which a polyp can be withdrawn into a calyx, the polyparium, the cortex or the rachis.

scapus - the body column of a corallimorpharian.

scapulus - the upper part of a corallimorpharian including the oral disc.

sclerite - spicule made of calcium carbonate imbedded in the tissue of most soft corals (octocorallia). Part of the skeletal/structural support element in soft corals.

septum - a section of tissue separating two spaces.

siphonoglyph (sulcus) - a ciliated longitudinal groove at one or both ends of the slit-shaped mouth of a sea anemone. The function of the siphonoglyph is to provide circulation of water into the gastrovascular cavity. This assists gas exchange and maintains the internal fluid volume, which helps, along with the muscular system, to maintain the hydrostatic skeleton.

siphonozooid - the smaller less conspicuous polyp in dimorphic octocorals; responsible for driving water currents through large, fleshv octocora 1 s.

j solenia - see gastrodermal tube sphincter - circular muscle that can be used to open or close the mouth.

spicule - skeletal element in soft corals composed of calcium carbonate. In sponges similar skeletal elements may be composed of silicon dioxide.

spirocyst - stinging cells or cnidae that have the distinction of being non-penetrating and glutinant.

stolon - ribbon or root-like growth extensions that adhere to the substrate and link the polyps in Stoloniferan soft corals such as Clavularia spp.

stoloniferous - octocorals that have the polyps linked on rootlike growth extensions that adhere to the substrate.

sulcal - the side of the gastrovascular cavity closest to the siphonoglyph (sulcus) (see also asulcus).

supporting bundle - what appears to be a shield, cup or sheath below an individual anthocodia, composed of one or a few large sclerites. Typical of nephtheidae and also of Muricea spp. gorgonians.

terpene - Organic compound found in the volatile essential oils, having a strong odor. Manufactured by soft corals to discourage predation.

tubercles - wart-like projections on sclerites.

umbellate - shaped like an umbrella.

vegetative (somatic) embryogenesis - formation of embryos internally from pieces of somatic tissue.

viviparous - fertilization and development takes place inside female, nutrition of the larvae provided by the parent, and the developed offspring are released.

Anemonia Sulcata Pagurus

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The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The word aquarium originates from the ancient Latin language, aqua meaning water and the suffix rium meaning place or building. Aquariums are beautiful and look good anywhere! Home aquariums are becoming more and more popular, it is a hobby that many people are flocking too and fish shops are on the rise. Fish are generally easy to keep although do they need quite a bit of attention. Puppies and kittens were the typical pet but now fish are becoming more and more frequent in house holds. In recent years fish shops have noticed a great increase in the rise of people wanting to purchase aquariums and fish, the boom has been great for local shops as the fish industry hasnt been such a great industry before now.

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