Conversion Of Density To Salinity

temperature. Mercury thermometers, often used in photographic darkroom work, are useful, as are red alcohol thermometers. Select one with the degrees engraved into the glass, rather than on a scale attached to the thermometer, which can shift and produce inaccurate readings. Liquid crystal thermometers that adhere to the outside aquarium glass are popular with hobbyists because they are easy to read, but should be calibrated with a glass thermometer before relying upon the measurements so obtained. After installing a liquid crystal thermometer, take the temperature of the aquarium water with a glass thermometer immersed in the tank for at least five minutes. Note any variation between the two readings and remember this correction factor when relying upon the liquid crystal thermometer for routine measurement. Any glass thermometer may be calibrated in either an ice bath or in boiling water. These will be 0 degrees C/32 degrees F and 100 degrees C/212 degrees F, respectively, at sea level. At higher altitudes, the variation is small, but measurable. Standard references can be used to determine the boiling point and freezing point of water at specific altitudes, but these variations are not important unless one lives high in the mountains.

Electronic devices for measurement of both temperature and salinity are available and are usually accurate in proportion to their cost. Salinity may also be determined chemically, by means of titration. Electronic temperature controllers that can operate both heating and cooling equip-Plastic "dip and read" hydrometers are popular. These may ment to maintain the aquarium within a tight temperature be calibrated by comparing their readings to a glass hy- range (± 1 degree F) are available, drometer of known accuracy. One cannot check a sample of pure water with the "dip and read" unit, because the scale of measurement does not give a reading in that low range.

Temperature measurement is of obvious importance Every living organism in the aquarium, from nitrifying for any aquarium because bodies of water exhibit tempera- bacteria to fish, requires oxygen to sustain life. Oxygen de-ture stability. The high specific heat of water results in a pletion, even slightly below saturation, can create significant strong moderating effect, even with wide fluctuations in air stress. Seawater at 75 degrees F contains about 6.8 milli-

Aquarium and Fish Care Tactics

Aquarium and Fish Care Tactics

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