peristome - mouth, region around the mouth.

phagocytosis - intake of small particles of food via invagination of the surface of the cell. See pinocytosis. pharynx - see acti no pharynx.

pinocytosis - intake of dissolved matter by cells via formation of invaginations on their surface that seal off to become liquid-filled bubble-like vesicles called vacuoles within the cell. The vacuole membrane then disintegrates, releasing the engulfed material in the cytoplasm (cytosol) of the cell. When this process involves the intake of solid food via invagination of the surface of the cell it is called phagcxytosis.

pinnules - lateral branches on the tentacles of a polyp that give it a feather-like appearance.

polyparium - see capitulum.

protandry (protandric) - a type of hermaphroditism in which the individual is a functional male first, then develops into a functional female.

rachis - the upper polyp-bearing region of a pennatulacean (sea pen ).

retractile - the state in which a polyp can be withdrawn into a calyx, the polyparium, the cortex or the rachis.

scapus - the body column of a corallimorpharian.

scapulus - the upper part of a corallimorpharian including the oral disc.

sclerite - spicule made of calcium carbonate imbedded in the tissue of most soft corals (octocorallia). Part of the skeletal/structural support element in soft corals.

septum - a section of tissue separating two spaces.

siphonoglyph (sulcus) - a ciliated longitudinal groove at one or both ends of the slit-shaped mouth of a sea anemone. The function of the siphonoglyph is to provide circulation of water into the gastrovascular cavity. This assists gas exchange and maintains the internal fluid volume, which helps, along with the muscular system, to maintain the hydrostatic skeleton.

siphonozooid - the smaller less conspicuous polyp in dimorphic octocorals; responsible for driving water currents through large, fleshv octocora 1 s.

j solenia - see gastrodermal tube sphincter - circular muscle that can be used to open or close the mouth.

spicule - skeletal element in soft corals composed of calcium carbonate. In sponges similar skeletal elements may be composed of silicon dioxide.

spirocyst - stinging cells or cnidae that have the distinction of being non-penetrating and glutinant.

stolon - ribbon or root-like growth extensions that adhere to the substrate and link the polyps in Stoloniferan soft corals such as Clavularia spp.

stoloniferous - octocorals that have the polyps linked on rootlike growth extensions that adhere to the substrate.

sulcal - the side of the gastrovascular cavity closest to the siphonoglyph (sulcus) (see also asulcus).

supporting bundle - what appears to be a shield, cup or sheath below an individual anthocodia, composed of one or a few large sclerites. Typical of nephtheidae and also of Muricea spp. gorgonians.

terpene - Organic compound found in the volatile essential oils, having a strong odor. Manufactured by soft corals to discourage predation.

tubercles - wart-like projections on sclerites.

umbellate - shaped like an umbrella.

vegetative (somatic) embryogenesis - formation of embryos internally from pieces of somatic tissue.

viviparous - fertilization and development takes place inside female, nutrition of the larvae provided by the parent, and the developed offspring are released.

Anemonia Sulcata Pagurus

Abel, E. F. (1954) Ein Beitrag zur Giftwirkung der Aktinien und Funktion der Rand-seckchen. Zool. Anz., 153, 259-268.

Abel, E. F. (I960) Liaison facultative d'un poisson (Gobius bucchichiiSteindachner) et d'une anemone (Ammonia sulcata Penn. ) en Mediterrane Vie et Milieu, 11, 517-531.

Abeloos-Parize, M. and Abeloos-Parize, R. (1926) Sur l'origine alimentaire du pigment Carotinoide d'Actinia equina. C.R. Soc. Bio/., Paris, 94, 560-562.

Aceret, T.L., Sammarco, P.W. and J.C. Coll. 1995a. Toxic effects of alcyonacean cliter-penes on scleractinian corals./. Exp. Mar Biol. Ecol. 188:63-78.

--------------1--------------------- ancj------------ 1995b. Effects of diterpenes derived from the soft corals Sinularia flexibilis on the eggs, sperm and embryos of the scleractinian corals Montipora digitata and Acropora tenuis. Mar. Biol. 122:317-323.

Achituv, Y. and Y. Benayahu. 1990. Polyp dimorphism and functional, sequential hermaphroditism in the soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens (Octocoral 1 ia). Mar. Ecol.

Albrecht, H. (1977) Einige Beobachtungen an Anemonefischen in der karibischen See. Bijdr. Dierkunde, 47, 109-119.

Alino, P.M. and J.C. Coll. 1989. Observations of the synchronized mass spawning and post-settlement activity of octocorals on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: Biological aspects. Bull. Mar. Set. 45:697-707.

Allee. W. C. (1923) Studies in marine ecology; IV. The effect of temperature in limiting rhe geographical range of invertebrates of the Woods Hole littoral. Ecology, 4,341-354.

Allen, G. R. (1975) The Anemone fishes. Weir Classification and Biology, 2nd ed., T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, 352 pp.

Amerongen, H. M. and Peteya, D.J. (1976) The ultra structure of the muscle system of Stomphia coccinea. In G. O. Mackie (ed.), Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior Plenum, New York, pp. 541-547.

Anderson, P, A. V. (1980) Epithelial conduction: its properties and functions. Prog. Neurobiol., 15, 161-203.

Anderson, P. A. V. and Schwab, W. E. (1982) Recent advances and model systems in wl coelenterate neurobiology. Prog. Neurobiol.. 19. 591-600.

Rhodactis cf. inch oaf a The Anderson, S. L. and Burns, J. E. (1987) Role of glutamine synthetase in ammonia assimila-

Tonga blue mushroom. tion by symbiotic marine dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Mar. Biol.. 94, 451-458.

Annett, C, and Pierotti, R. (1984) Foraging behavior and prey selection of the leather seastar Dermastenas imbricata. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 14. 197-206.

Ansel 1, A. D. and Trueman, E. R. (1968) The mechanism of burrowing in the anemone, Peach ia hastata Gosse, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 2. 124-134.

Arai, M. N. (1972) Hie muscular system of Pachycenanihus fimbhatus. Can. /. Zool., 50. 311-317.

Ara i, M. N. and Wälder, G. L. (1973) The feeding response of Pacbyceriantbus ßmbriatusiCeriantharia). Comp. Biocbem. Physio/., 44A. 1085-1092.

Asada, K. and Takahashi, M. (1987) Production and scavenging of active oxygen in photosynthesis. In D.J. Kyle, C.B. Osmond and C.I. Arntzen (eels.), Photoinhibition, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 227-287.

Ates, R. M. L. (1989) Fishes that eat sea anemones, a review. /. Nat. Hist23. 71-79.

Atoda, K. (1974) Postlarval development of the sea anemone, Antbopleura sp. Sei. Rept. T=F4hoku Univ., 4th Ser., Biology, 20, 274-286 + 2 plates.

Atoda, K. (1976) Development of the sea anemone, Haliplanella luciae. V. Longitudinal fission and the origin of mono-, di- and tri-glyphic individuals. Bull. Mar. Biol. St a. Asamusbi, IS, 133-146.

Atrigenio, M.P. and P.M. Alino. 1996. Effects of the soft coral Xenia puertogalerae on the recruitment of scleractinian corals. /. Exp. Ecot. Biol. 203:179-189.

Ay re, D.J. (1982) Inter-genotype aggression in the solitary sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Mar. Biol., 68. 199-205.

Ayre, D. J. (1983) The effects of asexual reproduction and inter-genotypic aggression on the genotypic structure of populations of the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Oecologia, 57, 158-165.

Ayre, D. J. (1984a) The sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa-, an opportunistic insectivore.

Ophelia. 23, 149-153-

Ayre. D. J. (1984b) The effects of sexual and asexual reproduction on geographic variation in the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Oecologia, 62. 222-229.

Ayre, D.J. (1984c) Effects of environment and population density on the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Aust. J. Mar. Fresh w. Res., 35. 735-746.

Ayre, D.J. (1985) Localized adaptation of clones of the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Evolution, 39, 1250-1260.

Ayre, D. Í. (1987) The formation of clonal territories in experimental populations of the sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa. Biol. Bull, 172, 1 "8-186.

Ayre, D. J. (1988) Evidence for genetic determination of sex in Actinia tenebrosa. ]. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 116, 23-34.

Babcock, R. 1990. Reproduction and development of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea (Alcyonaria: Coenothocalia). Mar. Biol. 304:475-481.

Bach, C. E. and Heimkind, W. F. (1980) Effects of predation pressure on the mutualistic interaction between the hermit crab, Pagurus pollicaris Say, 1817, and the sea anemone, Calliactis tricolor(Lesueur, 1817). Crustacea nci 38, 104-108.

Bäk, R. P. M. and Borsboom, J. L. A. (1984) Allelopathic interaction between a reef coelenterate and benthic algae. Oecologia, 63, 194-198.

Balasch, J. and Mengual, V. (1974) The behaviour of Dardanaus arrosor in association with Calliactis parasitica in artificial habitat. Mar. Bebav. Physiol., 2, 251-260.

Batchelder, H. P. and Conor, J. J. (1981) Population characteristics of the interticlal green sea anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, on the Oregon coast. Est., Coast. Shelf Sci..

Batham, E. |. (1965) The neural architecture of the sea anemone Mi metridium


Batham, E.J. and Pantin, C. F. A. ( 1950a) Inherent activity in the sea-anemone, Metridium senile (D.J. Exp. Biol., 27, 290-301.

Batham, E. I. and Pantin. C. F. A. (1950b) Phases of activity in the sea-anemone, Metridium senile (L), and their relation to external stimuli. / Exp. Biol., 27, 377-399.

Batham, E.J. and Pantin, C. F. A. (1950c) Muscular and hydrostatic action in the sea anemone Metridium senile (L.X J. Exp. Biol,, 27, 264-289.

Batham, E. J. and Pantin, C. F. A. (1951) The organization of the muscular system of Metridium senile. Quart. J. Microsc. Sci., 92, 27-54 + 2 plates.

Batham, E. J. and Pantin, C. F. A. (1954) Slow contraction and its relation to spontaneous activity in the sea-anemone Metridium senile (L. ). J. Exp. Biol., 31, 84-103-

Batham, E. ]., Pantin. C. F. A. and Robson, E. A. (I960) The nerve-net of the sea anemone, Metridium senile (L): the mesenteries and the column. Quart. J. Microsc. Sci., 101, 487-510.

Battey, J. F. and Patron, J. S. (1984) A réévaluation of the role of glycerol in carbon translocation in zooxanthellae-coelenterate symbiosis. Mar. Biol.. 79, 27-38.

Battey, J. F. and Patton, J. S. (1987) Glycerol translocation in Condylactis gigantea. Mar. Biol., 95, 37-46.

Bayer, F. 1973- Colonial Organization in Octocorals. hi: Boardman R. S., Cheetham, A. IT. and W. A. Oliver (eds.): Animal Colonies: Development and Function Through Time (pp 69-93). Dowden, Hutchinson ik Ross, Inc. Stroudsburg, Pa., USA

------------1981. Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive of Pennatulacea (Coelen-

terata: Anthozoa) with diagnoses of new taxa. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 94:902-947.

------------ Grasshoff, M. and J. Verseveldt (eds.). 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological terms applied to Octocorallia. E.J. Brill and W. Blackhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Bayne, B. L. and Scullard, C. (1977) An apparent specific dynamic action in Mytilus edulis L.J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 57, 371-378.

Beattie, C. W. (1971) Respiratory adjustments of an estuarine coelenterate to abnormal levels of environmental phosphate and oxygen. Comp. Biochem. Physiol,. 40B, 907-916.

Bell, G. (1982) The Masterpiece of Nature: The Evolution and Genetics of Sexuality. University of California Press, Berkeley, 600 pp.

Benayahu, Y. and Y. Loya. 1983- Surface brooding in the Red Sea soft coral Parery-thropodium fulvum fulvum (Forksâl, 1775). Biol. Bull. 165:353-369.

---------------and--------------. 1984a. Life history studies on the Red Sea soft coral

Xenia macrospiculata Gohai; 1940. I. Annual dynamics of gonadal development.

---------------and--------------. 1984b. Life history studies on the Red Sea soft coral

Xenia macrospiculata Gohar, 1940. II. Planulae shedding and post larval development. Bio. Bull. 166:44-53■

-----------------and-----------. 1986. Sexual reproduction of a soft coral: synchronous and brief annual spawning of Sarcopbyton glaucum (Quoy and Gaimard. 1833). Biol. Bull. I 70:32-42.

--------------- 1995. Species composition of soft corals (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea) on the coral reefs of Sesoko Island, Ryukyu archipelago, Japan. Galaxea 12:103-124.

Bennett, L. W. and Stroud, E. (1981) Occurrence and possible functions of g-glutamyl transpeptidase in external epithelia of AIetridium senile. Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc., 100, 316-321.

Benson-Rodenbough, B. and Ellington, W. R. (1982) Responses of the euryhaline sea anemone Bunodosoma cavernata (Bosc) (Anthozoa, Actiniaria, Actiniidae) to osmotic stress. Comp. Biochem. Physiol, 72A, 731-735.

Beress, L. (1982) Biologically active compounds from coelenterates. Pure Appl. Cbem., 54, 1981-1994.

Beress, L, Beress, R. and Wunderer, G. (1975) Isolation and characterisation of three polypeptides with neurotoxic activity from Anemonia sulcata. FEBS Lett., 50, 311-

Bergmann, W., Creighton, S. M. and Stokes, W. M. (1956) Contributions to the study of marine products. XL. Waxes and triglycerides of sea anemones. /. Org. Cbem21, 721-728.

Bernheimer, A. W. and Avigad, L. S. (1976) Properties of a toxin from the sea anemone Stoicbactis beliantbus, including specific binding to sphingomyelin. Proc. Nat, Acad. Sci. USA, 73, 467-471.

Best, B.A. 1988. Passive suspension feeding in a sea pen: effects of ambient flow on volume flow rate and filtering efficiency. Biol. Bull. 175:332-342.

Bigger, C. H. (1976) The acrorhagial response in Antbopleura krebsi. intraspecific and interspecific recognition. In G. O. Mackie (ed.), Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior; Plenum, New York, pp. 127-136.

Bigger, C, H. (1980) Interspecific and intraspecific acrorhagial aggressive behavior among sea anemones: a recognition of self and not-self. Biol. Bid/., 159, 117-134.

Bigger, C. H. (1982) The cellular basis of the aggressive acrorhagial response of sea anemones. / Morpbol., 173, 259-278.

Bigger, C. H. andHildemann, W. H. (1982) Cellular defense systems of the Coelenterata. In N. Cohen and M. M. Sigel (eds.X Tbe Reticuloendothelial System, Vol. 3, Plenum, New York, pp. 59-87.

Bikfalvi, A., Binder, A., Beress, L. and Wassermann, O. (1988) isolation and blood coagulation inhibition of a new proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata. Comp. Biocbem. Physiol, 89B, 305-308.

Bingman, C. (1995). The Effect of Activated Carbon Treatment on the Transmission of Visible and UV Light Through Aquarium Water. Part 1: Time-course of Activated Carbon Treatment and Biological Effects. Aquarium Frontiers.2:3. p 4.

Birkeland, C. 1969- Consequences of differing reproductive and feeding strategies for the dynamics of an association based on the single prey species, Ptilosarcus gumeyi (Gray). PhD. Dissolution, Univ. of Washington, Seattle. WA.

Bishop, S. H,, Barnes, L. B. and Kirkpatrick, D. S. (1972) Adenosine deaminase from Metridium senile (L), a sea anemone. Comp. Biochem. Physid43B, 949-963.

Bishop, S. H., Ellis, L. L. and Burcham, J. M. (1983) Amino acid metabolism in molluscs. In P. W. Hochachka (ed.), The Mollusca. Vol. 1. Metabolic Biochemistry

and Molecular Biomechanics, Academic Press, New York, pp. 243-327.

Bishop, S. H., Klotz, A., Drolet, L. L., Smullin, D. H. and Hoffmann, R.J. (1978) NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase in Metridium senile (L). Comp. Biochem. Physiol61B, 185-187.

Black, R. and Johnson, M. S. 11979) Asexual viviparity and population genetics of Actinia tenebrosa. Mar. Biol., 53, 27-31.

Blank, R.J. and Trench, R. K. (1985) Speciation and symbiotic dinoflagellates. Science; 229. 656-058.

Blank, R.J. and Trench, R. K. (1986) Nomenclature of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. 7axon, 35, 286-294.

Blanquet, R. (1970) Ionic effects on discharge of the isolated and in situ nematocysts of the sea anemone, Aiptasiapallida-, a possible role of calcium. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 35, 451-461.

Blanquet, R. S., Emanuel, D. and Murphy, T. A. (1988) Suppression of exogenous alanine uptake in isolated zooxanthellae by cnidarian host homogenate fractions: species and symbiosis specificity. /. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol, 117, 1-8.

Blanquet, R. S., Nevenzel, J. C. and Benson, A. A. (1979) Acetate incorporation into the lipids of the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its associated zooxanthellae. Mar. Biol., 54, 185-194.

Bodansky, M. (1923) Comparative studies of digestion III. Further observations on digestion in coelenterates. Amer.J. Physiol., 67, 547-550.

Bohn, G. (1906a) Sur les courbures dues ela lumiere. C.R. Soc. Biol., Paris, 61, 420-421. Bohn, G. (1906b) La persistance du rhythme des marees chez 1'Actinia equina. C.R.

Bohn, G. (1908) L'epanouissement des actinies dans les milieux asphyxiques. C.R. Soc. Biol., Paris, 65, 317-320.

Bonnin, J.-P. (1964) Recherches sur la 'reaction degression' et sur le functionnement des acrorrhages d'Actinia equina L. Bull. Biol. Ft: Belg., 98, 225-250.

Boothby, K. M. and McFarlane, I. D. (1986) Chemoreception in sea anemones: betaine stimulates the pre-feeding response in Urticina eques and U. felina.J. Exp.

Boschma, H. (1925) The nature of [he association between Anthozoa and zooxan-thellae. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sei, USA, 11, 65-67.

Boury-Esnault, N. and Doumenc, D. A. (1979) Glycogen storage and transfer in primitive invertebrates: Demospongea and Actiniaria. In C. Levi and N. Boury-Esnault (eds.), Biologie des Spongiaires, Colloques Interna tionaux du CS RS No. 291. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, pp. 181-192.

Braams, W. G. and Geelen, H. F. M. (1953) The preference of some nudibranchs for certain coelenterates. Arch. Neerland. de Zoologie, 10. 241-264.

Braber, L. and Borghouts, C. H. (1977) Distribution and ecology of Anthozoa in the estu-arine region of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Hydrobiologia, 52, 15-21.

Brace, R. C. (1981) Intraspecific aggression in the colour morphs of the anemone Phymactis clematis from Chile. Mar. Biol., 64, 85-93.


Brace, R. C. and Pavey, J. (1978) Size-dependent dominance hierarchy in the anemone Actinia equina. Nature, 273, 752-753.

Brace, R. C., Pavey, J. and Quicke, D. L.J. (1979) Intraspecific aggression in the colour morphs of the anemone Actinia equina-, the 'convention' governing dominance ranking. An im. Behau, 27, 553-561.

Brace, R. C. and Quicke, D. L.J. (1985) Further analysis of individual spacing within aggregations of the anemone, Actinia equina. J, Mar. Biol. Ass, UK, 65, 35-53.

Brace, R. C. and Quicke, D. L. f. (1986) Dynamics of colonization by the beadlet anemone. Actinia equina. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 66, 21-47.

Brace, R.C. and Reynolds, H.A. (1989) Relative intraspecific aggressiveness of pedal disc colour phenotypes of the beadlet anemone, Actinia equina. J. Mar. Biol Ass, UK, 69, 273-278.

Brafield, A. E. (1980) Oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica (Couch). J. Exp. Biol., 88, 367-374.

Brafield, A. E. and Chapman, G. (1965) The oxygen consumption of Pennatula rubra Ellis and some other anthozoans. Z. vergl. Physiol, 50, 363-370.

Brafield, A, E. and Chapman, G. (1983) Diffusion of oxygen through the mesogloea of the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. J. Exp. Biol107, 181-187.

Brafield, A. E. and Llewellyn, M. J. (1982) Animal Energetics, Blackie & Son, Glasgow and London, 168 pp.

Brasier, M. D. (1979) The Cambrian radiation event. In M. R. House (ed.), The Origin of Major Invertebrate Groups. Systematics Association Special Vol. No. 12, Academic Press, London, pp. 103-159.

Brazeau, D.A. and H.R. Lasker. 1989. The reproductive cycle and spawning in a Caribbean gorgonian. Biol. Bull. 176:1-7.

Brooks, W. R. ( J 988) The influence of the location and abundance of the sea anemone Calliactis tricolor ( Le Sueur) in protecting hermit crabs from octopus predators. /, Exp. Mcir. Biol. Ecol., 116, 15-21.

Brooks, W. R. (1989a) Hermit crabs alter sea anemone placement patterns for shell balance and reduced prédation./. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.. 132, 109-122.

Brooks, W. R. (1989b) Hermit crabs protect their symbiotic cnidarians-tme cases of mutualism. Amer. Zool., 29, 36A (abstract).

Brooks, W. R. and Mariscal, R. N. (1984) The acclimation of anemone fishes to sea anemones: protection by changes in the fish's mucous coat. /. Exp. Mar. Biol Ecol, 81.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The word aquarium originates from the ancient Latin language, aqua meaning water and the suffix rium meaning place or building. Aquariums are beautiful and look good anywhere! Home aquariums are becoming more and more popular, it is a hobby that many people are flocking too and fish shops are on the rise. Fish are generally easy to keep although do they need quite a bit of attention. Puppies and kittens were the typical pet but now fish are becoming more and more frequent in house holds. In recent years fish shops have noticed a great increase in the rise of people wanting to purchase aquariums and fish, the boom has been great for local shops as the fish industry hasnt been such a great industry before now.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment