Info

Antillarum (Long-spined Sea Urchin), 162, Dictyosphaerium, 88, 99, 111 Dictyota, 172 Dinoflagellates, 134, 270 Diodon hystrix (Porcupine Puffer), 161 Diodora, 161 Disc anemones, 174, 194-196, 236, 285. See also False corals Mushroom corals Disco so ma, 195 neglecta (Neon Disc Anemone), 174 Diseases offish, prevention and treatment, 253-259 Distilled water, 59 dKH, 125, 127 Doratonotus megalepis (Dwarf Wrasse), 163 Dottybacks, 234, 236,238-239 Bicolor, 238 photo, 238 Diadema, 236, 238 photo, 238...

The Natural Style 1 Euro American Hybrid

Combining the best of various reef aquarium techniques and approaches, a growing number of North American aquarists are reporting unprecedented success with reef organisms, including previously hard-to-keep corals. Typically, the new natural-style system incorporates live rock, a bed oflive aragonite sand with or without a plenum, strong, chaotic water movement, efficient protein skimming, and intense lighting. Aquariums heavily stocked with growing corals and tri-dacnid clams also rely on...

Collectors View

Herndons report that Christmas Tree Worms are starting to As of January 1, 1997, collection of any type oflive appear on aquacultured rock, and Teresa says that Spiro-rock product was banned in the waters off Florida. This pro- branchus can also be induced to spawn in the aquarium by hibition includes Christmas Tree Worm colonies growing manipulating temperature and day length. This may result on rock. Some collectors stockpiled this material, however, in the farming of this desirable species...

Captive Propagated Fishes Invertebrates

Urprisingly few of the thousands of hob- markup on cultivated livestock, because they will lose fewer byists with whom I have become acquainted are specimens, costs of transport may be less, and requirements aware of the number and variety of captive-propa- for maintaining the stock in good condition will be clearly gated marine species now available. Most express dis- documented and understood. Price reduction resulting from belief at the ease with which a diverse assemblage of such savings...

Live Food Cultivation

Microalgae, believe it or not, are the aquarist s friend. Readers may take a moment to recover from the shock, since microalgae are widely regarded as the bane of the reef aquarium's existence. I earlier offered advice on the control of these organisms (in Chapter Five) and now I say that they are beneficial. Why The term microalgae is, of course, a broad category. Included are everything from single-celled free-swimming organisms that show a weird mix of plant and...

Ocean

Worms, and the spawning swarm increases in size and activity level. As if the displays of bioluminescence associated with spawning were not sufficiently strange to warrant interest, Odontosyllis is among the many species of marine worms that also exhibit the phenomenon of epitoky.The epitoke, or sexually reproducing form of the worm, differs in significant ways from the nonsexual form that spends its time grubbing in the mud on the bottom. The epitoke may exhibit loss or major alteration of...

Water Changes

In the earliest marine aquariums, changing water was the only way to maintain water quality. Long ago, I read about a Victorian Englishwoman whose personal passion was sea anemones. (It was quite fashionable, in that era, for the upper classes to have an interest in natural history, and many a beau, apparently, was kept a-waiting by ladies too enamored of their microscopes.) She collected a specimen from a tidepool along the Cornwall coast and kept it in a bowl on a table in her sitting room....

Made simple

Microhabitat Aquariums

Ne of the most biologically rich environments on Earth, the coral reef dazzles our senses with its colors, shapes, and species diversity. Recreating living reefs in miniature is a burgeoning avocation for serious home aquarium keepers, and John Tullock here offers a radically simple new approach to producing beautiful captive microcosms. Understanding Live Rock 8c Live Sand Simplified Filtration Techniques Hundreds of Unusual Invertebrates he aspiring reef aquarist will find plans and suggested...

Nfa

Reef supplements, which must be used with great care, are replied upon by many aquarists but considerable controversy surrounds the recommended dosages and constituent additives. the range of 0.06 to 0.08 ppm. Colonies of the species crash when iodine levels fall below this threshold.

Ovalspot Butterflyfish Care

Rainfordi (Rainford s Butterflyfish), 296 photo, 297 reticulatus (Reticulated Butter flyf is h), 296 sedenfarms (Reef Butterflyfish), 298 semilarvatus (Masked Butterfly lash), 79 photo, 235 speculum (Ovalspot Butterflyfish), 296 striatus (Banded Butterflyfish), 298 triangulum (Triangular Butterflyfish), 296, 298 trichrous (Tahiti Butterflyfish), 296 trkmctm (Three-striped Butterflyfish), 296 trifascialis (Chevron Butterflyfish), 296, 298 trifasciatus (Redfin Butterflyfish), 296 xanzibariensis...

Water Quality Parameters For Tropical Marine Aquariums

Water Quality Parameter

Temperature 75 degrees F (optimum natural range is about 68 to 84 degrees) *May depend upon individual circumstances. table, above. The numbers are for fore-reef conditions organisms from this habitat are the most demanding, especially of oxygen. In the back reef, lagoon, and inshore zones, salinity may be lower, currents variable, and the concentrations of nutrient ions much higher than around a blue water coral reef. Many reef organisms considered especially tolerant of aquarium life are...

Do Saltwater Dsb Work

Although the matter of water changes is sometimes a a plastic reservoir tank, a pump, an electric float switch controversial subject, it remains my view that no filtration that controls the pump, and plumbing to run from the system, regardless of its complexity, can permanently elim- pump to the sump. The float switch is installed in the sump inate the need for regular partial water changes in a marine and adjusted so that it will energize the pump when the wa- aquarium. The more artificial the...

Trace Elements

All chemical elements are present in natural seawa-ter, and a varietv of these are known to be required commercially available, but many aquarists use a weekly by one or more kinds of marine life. Those that are present supplement containing 10 strontium chloride (SrCl2) in at a concentration of 1 ppm or less are called trace ele-distilled water at the rate of 1.0 ml per 150 liters of aquar- merits. A number of supplements are available that can be ium water, and do not bother to test for this...

Bs

Amiloodinium Fish Parasite

BACTCWA AJJ5T FOR NEW tMPOKHD COMAS w byoaco ktcn F OH D6EASS This protozoan parasite so commonly affects imported wild clownfishes that the suite of symptoms it produces is often called clownfishes disease. Fish are listless and refuse to eat, may show One reef aquarist's medicine chest Copper sulfate and formalin, for quarantined fishes preventive dip and Lugol's Solution, for treating corals. labored breathing as with Amyloodinium, and, in particular, produce...

About the Author

John H.Tullock is an ecologist and one of North Americas leading proponents of environmentally sound aquarium keeping. A native of Tennessee, Tullock received the Master of Science degree from the University of Tennessee in 1979. He later did graduate work in ichthyology under Dr. David Etnier, who is perhaps best known for his discovery of the snail darter. He has taught college-level biology and managed a research laboratory. Tullock and a group of partners founded Aquatic Specialists in...

Photographers

Photographs are credited by page number and by position on the page as follows T Top, C Center, B Bottom, TL Top left, BL Bottom left, etc. PAUL HUMANN Front Cover, 14,16,17,18,19, 85 L , 92, 93, 98, 99,101,102,104,114,118,133,134, 143,144, 145, 156,157, 158 TR , 159,161,162,163, 164 T , 165,166,168,169, 170, 171,172,175,176, 179 B , 180, 181,182, 184,185,186, 187,188,189, 190 T , 192,194 T , 197 TL , 200 TL , 202 BC , 205, 206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 216, 217 BC , 218 T , 221, 224 B , 225 T...

Deep Pore Reef Wall Aquarium

Aquarium Reef Wall

The deep fore reef will be rather dimly illuminated, owing to the attenuation of sunlight by the water column, and so provides inspiration for an aquarium in which the only photosynthetic organisms are colonies of coralline algae on live rock. Such a tank can be inexpensively illuminated, using just one or two fluorescent lamps good choices would be those that have a significant blue component in

Developing Good Lab Procedure

How Grow Coralline Algae Reef Tank

Proper technique results in accurate, reproducible test results. The best test kit will give bad information if not used correctly or if the aquarist's technique is sloppy. Some tips for proper testing 1. Read the instructions carefully and make sure all equipment is handy before beginning test procedures. 2. Use a timer when a test specifies a certain waiting period. 3. Wash test tubes and other equipment carefully, rinse in distilled water, and drain dry after each use. 4. Rinse test vials...

The Living Filter

Natural Cycles The Simple Beauty of Live Rock and Live Sand Systems mm arly in my college days at the University of II Tennessee, long before I had any training in marine ' biology, I was lucky enough to be assigned as an ad-I visee to Dr. J.O. Mundt of the Department of Mill crobiology. Dr. Mundt now deceased was a great mentor who kindled my interest in microorganisms and their biochemical virtuosity by demonstrating a remarkable capability in the area of controlled fermentation to produce...

Rc

Home Reef Aquarium

Herbivorous cleaners, such as this Red Reef Hermit Paguristes cadenati , are essential allies in fighting algae in the reef tank. the past. Nitrate is not toxic at low concentrations, but it equilibrium condition is reached. Now consider what hap- should not be present in the marine aquarium for precisely pens when, let us say, one Royal Gramma Basslet dies un- the same reason that it is not found in the waters around noticed. The fish's biomass is rapidly transformed. Hermit the coral reef...

Part

Solar Substitutes for the Reef Aquarium local star warms the water, gives rise to winds and ithout the constant infusion of power- for real sunlight. Apart from good water conditions, the sinful energy from the sun, the ocean would be a gle most important factor in the success of any aquarium stagnant environment, starved of life. Our containing photosynthetic organisms is the quantity and quality of the light provided. One must supply a minimum currents, and, with the moon, commands the tides....

Maintenance Troubleshooting

Testing, Tweaking, and Keeping Water Quality High MP HE RAIN DID NOT MERELY FALL, it was hurled, J sometimes nearly parallel to the ground, with force I sufficient to drive the raindrops through the canvas I walls of our tent. The storm came up after sunset, and A most people had crawled into their sleeping bags before the clouds started eating the stars out at sea. Within minutes, the squall was upon us. Lightning portrayed the campground ironically, Sunshine Key in a series of tableaux people...

Photoperiod

Reef Aquarium Plumbing Scheme

A photoperiod is the length of the daylight period to which organisms are exposed. Changes in photoperiod have important regulatory effects in the life cycles of marine invertebrates and fishes. Regardless of the type or arrangement of the lighting system, it is desirable to have automatic timers in place to switch the 3. Paletta's system under 20,000-degree K metal halide bulbs, showing better balance than the pure actinic approach in photograph 2. 4. Finally, a combination of fluorescent...

Contacts

American Marinelife Dealers Association AMDA A group of marine-aquarium retailers and suppliers founded by author John H. Tullock, dedicated to responsible marine aquarium keeping and to promoting education and sustainable use of reef resources. AMDA members avoid drug-damaged livestock and species that are impossible to maintain, while offering captive-propagated specimens whenever possible. P.O. Box 255373 Sacramento, CA 95865 Publishes the journal ofMaqua Culture, devoted to marine life...

Acknowledgments

O book is solely the work of its author, Herndon,Teresa Herndon, Bob Hix, Bill Hoffman, Lance and this one is hardly the exception. Many people Ichinotsubo, Mikki Ichinotsubo, Stuart Keefer, Lynne Lau- have assisted my efforts throughout the years, each rita, Andy Lee, Rick Oellers, Dr. Peter Rubec, and Julian contributing in some way to my evolution as a scien- Sprung. Thanks to each of you for your valuable insights. tist and author. My late father, Hardin Tullock, kin- Special thanks are due...

The Dutch Style Aquarium

I call systems featuring a trickle or wet dry filter Dutch-style aquariums, and there is no doubt that these relatively complex setups ushered in a revolution in marine husbandry. The introduction by Dutch proponent George Smit of the wet dry filter, adapted from wastewater treatment technology, resulted in a new wave of interest in minireef aquarium keeping. This new filter system was much more efficient than the undergravel filter and bypassed many of the former system's drawbacks Smit,...

The Gulf of Mexico

In Quest of the Christmas Tree Worm and Other Native Treasures and Oddities COURED BY SHRIMP TRAWLERS, dotted With oil aL rigs, and routinely churned by hurricanes, the Gulf of Mexico is not blessed with a reputation for pris- tine coral reefs, and despite its proximity, it is largely unappreciated by marine aquarium hobbyists in North America. For the aquarist with an eye for the unusual, however, it can be a source of unique and amazingly beautiful living organisms and materials for the...

Drop Count

Aquarium Pea Gravel

Note that the pH remains stable for the first few additions of acid and then drops precipitously as the endpoint is approached. The initial stability of the pH reflects the fact that the solution in this case seawater is a buffer. Buffers are solutions that resist pH changes. This is why you will sometimes hear alkalinity or KH referred to as buffering The alkalinity of natural seawater is around 2.0 to 2.5 meq L. To convert to the German degrees of carbonate hardness dKH , multiply this number...

Chapter Eight 211

It also makes the process of acquiring mated pairs of anemonefishes for aquarium breeding purposes quite simple any two juveniles placed together in an appropriate environment will often develop into a pair within several months. Perhaps 10 of 26 species of anemonefishes are available as captive-propagated specimens, with the Common Clownfish Amphiprion o cellar is , Clark's Clownfish A. clarkii , Tomato Clownfish A. frena-tus , and the Maroon Clownfish Premnas...

Sea Mount

Schools, consisting of many individuals of the same species. In the aquarium, a single Green Chromis, Chromis viridis, can be a rather lonely looking creature, but a group of seven to ten or more starts to become much more natural and fascinating to observe. Ideal candidate for isolation in a species tank Leaf Scorpi-onfish Taenianotus tricanthus , bizarre but all-consuming. One of the most characteristic features ofthe biota of coral reefs is their remarkable specializations for survival....

Chapter Eight 221

Longnose Hawkflsh, Oxycirrhites typus, which associates with gorgonians, generally at depths greater than 100 feet Vanderbilt's Chromis, Chromis van-derbilti, schools above coral heads in at least 15 feet of water Many Cirrhilabrus wrasses, including Jordan's Fairy Wrasse, C.jordani, which is often found in the same habitat as the Longnose Hawkflsh Potters Angelfish, Centropyge potteri, endemic to Hawaii, is most abundant in waters greater than 15 feet, while its cousin, the Flame Angel, C....

Power

Tween Pump

Essential circulation is created by an in-tank powerhead, left ever-changing currents are provided by the Osci-Wave, right, which rotates, sweeping its output 90 degrees back and forth. tween two pumps to produce a pulsed flow simulating tidal currents. Alternatives include using a larger system pump and directing the return flow through various outlets to create turbulence. Submersible centrifugal water pumps may also be used for this purpose. Many public aquariums employ dump buckets to...

Tie Fore Reef

The greatest abundance and diversity of life can be found on the fore reef, although many of the species found here can also be found elsewhere in the lagoon zone, for example. The type of reef tank most often constructed by aquarium hobbyists is based upon conditions found on the fore reef. Although most of the commonly available aquarium species from this zone are from the Indo-Pacific, aquar-ists wishing to duplicate a Keys fore-reef habitat do have some interesting invertebrates from which...

Common Features of Captive Ecosystems

Frakes 1994 compared each of the methods discussed above and concluded, Several methods have been shown to be successful with certain organisms when properly applied. M artin Moe1 has pointed out to me that this is simply attributable to each approach providing an adequate substitute for the natural environment of the organisms that have been successfully maintained. The fact that these approaches all have drawbacks simply serves to demonstrate that man cannot create a perfect copy of a true...

A

Galaxea Fascicularis

Tively long tentacles and must not be placed close to other invertebrates, which they may sting. They need bright light. Euphyllia ancora Anchor Coral, Hammerhead Coral, Hammer Coral, or Ridge Coral has a curved extension at the end of each tentacle, giving the appearance of little hammers or anchors. Euphyllia divisa Wall Coral, Frogspawn Coral, or Vase Coral gets one of its colorful common names from the appearance of the tentacles. It sports numerous tubercles and white spots, suggesting a...

Bibliography

Adey, Walter H., and Karen Loveland. 1991. Dynamic Aquaria. New York Academic Press. Allen, Gerald R. 1980. The Anemone fishes of the World Species, Care and Breeding. Mentor, OH Aquariums Systems. Allen, Gerald R., and Roger C. Steene. 1987. Reef Fishes of the Indian Ocean. Neptune City, NJ TFH Publications. Alvarez, A.A. 1995. Dead corals in exchange for live fish exports Marinelife 2 1 9. Axelrod, H.R., and W.E. Burgess. 1985. Saltwater Aquarium Fishes. Neptune City, NJ TFH Publications, pp....

Anemone Conservation

Saltwater Anemones For Sale

With some biologists now suggesting that marine anemones ought not to be collected for sale in the aquarium trade, pressure is mounting to find species and methods that assure survival in captivity. Based on the experience of two aquarium-maintenance businesses here in my hometown, I have concluded that the relatively hardy Entacmaea quadricolor Bulb, Bubble Tip, Maroon, or Rose Anemone may be the perfect candidate, especially the form found in shallow-water habitats. The specimens I have been...

Conversion Of Density To Salinity

Mercury thermometers, often used in photographic darkroom work, are useful, as are red alcohol thermometers. Select one with the degrees engraved into the glass, rather than on a scale attached to the thermometer, which can shift and produce inaccurate readings. Liquid crystal thermometers that adhere to the outside aquarium glass are popular with hobbyists because they are easy to read, but should be calibrated with a glass thermometer before relying upon the measurements so...

Chapter Ten 235

Masked Butterfiyfish iChaetodon semilarvatush elegant, relatively easy to feed, and an excellent aquarium candidate. Rabbitfishes Siganidae Puffers Tetraodontidae Wrasses Labridae Scorpionflshes and rabbitfishes all bear venomous spines that can cause a painful, and possibly dangerous, sting if carelessly handled. Several species of scorpionflshes or li-onfishes are available commercially. These differ only in size and color patterns, and all require the same care. Feed them every two or three...

Nitrate

Plenum System Reef Tanks

Top left the Nitrogen Cycle in a conventional marine aquarium nitrate accumulates as the end product of waste conversion. Bottom left a natural system with a Monaco-style plenum denitrification yields elemental nitrogen. smelly with an odor of putrefaction, is coated with slime. Mobile animal life either lies dead at the bottom of the box or struggles feebly to avail itself of whatever moisture and oxygen might yet remain. Among the earliest discussions of reef tanks, George Smit's 1986...

J

Umentary can duplicate influences how people who view reef aquariums think about coral reefs. This awareness, in turn, increases the desire to see reef resources preserved and protected. I see some interesting parallels between reef aquarists, divers, and other nature enthusiasts of today with their counterparts of a hundred years ago. Nature study was a popular pastime among our Victorian ancestors. The microscope was their primary tool for investigating the natural world. The structure of an...

Fluorescent Lighting Systems

Saltwater Aquarium Solar Tube

Fluorescent lamps are the most affordable and convenient solution for most beginning reef systems, and they come in standard output, high output HO and very high output VHO types. Brighter than standard lamps of the same length, HO and VHO lamps consume correspondingly more electricity. They also lose output faster, but this may be offset by periodic replacement. Output ratings tor fluorescent lamps discussed in the aquarium literature seldom refer to the efficacy of the lamp, i.e., the lumens...

Vgv

Marinelife Aquarium Society of Michigan MASM 1167Tracilee Drive Howell MI 48843 517 548-0164 John Dawe, President e-mail johndawe umich.edu Web site www.masm.org Marine Aquarium Society ofToronto MAST 33 Rosehill Ave. Toronto, Canada M4T-1G4 416 925-1033 Orlando Reef Caretakers Assn. ORCA c o John White, President 2100 Harrell Rd. Orlando, FL 32817 407 482-0074 Oklahoma Marine Aquarium Society OMAS c o Eric West, President 8044 Forest Glen Rd. Claremore, OK 74017 918 266-7685 e-mail westeric...

Regional

Chesapeake Marine Aquaria Society CMAS - Chesapeake c o Tom Walsh, President 4220 Erdman Ave. Baltimore, MD 21213 Chicagoland Marine Aquarium Society CMAS - Chicagoland c o Dennis Gallagher, President 1455 Nottingham Lane Hoffman Estates, IL 60195 847 882-8594 Cleveland Saltwater Enthusiasts Assn. c o Peter J. Chefalo, President 3041 Lincoln Blvd. Cleveland Heights, OH 44118-2033 216 371-8344 Web site Dallas Fort Worth Marine Aquarium Society DFWMAS P.O. Box 1403 Bedford, TX 76095-1403 Brad...

Black Cap Basslet

Black Cap Basslet

Duce an abundance of specimens in a variety unheard of just a few years ago. The following captive-propagated species are all available most species of clownfish, Neon Goby, Lime-striped Goby, Citron Goby, Seaweed Goby, Neon Dottyback, Orchid Dottyback, Purple Dottyback, Royal Dottyback, Diadema Dottyback, seven species of giant clams, disc anemones, sea mats, many soft corals, stony corals, Peppermint Shrimp, and dozens of macroalgae. Entrepreneurs are working on other species, with jawfish,...

John H Tullock

Moe, Jr. Principal Photographers Paul Humann and Scott W. Michael OneT.F.H. Plaza Third and Union Avenues Copyright 2001 by T.F.H. Publications, Inc. First printing 1997. Revised and reprinted February 1999, October 1999, January 2001. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher, except where permitted by...

No Fear Taxonomy

Drop by a garden center and you will hear terms like Chrysanthemum, Rhododendron, and Philodendron used by all types of gardeners without hesitation. Visit a marine aquarium shop and you will quickly appreciate that many people seem to find scientific names for fishes and invertebrates daunting. Frankly, I find this a bit baffling. Why are the proper names for plants easy for the average person to use but not the scientific names for aquarium fishes and invertebrates Possibly, nonscientists are...

Disease in the Reef Aquarium

Prevention, Acclimationy and the Simple Realities Marine fish have amazingly tough constitutions. I have seen them survive wounds of the sort seen in B-grade horror movies an eye torn from the head, body parts shredded to ribbons, appendages mangled to mere stumps. Fish jump and crash into the glass canopy above them with surprising force. Imagine running at full speed into a plate-glass door. Tve found fish lying on the floor, covered in lint, nearly crisp from desiccation, only to have them...

Reef Tank Filtration

Even matching the color of the drapes with a Purple Tang is acceptable, as long as this results in an aquarium that reflects the natural habitat of this fish, which happens to be the Red Sea. After you have created a Must Have list and a Goes With list, inspect the lists carefully, perhaps doing a bit of research and note-taking, to identify the one Pivotal Species in your scheme. The Pivotal Species is the one that will make the greatest demands upon the system for its long-term...

M Acroalcae Cultivation

An aquarium based on keys or Caribbean species would be ideal for the many species of interesting and attractive macroalgae available to hobbyists. For the calcium-loving calcareous types, the tank should have a layer of substrate the upper layer of a live sand bed is satisfactory, perhaps making it a bit thicker than an inch here and there, to better support these algae, which are rooted in the substrate by a holdfast. Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, Udotea and Halimeda incrassata are typical and...

Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse

These may constitute the majority of species in old, stable ecosystems such as the Great Smoky Mountains. When their habitat is disturbed in some way, perhaps by a forest fire, the pattern of species that results as the ecosystem recovers from disturbance often reveals the basic strategy of these middle of the road species. Nature rarely, if ever, fits precisely into human-defined categories. What does this have to do with reef aquariums Only that the species that usually do...

Ophioderma Rubicundum

A Personal Journey and a New Approach to The hustle and glare of miami faded quickly behind us. We were headed south, beyond the reach of the Florida Turnpike, stopping only briefly in the farming town of Florida City for gas and produce. I marveled that the tomatoes, vine ripe in early May, tasted no better than those trucked to the grocery shelves back home in Tennessee. Rolling south on AlA, we crossed the bridge over Card Sound and were in the Keys. Dense tangles of mangroves edged the...

The Shallow Inshore Habitat

Extremely Shallow Water Sps

Practically all of the invertebrates collected for the aquarium in the early days came from shallow lagoon than in deeper water, and scuba equipment is not often available to collectors in the developing Rapidly gaining favor among reef enthusiasts are the countries that supply most of the specimens. Thus, species small-polyped scleractinian SPS corals that predominate of macroalgae, corals, and anemones from this habitat have on the outer reef. Outer-reef fauna thus belong in the third been in...

I

Seattle Aquarium Pacific Coral Reef

Peppering a colony of live Porites coral, these Indo-Pacific Christmas Tree Worms display a typical range of colors. radioles of strikingly different colors growing side by side. Spirobranchus giganteus occurs in both the Indo-Pacific be regarded as corals rather than as worms or rocks by and the Atlantic-Caribbean regions. Recognizing the source those responsible for their collection and shipment. This of a particular specimen is simple, as there are apparently may result in better treatment,...

Gallon Red Sea Shallow Fore Reef

Twin peaks of live rock allow ample swimming room for an impressive collection of The behind-the-tank utility room has a large downdraft skimmer, UV sterilizer and heavy-duty chiller, all fed from a 90-gallon sump via a 150-gallon live-sand refugium. A lack of invertebrate life is balanced by the electrifying colors of the fishes, such as the Masked Butterflyfish, Sohal Tang, and Lyretail Anthias, in an elegant, active aquascape. atural methods can be readily adapted to tra- watering trough...

Record Keeping

One should keep records of all water tests carried out. Include the date, time, and any comments needed to describe conditions in the aquarium at that moment. In this way, you develop a history of conditions in the tank that can be of great value in diagnosing problems later. Such a log can also help identify trends in water-quality fluctuations, enabling corrective action to be taken before such fluctuations become serious. One can purchase record books with printed forms for aquarium records,...

Nemateleotris Decora

Wrasse Pseudocheilinus hexataenia , and the Hawaiian Neon or Four-Line Wrasse P. tetrataenia several smaller species from the genus Halichoeres, such as the hardy Yellow or Golden Coris Wrasse . chrysus and the fairy wrasses genus Cirrhilabrus . Fairy wrasses sometimes called social wrasses should be kept in groups consisting of a single male and several females. CLOWN FISHES AND DAMSELFISHES. Clownfishes and damselfishes Pomacentridae are often the first fishes kept by a beginner. They are...

Cnidarians

Tubastraea Micrantha

While most cnidarians require very bright illumination, there are several types that prefer shade or darkness. ORDER CERIANTIPATHARIA Tube Anemones and Black Corals . Tube-dwelling anemones Family Cerianthidae have no symbiotic algae and thus do very well in the deep-reef aquarium microhabitat. Cerianthids may be distinguished from true anemones in that the former have two sets of tentacles. The outer rows are quite long, and the inner ones, sur- Tube anemone Order Ceriantipatharia the tube and...

Coralline Algae

Obbyists interested in reef tanks and live rock certainly hear a lot about coralline algae. Most are aware that this is something good to have in a marine aquarium, but not many know what coralline algae are and how to encourage them to grow. Classification of the marine algae is a subject for experts, although the corallines form a distinct group. They are red algae Rhodophyta, Order Cryptonemiales scientifically identified by certain microscopic details of their reproductive structures. The...

Chapter Ten m

The Swissguard Basslet Liopropoma rubre , is but one of many small serranids suitable for the aquarium. Ranging from south Florida and the Bahamas to the Yucat n, this species is found at depths ranging from 10 to 150 feet. It prefers a cool, dimly illuminated aquarium with suitable h iding places among the live rock. It feeds on small, meaty foods and is hardy in captivity. The related Candy Basslet .L. carmabi is less frequently seen, primarily because it is found at greater...

The Monaco Style Aquarium

It appears that this technique not only results in deni- places a second sheet of screening on the bottom layer of trification, but also that the dissolution of calcareous sand sand to prevent burrowing fishes and other organisms from returns important ions calcium and carbonate in partic- disturbing the bacteria that will develop deep in the bed. A ular to the water. Jaubert reports extremely low levels of top layer of substrate composed of aragonite sand, coral nitrate and phosphate, high...

1

Species That Can Make, Break or Terrorize a Captive Reef ithout herbivorous fishes, there might inputs of food to the system, and this ultimately means a not be any coral reefs. Algae can easily outcom- higher level of pollutants. Fish also compete with all the pete the reef-building corals for light and growing other living organisms in the aquarium for available oxy space. This has been demonstrated by fencing off gen. Perhaps most importantly, fish exhibit behaviors that sections of reef and...

Early Aquariums

Live Holding System Fish

Ancient humans probably first kept sea creatures alive in captivity as a means of having fresh seafood close at hand. Fish and invertebrates have been held in various containers for purposes of study or exhibition for centuries. According to Sterba 1983 , there are accounts dating back to ancient Egypt. In Rome, fish-holding tubs called piscinae have been found in the gardens of the wealthy and powerful. In the New World, containers for both fresh and marine fish adorned Montezuma's gardens. In...

Other Eastern US Habitats

The northern Gulf of Mexico, the Flower Garden Banks in the western Gulf of Mexico, the Grand Strand and cold water species of our Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Most of sandy beaches stretching from Fort Lauderdale to the people even those who have lived all their lives on the shores of Delaware, the mid-Atlantic region from the coast have no idea of the diversity and beauty of under-Chesapeake Bay to Cape Cod, and the northern Atlantic water life in their own region. The intrepid aquarist in these...

Periclimenes Yucatanicus

Shallow Marine Aquarium

There are three major features of my approach to keeping microhabitat displays of tropical shallow-water invertebrate species. The first of these I will call less technology, more biology. The husbandry of marine life must be performed in light of the specific ecological needs of the species of interest. Granted, system design cannot be overlooked, but one must begin the thinking process about any aquarium by asking questions about the needs of the species that will occupy it. This principle is...

Experimental Techniques

A host of marine species can probably be used as live foods. Copepods, for example, and especially their larvae nauplii , appear to be important components of the natural diet of marine fish larvae. Copepods and other small crustaceans may form the bulk of the diet for adult drag-onets, such as Synchiropus picturatus. These tiny crustaceans often undergo spontaneous population explosions in mature aquariums established by the methods outlined in this book. When such an explosion occurs, one can...

Manicina Areolata

Tropical Reef Fishes Curacao

When illuminated with such lights, the water will have a definite bluish cast, well known to divers, but will not have the eerie black light effect created when the very blue actinic lamps are used alone. Combining one blue actinic lamp with one bulb of about 5,000 degrees K will create the desired effect. Apart from crustaceans, such as a mated pair of Banded Coral Shrimp, this aquarium habitat can be used to showcase some of the reef's most spectacular inhabitants. The muted...

Spectral Characteristics

What about the quality of the light, its spectral characteristics, or, if you prefer, its color Sunlight is composed of many wavelengths colors oflight. To meet the needs of photosynthesis and to create a natural appearing aquarium, a light source that duplicates the spectrum of sunlight as closely as possible is desirable. There is a relatively simple way to compare the spectral output of various light sources to that of sunlight. This is called the Kelvin temperature scale. Noonday sun under...

Algae Control Tips

DOC is not one but many different compounds. Methods to reduce DOC include the use of protein skimmers, activated carbon, chemical resins, and ozonization. Removal of DOC by means of a protein skimmer is one of the simplest techniques. Besides removing DOC, protein skimmers lower the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water. The protein skimmer also lowers the concentration of nitrate see below indirectly, because the DOC would eventually be decomposed into...

Dorsal Fin Banggai

Hierarchy Juvenile Group Home

Purple Dottyback Pseudochromis porphyreus Neon Dottyback Pseudochromis aldabraensis Orchid Dottyback Pseudochromis frid man i Bicolor Dottyback CPseudochromis paccagnellae Diadema Dottyback Pseudochromis diadema Sunrise Dottyback Pseudochromis flavivertex one of the bachelors will move to the head of the class with the best specimens coming from Hawaiian collectors, within a few days. The primary drawback to successful DOTTYBACKS. Among the Pseudochromidae, or dotty-aquarium husbandry of these...

The Smithsonian Style Aquarium

Walter Adey of the Smithsonian Institution places heavy emphasis on the role of specially cultivated turfs composed of various species of algae Adey and Loveland, 1991 . This is commonly known as the Algal Turf-Scrubber approach, and it is currently more common in institutional aquarium installations than in the hobbyist world. Periodic harvesting of a portion of the algae growth serves to export accumulated wastes. In other words, such systems rely heavily upon...

Gallon Clam Lagoon

Overhead view of a shallow-water clam and coral nursery, typical of an Indo-Pacific patch reef in a lagoon area, featuring cap-tive-propagated Tridacna clams, young stony coral colonies, neon-green and orange zoanthids, and a scattering of fishes. ere is an eyecatching aquarium that reflects by Gerald Heslinga's Indo-Pacific Reef Farms. The rela- a small patch of Indo-Pacific back reef or shallow la- tively small foam fractionator suits a system that should goon where baby Tridacna clams and...

Gulf Marine Life Found With Christmas Tree Worm Rock

Christmas Tree Worm Habitat

Blue Angelfish Holacanthus bermudensis Gray Angelfish Pomacanthus arcuatus Spotfin Butterflyfish Chaetodon ocellatus Foureye Butterflyfish Chaetodon capistratus Jackknife Drum quetus lanceolatus High-Hat Drum quetus acuminatus Slippery Dick Wrasse iHalichoeres bivittatus Beau Gregory Damsel .Stegastes leucostictus Colon Goby Coryphopterus dicrus Blue Goby loglossus calliurus Tiger Goby Gobiosoma macrodon Seaweed Blenny Parablennius marmoreus Red-spotted Hawkfish Amblycirrhitus pinos Sponges...

Acropora Gemmifera

Acropora Gemmifera

Crocea Clam Tridacna crocea among the most colorful of the tridacnids. they will not come into contact with the anemone's tentacles, or nettling is possible. Including a Six-Line Wrasse, Pseudocheilinus hexa-taenia, will help protect the giant clams from parasitic snails they may be harboring. A coral goby, such as Gobiodon citrinus, will makes its home in the branches of the SPS corals if placed in this tank. Schools of Orange-lined Cardinal-fish, Apogon cyanosoma, emerge from hiding to feed...

Filtration

Filtration is a catchall term for any technique that seeks to maintain appropriate water quality in an aquarium. I define water quality as that set of physical and chemical parameters regarded as typical for the wild aquatic habitat being duplicated. In the case of the tropical coral reefs, very low concentrations of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrient ions are the rule, and preventing the accumulation of these pollutants in the aquarium is the primary goal of filtration....

Continental

Reef Zonation a cross-sectional map of the natural habitats a marine aquarist can choose to mimic in a captive setting. imens offered for sale were illegally collected. The same holds true for Australia. Given the growing success of stony coral propagation at the hands of a number of pioneering marine aquarists, it is possible that captive-grown specimens of currently banned Caribbean species will be available. The tons of cultured live rock now being readied for harvest off the Florida...

Exercise Caution

An important subset of fish families are those that will not bother corals, anemones, and other cnidari-ans, but may feed on mollusks, worms, shrimps, other crustaceans, and or smaller fishes, if the food item is small enough for the fish to swallow. A member of any of these families is not to be trusted with any active organism that will fit into its mouth. Therefore, although the following families are generally hardy in captivity, exercise caution in choosing specimens from them for your...

The Outer Reef Habitat

Outer reefs of the Indo-Pacific are the home of the most widely available giant clam, Tridacna derasa, which is an adaptable species that can be recommended to any aquarist. This is a good species to accompany SPS corals. Dartfishes, such as the Common Firefish, Nemateleotris magnified, and the Purple Firefish, N. decora, occur here in pairs, and shoals of anthias hover in the strong currents. See the discussion of anthias in Chapter Ten before attempting these fish, however. The striking...

Undergravel Filter

Crushed Coral

Natural substrate materials of coral reef origin assist greatly in maintaining a proper chemical balance and can be used to create authentic and unusual aquarium microhabitats. 2. On top of the eggcrate, one or more layers of plastic window screening are used to prevent the sand from falling through to the plenum, the area underneath the grid where wa- jg Jr.-. OW nF b Tif-' 'Tnr- wi MMMWWbi. riMaMmBcSMpfr- '' --- gt _ 3____' ter, but no sand, is present. This is important, as the plenum must...

The Clownfisk Host Anemone lank

Clownfish and their anemones are popular aquarium subjects, never failing to capture the attention of all who view them. Yet they are widely misunderstood. Before com mitting to creating an aquarium for them, one should consider their special needs. THE HOST ANEMONES. Given its powerful stinging tentacles and its demanding care requirements, the anemone is the Pivotal Species in the aquarium community. Three families of anemones are represented among the clownfish hosts. One,Thalassianthidae,...

The Inshore Zone

Pearly Jawfish

One of my favorite spots in the Keys is a huge, bowl-shaped tidepool just off U.S. 1. Protected from wave action by a sea wall of coral rock rubble, this pool is a giant natural aquarium. Dozens of species of macroalgae occur here. By far the most common are members of the large genus Caulerpa. C. prolif ra has a simple flat blade botanically, the assimi-lator that often spirals like a loose corkscrew as it grows upward. C. mexicana has a blade more reminiscent of a fern frond, that is, it is...

Clownfish Host Anemones Difficult Choices

Though the clown fishes are generally a hardy lot, the anemones with which they associate in the wild are not. Some experienced aquarists have come to believe that most Pacific anemones are more difficult to maintain than even the sensitive small-polyped stony corals. Most aquarists should choose between Entacmaea quadricolor and Macrodactyla doreensis and leave the others to the experts. Many species of clownfish will bond with anemones other than their native favorites if they have no other...

Starter Reef

Setting Up a First Marine Aquarium or Young Aquarist's Tank Using a Simplified, Natural Approach ften perplexing for those who haven't tried it before, setting up a new aquarium can be simple when done in logical, unhurried steps. The accompanying photographs illustrate a straightforward sequence one might use to create a simple reef system, using the techniques discussed in this book. The theme we have chosen is a bit of Micronesian deep fore-reef habitat, which will be housed in a 20-gallon...

Gallon Gulf of Mexico Patch Reef

Full of surprises for those unfamiliar with the beauty of reef organisms from North American waters, this Gulf of Mexico display makes attractive use of a cube-shaped acrylic aquarium. Rear view of the system shows the integrated sump that easily accommodates a venturi skimmer, system pump, heater, and chemical filtration media in nylon pouches. Side view of the reef, showing the stable structure of aqua-cultured live rock and numerous sponges, gorgonians, small colonies of coral, and a...

Forcipiger Longirostris

Goniopora lobata is commonly called both Flowerpot Coral and Sunflower Coral. described by a biologist has but one scientific name, and this name is used throughout the world to refer to that particular organism. So whether one is in Bangkok or Boise, Goniopora lobata refers to the same animal. Conversely, Flowerpot Coral could mean something entirely different to two individuals, depending upon local usage. As aquarists gain more experience with maintaining marine fish and invertebrates and...

Tips On Coral Placement

Ne of the more vexatious challenges, even for experienced reef keepers, is the appropriate placement of corals within the aquarium. Finding just the right level of light intensity and water motion can mean the difference between a specimen that thrives and grows, showing full polyp extension and brilliant col oration, and one that leads a lackluster existence, with polyps retracted or shrunken, dull coloration, and no growth. Specific recommendations for each species of coral that an aquarist...

Continental Shelf

Types of coral reefs, divided between those that have developed along the continental shelves and those that are found in the open ocean. Living corals occur at depths ranging from less than a foot to more than 300 feet in certain exceptional regions. The illustration on page 150 is a schematic of a typical barrier or fringing reef. The shore is on the left side of the diagram, the open sea on the right, and live corals are shown in deep pink. Buried or dead coral growth appears in light pink....

Category

The species can he maintained only if its special requirements are met such requirements can be provided in a home aquarium setting, given sufficient effort. provided with a deep substrate in which to excavate a burrow. Lacking a burrow, jawfishes spend all their time hiding and thus starve. Seahorses and pipefishes Family Syngnathidae are also difficult to keep if not provided with abundant, living foods. Creatures typically found in deep water, such as the Pinecone Fish Monocentrus japonicus...

Periodicals

Russ Case, Editor Fancy Publications Mission Viejo, CA 92690-6050 949 855-8822 Web site www.animalnetwork.com fish 400 Market Street, Suite 750 Philadelphia, PA 19106 Web site www.thomsonscience.com e-mail chsub itps.co.uk Patricia Crews, Editor 144 West Sierra Madre Boulevard Sierra Madre, CA 91024 818 355-1476 PO. Box 255373 Sacramento, CA 95865-5373 Boyce Phipps, Editor 3243 Highway 61 East Luttreil, TN 37779 e-mail pubcon worldnet.att.net Ocean Realm Charlene dejori amp Cheryl Schorp,...

Internet Sites

Perhaps the best source of information for a beginner is a consultation with an experienced aquarist in his or her neighborhood. On the Internet, almost anyone in the world might be in your neighborhood. Below are a few of the sites I have found useful. This is necessarily only a partial list. Each of the sites has multiple links to other sites of interest. www.amdareef.com Aqualink Aquaria Web Resources www.breeders-registry.gen.ca.us Compuserve Aquaria Fish Forum petsforum.com Coral Reef...

Marine Invertebrates

There is potentially a much larger market for reef aquari- extremely delicate aquariums subjects. For example, Stan ums than at present. When people learn what can be done Brown of the Breeder's Registry has a photograph depict- with a 30-gallon tank, provided a few simple techniques ing spawning by captive Orange-spotted Filefish Oxy- are mastered, dealers will sell more of them, along with the monacanthus longirostris . This species is generally livestock to go in them. This can only help the...

Zoanthus Sociatus

Discosoma neglecta is commonly called the Neon Disc Anemone. It lives in inshore waters, usually on hard-bottom areas where branched Porites corals and many macroalgae are found, as well as on the fore reef. This species is seldom collected for the aquarium but well worth obtaining for its bright blue-green coloration. Tentacles are completely absent. SEA MATS Order Zoantharia . This is an interesting and hardy group that lies somewhere between anemones and corals in the scheme of cnidarian...

Other Denizens Of The Gorgonian Forest

While one can find the usual snails and hermit crabs crawling around on the floor of the lagoon, it is among and upon the gorgonians that the most interesting animals may be found. There are a number of snails and nudibranchs that feed solely upon gorgonian polyps, and these may be found munching their way along one of the branches. One must look closely in order to find many of these, as they are often well camouflaged and look remarkably like their host species. These browsers are never very...

Reef Aquarium Plumbing Scheme

Aquarium Plumbing Design

One is to allow for removal of can lose siphon and thereby shut down the flow through surface water from the tank and to direct water into a sump the system. Devotees of these systems swear they can op- below the tank. The other is to trap large debris in a spot erate for years without loss of siphon others just swear at from which it can be conveniently removed and discarded. these systems as being disaster-prone. Another drawback is Some aquarists use the overflow...

Electrical Safety Induced Charge

Nitrate Electro Deionisation Reversal

All this equipment requires electricity, of course. Plan on having a sufficient number of electrical outlets near the tank to accommodate all of the power cords you will be using. Be sure to install special ground-fault interrupt outlets that are designed for safe operation in wet areas. Ideally, lighting and pumps should be on separate circuits, especially for large systems. See Chapter Four for more information about lighting the aquarium. Consult a qualified electrician if there is any doubt...

The Aquarium As Hobby

By how carefully the theme of the aquarium is chosen. The Hobbyists comprise the third customer category. These simplified designs of the systems described in this book re- are people who are interested in something for the sake of suit in lowered maintenance, especially after the first year diversion, curiosity, personal challenge, and a rewarding or so. This makes the aquarium much like a landscape use of nonworking hours. Personal fulfillment comes in project, another way in which people...

Components Of A Berlinstyle Aquarium

Biological filtration and denitrification is accomplished by the use of a large quantity of cured live rock. 2. Chemical filtration is accomplished through the use of a protein skimmer and activated carbon. 3. Lighting is usually accomplished with metal halide lamps, in combination with blue actinic fluorescent lamps. 4. Nothing in the way of organic nutrients is added to the tank, except for feedings for the fish, and inorganic nutrients are limited by using phosphate-free water and sea...

The Aquarium As Decoration

I vividly recall the visit one Saturday of a gentleman of about 50, accompanied by a younger man, whom I later learned was both the gentleman s son and the person responsible for the interior design work on his father's residence. Sizing up the situation and instinctively zeroing in on the manager of the shop as his target, the older man strode right up to me. I was, at that moment, standing in front of our magnificent 135-gallon reef display tank. It had only recently received maintenance and...