Table of Contents

Foreword viii

Acknowledgements xi

Introduction 1

Chapter One The Biology of Soft Corals 9

What is a Soft Coral? 9 Classification and Taxonomy 15 Polyp Anatomy 19

Colony Organization and Morphology 26

Reproduction 33

Defense Mechanisms 41

Nutrition 51

Growth 56

Chapter Two The Biology of Zoanthids 61

Classification 61 Polyp Anatomy 63 Colony Anatomy 64 Reproductive Strategies 64 Nutrition 68

Growth 69

Defense Mechanisms 70

Chapter Three The Biology of Corallimorpharians 75

Classification 75 Polyp Anatomy 77 Reproductive Strategies 77 Nutrition 83 Growth 87

Aggressive and Defensive Mechanisms 87

Chapter Four The Biology of Sea Anemones 95

Introduction What is a Sea Anemone? 95 Classification 95 Polyp Anatomy 99

Defensive and Other Notable Structures 102

Nutrition 107

Reproduction 114

Longevity 125

Symbiosis 125

Chapter Five Collection And Transportation 133

Collection versus Captive Propagation 133

Anemones 133

Holding Sea Anemones 135

Zoanthids 136

Corail imorphs 137

Shipping Cora 11 imorphs 138

Soft Corals 138

Chapter Six vi_

Propagation Techniques

Tools of the Trade 143

Treatment of Severed Tissue Fragments 148

Soft Corals 149

Star Polyps, Clove Polyps and Anthelia 156

Gorgonians 156

Zoanthids 158

Corallimorpharians 158

Sea Anemones 159

Chapter Seven

Chapter Eight

Chapter Nine

Chapter Ten

Chapter Eleven

The Identification and Care of Soft Corals 161

Introduction 161

Selecting Healthy Soft Corals 161

Why "evolve" to a stony coral tank? 164

The Identification and Care of Soft Corals in Aquariums

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The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

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