Jose Mendez's outdoor aquarium tor anemones. Macrodactyla doreensis and Stichodactyla haddoni thrive in this aquarium with Amphiprion polymnus, Dascyllus spp., Protopalythoa, and hermit crabs. The mangroves provide some shade. This aquarium uses the technique described on page 353. middle diagram. It has a large sump located in the shade (with a heater when necessary) to effect some temperature control J. Sprung

Anemone Coelenteron Mesenteries Coelenterates

GlOSSary acontium (pi. acontia) - the middle lobe of the mesenteries in some anemones continues at the base of the mesentery as a thread-like structure which projects into the gastrovascular cavity. These filaments, which contain digestive enzymes, may be everted through the column wall or even the oral disc as a defensive or aggressive mechanism.

acrosphere - swollen tip of a tentacle, packed with nematocysts.

actinopharynx - the anemone's "throat," a sleeve-like structure that acts as a valve to retain water in the coelenteron.

alcyonacean - octocorals including stolonifera, soft corals, and gorgonians, but not including sea pens.

anastomosis - The fusion of lateral branchlets forming bridges between adjacent branches.

anthocodia (pi. anthocodiae) - The distal portion of a polyp, including the mouth and the eight tentacles. The anthocodia may be retracted into a calyx, the polyparium, cortex, or rachis.

anthostele - the thick, often sclerite stiffened lower part of the polyp into which the anthocodia may be withdrawn; calyx.

arborescent - tree-like octocorals that have a definite stalk a) or stem (gorgonians).

a) or stem (gorgonians).

One of the most beautiful of all the "mushroom anemones," the Orinia torpids form of Discosorna (Rhodactis) sanctithomae Irom Florida. J. Sprung asulcal - the side of the gastrovascular cavity opposite the siphonoglyph (sulcus).

autozooid - a polyp with eight well-developed tentacles that functions in feeding and defense. In monomorphic species it is the only type of polyp, in dimorphic species it is the larger, more conspicuous type of polyp.

axis - the internal skeletal support structure found in gorgonians and sea pens, composed of gorgonin, calcium carbonate, or both axis epithelium - the cell layer derived from ectoderm, which produces the horny skeleton (axis) of Holaxonia gorgonians.

biogenic - produced by once-living organisms.

biomass - the amount of living matter in a volume or area of habitat.

biota - the living organisms in a habitat.

bur - rough prickly case around the seeds of certain plants. Deflated Stereonephthya spp. may appear to have clusters of burs on their branches. What someone says when it is cold outside.

calyx (pi. calyces) - a hard or stiff protuberance forming a tube or cup into which the soft distal part of the polyp retracts in some soft coral species. The calyx does not contract into the coenenchyme or stolon, though it may press flat when the colony is disturbed and fully contacted. A wart-like projecting anthostele.

capitate - unbranched colonies having a head or broad upper portion situated on a basal stalk.

capitulum - the broad rounded polyp-bearing "head" arising v from the basal stalk. Also polyparium.

capstan - rod-like sclerite with two whorls of radially arranged tubercles plus clusters of protuberances at both ends.

catkin - a cluster of polyps forming a branch tip that, when contracted, has the appearance of the catkin of a willow tree. Characteristic of many members of the family Nephtheidae.

cf. - an abbreviation of "conferre," the Latin word meaning to compare. This is used with tentative species identifications, suggesting they should be compared with the formal description of the named species.

clavate - shaped like a club.

cnida (pi. cnidae) - capsular organelles ranging in size from about 10 to 100 pm long and containing a slender eversible tube. There are different types including spirocysts, homotrichs (=holotrichs), ptychocysts, and nematocysts.

cnidocyte - a cnida-secreting cell.

cnidome - portion of the tentacle containing the complement of cnidae. coenenchyma - the tissue of a zoanthid that surrounds the polyps and consists of mesoglea that may have sand imbedded in it.

coenenchyme - the tissue of an octocoral that surrounds the polyps and consists of mesogloea with sclerites imbedded in it.

collar - a circular fold at the junction of the column and oral disc that covers the oral surface of the anemone when it contracts.

column - the cylindrical body of the anemone.

coelenteron - the hollow cavity inside of an anemone or polyp.

contractile - the polyps are capable of shrinking in size and folding the tentacles over the mouth, but unable to pull into the calyx or polyparium. Compare to retractile.

cortex - coenenchyme surrounding the medulla and containing the polyps in some gorgonian species.

dichotomous - as in the letter y, the point of division produces two branches.

digitate - having finger-like lobes.

digitiform - a colony that is unbranched but finger-like in shape.

dimorphic - having two different kinds of polyps, autozooids and siphonozooids.

dioecious - having separate sexes, individuals are male or female, divaricate - branching.

ectoderm - tissue exposed to the external environment.

endocoel - if the septa (mesenteries) are paired (and in many anthozans, particularly those that clone they are not), the gut space between the two members of a pair is the endocoel.

endoderm - tissue exposed to the internal environment exocoel - if the septa are paired (and in many anthozans, particularly those that clone they are not), the gut space between the pairs is the exocoel.

gastrodermal tubes (solenia) - gastrodermis-lined tubes that connect the gastrovascular tubes of all polyps in a colony. These are found throughout the coenenchyme and can initiate the formation of new polyps when they reach the surface just below the epidermis.

gastrovascular cavity - the cavity inside the lower part of the column, partitioned by longitudinal radiating mesenteries. This is the "stomach'1 area.

gastrovascular tubes - the portion of the polyp that extends within the coenenchyma of a colony.

glomerate - sphere-shaped.

glutinant - sticky.

gorgonian - an octocoral that attaches to the substrate by means of a basal holdfast, and having an internal axis or medulla.

gorgonin - the internal axis of many gorgonians is composed of this black or brown tough fibrous horn-like protein. Also secreted as part of the gorgonian's holdfast.

holdfast - the basal portion of a soft coral or gorgonian that attaches it to a hard substrate. May contain consolidated sclerites or, as in most gorgonians, be a sheet of gorgonin.

homotrichs - nematocyst type, commonly found internally on mesenterial filaments and externally in acrospheres.

hydrostatic skeleton - a structural support against which the muscular system can act, provided by control of water pressure.

littoral - the area between high and low tides on rocks, reefs, sand, mangrove roots, etc.

lobate - consisting of several stout lobes.

medulla - in some gorgonians, the inner support structure composed of consolidated sclerites; as opposed to an axis of gorgonin or solid calcium carbonate not from spicules. May occur as a layer around a central axis of gorgonin.

medusa - a bell-shaped swimming stage of some types of cnidaria, i.e. jellyfish and hydrozoans. Anemones and corals do not have a medusa stage.

mesentery - one of many partitions arranged like spokes in the gastrovascular cavity, each consisting of two layers of gastro-dermis separated by a layer of mesoglea. The free edge is tri-lobed, and is called a mesenterial filament.

mesenterial filament - see mesentery. Often contain numerous cnidae and digestive enzymes.

mesogloea - tissue region that lies between the inner and outer tissue layer.

monomorphic - soft coral colonies possessing just one type of polyp. The polyps are called autozooids.

monotypic - a genus containing only one species, needles - a type of needle-shaped sclerite.

nematocyst - a microscopic stinging body consisting of a capsule with an ejectable harpoon-like structure. Made by all Cnidaria for defense and prey capture, also for attaching to substrate.

nematosphere - a raspberry-like bundle of stinging tentacles located at the edge of the oral disc in some members of the family Thalassianthidae.

non-retractile - opposite of retractile.

octocoral - a member of the phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria), class Anthozoa characterized by normally having eight pinnate tentacles surrounding the mouth of each polyp.

oral disc - the fiat or convoluted tentacle-bearing surface of the anemone, with a central "mouth" (pharynx).

oviparous - egg laying. The eggs may be released or brooded.

parthenogenesis - development of an egg without fertilization.

pedal disc - the fiat base or 'foot" of the anemone, with which it attaches to the substrate.

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The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The word aquarium originates from the ancient Latin language, aqua meaning water and the suffix rium meaning place or building. Aquariums are beautiful and look good anywhere! Home aquariums are becoming more and more popular, it is a hobby that many people are flocking too and fish shops are on the rise. Fish are generally easy to keep although do they need quite a bit of attention. Puppies and kittens were the typical pet but now fish are becoming more and more frequent in house holds. In recent years fish shops have noticed a great increase in the rise of people wanting to purchase aquariums and fish, the boom has been great for local shops as the fish industry hasnt been such a great industry before now.

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