Photographs Ebooks Catalog
We believe that it is essential for hobbyists to use the correct scientific names for their specimens, so that exchanges of information about them are accurate, and published observations can have greater scientific value and credibility. It is possible that we have made errors in the identification of some organisms, or that revision of taxonomy will make some changes. That is inevitable. Fortunately the photographs and our descriptions of the care of these species will remain accurate Marine Aquaristics, Steve Tyree, Sonja and Jan VanBuuren, Dr. John Veron, Peter Wilkens, Dr. Gary Williams and Joseph Yaiullo. We are also grateful to Daniel Ramirez for putting our words, the photographs, and our ideas together in a beautiful format, and for his patience with us
In Volume One we featured some photographs of reef aquariums from around the world. This was a popular section of the book, so we decided to do it again in Volume Two. We were amused to discover that the appearance of reef tanks has markedly transformed in the few years since our first book was published. The trend lately is to have a reef aquarium full of small-polyped stony corals. Volume Two is about soft corals and anemones, so the aquarium photographs here tend to emphasize the wrong creatures for this book
Chapter seven discusses virtually all of the various soft corals available in the aquarium trade today, complete with photographs and taxonomic features. With this information aquarists will be better able to identify many of the soft corals using the correct scientific names. Information is also provided on the common names, colouration, distinguishing features, similar species, natural habitat, aquarium care and reproduction for each coral.
Extremely rapidly, and is somewhat undesirable because of its rapid growth rate and ability to injure corals. Nevertheless, Caulerpa species are quite beautiful and popular. Managing their growth requires pruning back mnners with a scissors about once per week. Otherwise they can take over the entire tank Herbivorous fishes such as tangs can control the growth of Caulerpa, but it is a shaky-balance between control and complete consumption as the tangs grow larger. Slower growing algae species such as Botryociadia, Kalymenia, Halymenia, and Sargassum can be allowed to grow for a month or more before paining is needed. They grow like houseplants, while Caulerpa is more like a weed. Please refer to Littler et al., (1989), an excellent reference, for easy identification of marine algae with colour photographs.
Members of this suborder are popular aquarium and experimental fishes. Rosen (1973b) presented a key to the salt-tolerant species, and Parenti (1981) gave a key to genera of most of the families. Scheel (1990) discussed the biology of the world rivulines and of some other cyprinodontiform taxa and has numerous color photographs. Lazara (2001) presented an annotated checklist, synonymy, and bibliography of the oviparous members of this order (once placed in the family Cyprinodontidae). Egg diameter varies from less than 0.3 mm to about 3 mm, and embryonic development may be less than one week to over one year (Able, 1984).
The class Actinopterygii, one of the major vertebrate taxa, is not diagnosed by strong derived character sets, but is nevertheless thought to be mono-phyletic. The earliest fossil remains are of scales of the Late Silurian Andreolepis, Ligulalepis, Naxilepis, Lophosteus, and OOrvikuina in addition, there is Devonian material of, for example, Cheirolepis, Dialipina, Howqualepis, Limnomis, and Moythomasia (including an Early Devonian endocranium of a specimen tentatively assigned to the actinopterygian genus Ligulalepsis, Basden and Young, 2001), and Carboniferous material of, for example, Aesopichthys, Cyranorhis, Discoserra, Guildayichthys, Kalops, Melanecta, Mesopoma, Mimia, Proceramala, Wendyichthys, and Woodichthys (Cloutier and Arratia, 2004). Photographs and descriptions of many fossil taxa are given in Frickhinger (1991).
Fifteen years ago, when the fish display with dead coral was the only type of marine aquarium most people had ever seen, I wrote about, and published photographs of, high-biodiversity marine aquariums featuring photosynthetic invertebrates, macroalgae, and live rock (e.g., Tullock, 1982). In particular, I emphasized the role of photosynthesis in maintaining the aquarium ecosystem and recommended high light intensities, about four times what was typically being used at the time. I offered, however, no new technical aid (apart from shoplights that could be bought at any hardware store) and certainly nothing as flashy as the wet dry filter that Smit was to write about later. As a consequence, little note was taken of my work.
Your choice from an enormous range of workable lighting options depends on the goal you set as your ideal aquarium. You should base your decision on results seen in other aquaria or in photographs, not on mere assurances or written testimony. We cannot mention every bulb on the market, but we will describe the different formats available, and offer some guidelines to help in your choice.
The following pictorial identification section includes thousands of photographs of marine fishes from around the world. The families are in systematic sequence according to Nelson (1984), or as close to that as practical. (See pages 26 and 27.) The individual photos are coded with a family number for ready reference, in some cases some photos are out of sequence due to reasons beyond our control, but the family numbers should make it easy to place these orphans'' in their proper sequence.
Ften perplexing for those who haven't tried it before, setting up a new aquarium can be simple when done in logical, unhurried steps. The accompanying photographs illustrate a straightforward sequence one might use to create a simple reef system, using the techniques discussed in this book. The theme we have chosen is a bit of Micronesian deep fore-reef habitat, which will be housed in a 20-gallon aquarium a tank size that offers enough room to create an interesting ecosystem but is small enough to fit a beginner's space and budget, with no expensive lighting or filtration equipment required.
Fluorescent lamps come in many types that vary in terms of their intensity, color, and the amount of electricity they consume. The most important of these factors from a purely aesthetic point of view is the color. Ever notice how people appear unhealthy under industrial fluorescent lighting This is because the lamps typically used in such applications are the cool white type. This lamp imparts a yellowish green cast to everything, although it is supposedly the best for illuminating a work area. If you have ever taken a color snapshot (using film, not a digital camera) with only this type of lighting and no flash, you can see the green coloration.
The nature photographer Takashi Amano comes from the Japanese city of Niigata, which is also famous as the stronghold of Koi breeding. Although aquaria furnished attractively with aquatic plants were originally unknown in the Japanese aquarium hobby, this was changed by the fantastic photographs of Takashi Amano. Through his invaluable preliminary work, today in Japan aquatic plant gardens are commonplace in the aquarium hobby. This certainly is the more realistic idea. Let us therefore study the magnificent photographs in this book and let them serve us as creative models, which we can use for our own creative designs. Even if we only leaf through the book and look at the beautiful photographs, however, we will certainly derive great enjoyment from it.
Aquarium dealers sell backgrounds that are photographs of underwater scenes. These can be effective and attractive backgrounds, provided that the objects in the photo are 1) their normal size, and 2) appropriate to the rest of the aquarium. For example, you do not want a photo of a submarine in the background. This just looks silly. On the other hand, if the photo contains elements that can be repeated in the tank, corals, for example, you can create the impression of a scene stretching infinitely away from the viewer. Some large custom installations feature a photo background shot from nature and then duplicated with real objects in the aquarium. These are sometimes illuminated from behind the tank, creating a striking effect. Such museum-quality designs are, of course, expensive.
Digital Camera and Digital Photography
Compared to film cameras, digital cameras are easy to use, fun and extremely versatile. Every day there’s more features being designed. Whether you have the cheapest model or a high end model, digital cameras can do an endless number of things. Let’s look at how to get the most out of your digital camera.