Nephthea and Capnella species readily reproduce by dropping daughter colonies formed by natural separation of branch tips.

Given strong light and water motion these colonies rapidly grow and produce offspring with little intervention required. The aquarist may speed up the process by cutting branches with a scissors. The cuttings may be attached to small stones or dead coral branches with cyanoacrylate gel.

Star Polyps, Clove Polyps and Anthelia

These soft corals grow like algae, rapidly advancing over the substrate with root-like stolons or sheets of tissue bearing the polyps. Placed next to bare substrate they spread and encrust it in a short period of time. Clavularia species grow like Caulerpa spp. algae, with palm tree-like polyps in place of the leafy fronds of Caulerpa, and on similar looking root-like stolons. When allowed to grow on glass, the stolons can be peeled off and attached individually onto new substrates with cyanoacrylate or by tying them with thread, monofilament line or thin rubber bands. Star polyps may also be grown on glass. This way the advancing sheets of growth are easily peeled off. They may be attached to rock with rubber bands, used to hold the sheet in place until it grows to form natural attachment with the stone.


Gorgonians are easily propagated with a scissors. Simply cut off branches and attach them to rock by inserting the cut end into a hole and surrounding it with underwater epoxy to secure it in place. In some cases it may be necessary to trim (or scrape) off tissue from the cut end, exposing the bare axis of gorgonin. This exposed rod can then be inseited into a hole with epoxy, offering a firmer bond than epoxy on living tissue. For thick-tissue species such as Eunicea and Plexaurella this must be done because covering the tissue with epoxy can cause an infection that may spread and kill the colony.

These gorgonian cuttings have been cut from parent colonies by means of a scissors, and they can be attached to a rock with underwater epoxy, J. Sprung

Here is the composed rock with gorgonians attached. J. Sprung

Lake Malawi UnderwaterLake Malawi UnderwaterClavularia Species

Chapter Seven

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The word aquarium originates from the ancient Latin language, aqua meaning water and the suffix rium meaning place or building. Aquariums are beautiful and look good anywhere! Home aquariums are becoming more and more popular, it is a hobby that many people are flocking too and fish shops are on the rise. Fish are generally easy to keep although do they need quite a bit of attention. Puppies and kittens were the typical pet but now fish are becoming more and more frequent in house holds. In recent years fish shops have noticed a great increase in the rise of people wanting to purchase aquariums and fish, the boom has been great for local shops as the fish industry hasnt been such a great industry before now.

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