Space Limitations of Tanks

The most significant constraint on your design will be imposed by the tank. The front glass is the window into the microcosm you create within. This effect is greatly enhanced with a built-in tank, which is often surrounded by molding or trim work that gives the impression of a framed picture. If the tank is free-standing, develop your design by thinking only about the view from the front, as if it were a picture. Consider also how this picture will be framed by the support furniture. The...

Lighting

Lighting plays a critical role in aquarium design, as indeed it does in many other design situations, such as home interiors. Several aspects of aquarium lighting require attention Aesthetic value Light is obviously needed to allow people to see into the aquarium. Since it is rare to be able to illuminate with natural daylight, artificial lighting is installed above the tank. Lighting can be of two types fluorescent or metal halide. Manufacturers produce both types, and some also make...

Adding Live Rock and Live Sand

You will need two pounds of live rock per gallon of water. It is imperative that the aquarium be filled with sea-water at the correct salinity, pH, etc., and that all equipment is operating properly before the live rock is introduced. When the rock has been placed, add dry substrate, live sand, and or live rock pebbles as your design dictates. With the basic reef now in place, position other decorative items, such as seashells. When all aqua-scaping materials have been added, top off the tank...

Adding Salt

If all goes well with your final test, it is time to add the salt mix. With no livestock in the tank, it can be used as a mixing vat. (Under no circumstances should salt mix be added to an established tank with living organisms present.) Add enough salt mix for the tank's capacity, using about 2'A cups for every five gallons. Sprinkling in the mix by cupfuls promotes fast dissolution. After all of the mix has been added, run the system for at least twenty-four hours. Measure pH and salinity. If...

Algae Problems

Under certain conditions a bloom of excessive algae growth may develop. Algae usually grow in a fish-only tank because it has no competition. Maintaining a regular routine of partial water changes, thus providing stable, appropriate conditions, deters most algae growth. Various fish and invertebrates can be added to control algae, but their efforts will not amount to much under poor water conditions algae will grow faster than the fish can feed. In a minireef, insufficient lighting is likely to...

Aquarium Roles

Taxonomic classification helps to demonstrate the relationships among invertebrates and to identify significant differences from one group to another. For aquarium purposes, we can group invertebrates according to the role they will play in the aquarium community. Looked at this way, the groups are Other photosynthetic invertebrates Filter-feeding invertebrates

Bartholomea and Friends

The curlicue sea anemone, Bartholomea annulata, plays host to several types of crustaceans. These relationships form the basis for a unique biotope aquarium. Aquarium Capacity 20 gallons (high) Life Support live sand, live rock, hang-on filter with skimmer Lighting one to two fluorescent lamps Background pale yellow green Decoration none Special Requirements reef water conditions and moderate current Brittle stars 1 Periclimenes yucatanensis . . . Or Periclimenes pedersoni Or Thor amboiensis ....

Common Lionfish

Lionfish, genus Pterois, adapt quickly to captivity. With a suitably large tank and a proper diet, a lionfish can live fifteen to twenty years in your home. Aquarium Capacity 120 gallons crushed coral rock fine grade coral rock a few large pieces coral skeleton artificial or natural, 5 pieces, assorted Background black Pterois volitans 3 Marine fish must provide most of the diet. Supplemental feedings of shrimp, crabmeat, or shellfish are beneficial. Occasionally feed live guppies or goldfish,...

Dry Installations

One of the most effective backgrounds, though requiring considerable time and expense to create, is the diorama. Basically, this is a shallow wooden box placed behind the tank, visible through the back glass. It is illuminated, and contains an appropriate scene, recreated without water. This technique permits the use of materials, such as dried starfish, that might decompose if submerged. A diorama can also accommodate large, heavy chunks of coral rock or coral skeletons that might damage the...

Electricity and Water Supplies

Let's say you happen to have a closet of appropriate size that you can spare. What else must be taken into account before you begin installing the aquarium You are going to be cutting a window into the wall first determine if this is a load-bearing wall. If any doubt exists, consult a licensed contractor. Otherwise, you could seriously weaken the structure of your house Next, determine if electrical service is located within the wall section to be removed. If so, you will need to reroute the...

Filter Feeding Invertebrates

Include in this category any species that derives all of its nutrition from particulate food it strains from the water. Many bivalves, fan worms, some anthozoans, and even a few crustaceans fit the description. Filter feeders that lack zooxanthellae present special challenges because their food requirements must be met with plankton substitutes added by the aquarist. Designs featuring these animals can be recommended to advanced aquarists only. On the other hand, many anthozoans that bear...

Filtration

Filtration systems that incorporate a sump offer as many advantages to a free-standing tank as they do to built-ins. The only real difference is in the size of the sump, which must fit beneath the aquarium, hidden by the support cabinet. See the section on filtration for built-in tanks, above, for more information on sumps. If you don't want to bear the extra expense of a drilled tank and sump filter system, plenty of other options exist. In this design, the filter media are contained within a...

Filtration Requirements

Each of the larger systems described in this chapter requires a wet dry filter for best results. The filter should be outfitted with a biological filtration chamber, as described in chapter 5, Nuts and Bolts. I suggest installing a model that allows you to place a polyester fiber pad above the biofiltration medium to trap partic-ulate matter. You should also be able to remove the biofiltration box without having to move the sump. This may mean an extra allowance for headroom underneath the main...

Finishes

Aquarium furniture manufacturers offer an impressive range of cabinets, stands, and hoods in wood, laminate, even stainless steel finishes. Choose whatever looks best with the d cor of the room. You can browse the available options at manufacturer's websites, and even order online if your local dealer does not carry what you want. A cheaper alternative, though with drawbacks, is a wrought-iron aquarium stand. In the right setting, painted wrought iron can be quite attractive. Choose a stand...

Hobby versus Passion

The overwhelming majority of aquarium owners simply find themselves attracted to the natural beauty of the underwater scene. The aquarium in this context becomes a living work of art, complementing the interior d cor of the home. It makes a statement about the owner's lifestyle, forges a connection to nature that is often absent from urban life, and, sometimes, boasts of success. Residences these days may be graced by installations of a size and level of sophistication that in years past were...

Including Terrestrial Components

Mangroves occur on nearly all tropical shores, often growing into the water and supporting themselves on prop roots. Thickets of mangrove roots provide shelter for many kinds of fishes and invertebrates, often including species found on a nearby reef. Mangrove roots also possess their own characteristic encrusting Making Your Aquarium Look Real 59 Making Your Aquarium Look Real 59 organisms. Sea grasses such as Thalassia, or turtle grass, grow in shallow silted areas and create another kind of...

Indo Pacific Fish Community II

This is a larger version of the foregoing model design. When it comes to larger fish, the compatibility rules mentioned above apply wholeheartedly. A big angelfish or wrasse can do significant damage to a tank mate in short order. Aquarium Capacity 180 gallons Life Support live rock, live sand, standard reef filtration Lighting three 150-watt metal halide lamps Background black Decoration dead coral, shells, artificial reproductions Special Requirements reef water conditions and moderate...

Inspiration from Nature

Throughout this book, I emphasize the value of taking inspiration from natural habitats to create aquarium habitats. This, however, should not limit us solely to combinations of fishes and corals from the same geographic region. Creating a harmonious aquarium community lies in selecting fishes and other organisms for the ecological roles they play. For example, the Indo-Pacific species of Pseudochromis can substitute for the Atlantic-Caribbean royal gramma. These fishes inhabit similar...

Invertebrate Pests

Some invertebrates become serious pests and should be avoided where possible. Pyramid snails, which prey on giant clams, provide a good example. They can be controlled by adding a neon wrasse to the tank. Other types of pests offer more of a challenge. Aiptasia, variously known as harbor or glass anemones, can live in warm water with a heavy load of nitrate, phosphate, and organics, in fact thriving under such conditions. Yellow brown and from tiny to a few inches in height, they can multiply...

Invertebrate Problems

Thankfully, few parasite and disease problems plague invertebrates. About the only commonplace ones are parasitic snails and predatory flatworms. Parasitic snails in the family Pyramidellidae often infest giant clams. The snails feed on the clam's mantle. Usually, the parasites are brought in on the clams themselves. The best way to rid a tank of these pests is to place a neon wrasse in it. Two species are available, Pseudocheilinus tetrataenia, the four-lined neon wrasse, and P. hexataenia,...

J

Charles Darwin was the first to describe specific reef types formally. Later researchers have added some to his original three. Barrier reefs Separated from the shore by a wide channel, barrier reefs develop along the edge of the continental shelf. The organisms found on the seaward side often differ markedly from those in shoreward waters. Fringing reefs Barrier reefs that hug the shore are usually called fringing reefs. The channel is absent, and coral growth may be exposed at low tide. Many...

Live Sand

Live sand is analogous to live rock in that it is harvested from the sea and contains a natural population of beneficial small organisms. Simply placing a layer of coarse sand on the bottom of the aquarium and allowing it to develop a population of bacteria, worms, and microcrustaceans appears to be all that is necessary for enhancing the microbial community of the minireef. Use a small amount of live sand as a source of seed organisms to colonize the new sand bed. Some hobbyists prefer to...

Maintenance

Built-in aquariums are frequently simpler to maintain than their free-standing counterparts. Factors contributing to ease of maintenance include having a sink adjacent to the aquarium, valves for drain and refill, and easier access to equipment. If maintenance is easy to carry out, chances are you will stick to a regular schedule. This is crucial to the long-term success of your aquarium, regardless of its size. Just make sure your nets and the all-important algae removal tool have sufficiently...

Maintenance Requirements

Maintenance of these systems requires little apart from the routine. For any of the aquariums in this chapter, here is a recommended maintenance schedule Daily check temperature, feed Weekly check salinity, adjust as needed check pH, adjust as needed carry out 10 percent water change clean algae off glass Monthly check nitrate carry out larger-than-normal water change as needed replace detritus removal pads in filter siphon out debris as needed Semiannually reset system and clean decorations...

Model Design

This model design mimics the previous one, with the exception that the artificial anemone is replaced with a living surrogate, Condylactis gigantea, a hardy species sometimes accepted by an anemonefish with no other option. Aquarium Capacity 30 gallons Life Support live rock, live sand, protein skimmer box filter combination Lighting two to four 30-watt fluorescent lamps Background black Decoration none Special Requirements the anemone needs reef water conditions and moderate current Fish...

Other System Components

Control the temperature of each system by installing a heater having 5 watts of heating capacity for every gallon of water. Temperature fluctuations do not stress only the fish beneficial bacteria may respond negatively, also. For housekeeping purposes, nothing beats a few small hermit crabs. In fish-only tanks such as those described in this chapter, stray bits of food will invariably be missed by the fish. Hermits are expert at cleaning up, and will also feed on algae. I suggest adding any of...

Personal Expression

Allow yourself to experiment with aquascaping until you achieve the look you want. An artistic design maximizes the stress-reducing value of the aquarium. You may evoke calmness or excitement with your choices. For example, fish that constantly dart around, such as tangs, and a strongly directional current create an upbeat mood. Enhance the effect by using bright lighting, a pale-colored substrate, and a pale blue background. On the other hand, you may find this look too busy. You will...

Photography

Aquarium dealers sell backgrounds that are photographs of underwater scenes. These can be effective and attractive backgrounds, provided that the objects in the photo are 1) their normal size, and 2) appropriate to the rest of the aquarium. For example, you do not want a photo of a submarine in the background. This just looks silly. On the other hand, if the photo contains elements that can be repeated in the tank, corals, for example, you can create the impression of a scene stretching...

Preventing Problems with Saltwater Fish

If you follow these rules, you can have fish in a minireef with low risk of having to remove them for treatment Remember that if one fish has symptoms, all the fish in the aquarium require treatment. For example, Amyloodinium and Cryptocaryon both possess a free-swimming stage that spreads the infestation. Since it takes a few days for symptoms to appear, you cannot know if asymptomatic fish are infected. For this reason, a separate quarantine tank is indispensable. See chapter 3, Making Your...

Red Sea I

Live rock, live sand, standard reef filtration three150-watt metal halide lamps coral skeletons, seashells, plastic reproductions salinity at 36 ppt, reef water conditions, and moderate current For a truly regal aquarium, this one will be hard to beat. It is unlikely you will be able to find Red Sea live rock, so make do with a decorative rock from another source. Arrange the rock to create a pinnacle on one end of the aquarium connected to a lower mound near the opposite end by an arch...

Size

Free standing aquariums typically range in size from as small as twenty gallons to around 100 gallons. Standard tanks are available in sizes up to 300 gallons, but for anything much larger than 100 gallons you may spend more to set up a free-standing system than you would for a built-in. This is because a cabinet for a really large tank can cost as much as or more than building it into a wall.

Substrates

Substrate refers to the material covering the bottom of the aquarium. It may be purely decorative or may serve as part of the filtration system. Several materials lend themselves to these different applications Crushed coral gravel with grains averaging about 1 8 inch in diameter up to about 1 4 inch in diameter is the most commonly used substrate. Coral gravel comes bagged, and is priced by weight. As a rough guide, twenty pounds covers a square foot of aquarium bottom to a depth of about two...

Tank Support

Furniture design and craftsmanship lie beyond the scope of this book. However, your choice of support furniture can greatly affect the decorative value of the aquarium. Most people opt to purchase a stock cabinet along with the aquarium. Dealers sometimes offer discounts for doing so. Savvy manufacturers now supply cabinets in styles ranging from Shaker to stainless steel. Various stained or painted wood finishes make matching the cabinet to the rest of the room much easier. Despite all the...

Temperature Fluctuations

If the tank is getting too cool, you may need a larger heater or you may have to move the tank to a location with a stable temperature. Choose a heater that provides 5 watts or more per gallon. Keep the tank away from floor registers and outside doors. If the aquarium is too warm, the most likely culprits are the lighting system, heat shedding from the water pump, or sunlight from a nearby window. You can fix the latter problem with shades or draperies, or by relocating the tank. In the other...

The Designs

For my money, the most enjoyable saltwater tanks are those that reflect a specific biotope in a particular part of the world. It's okay, though, to combine species from diverse locations, provided the aquarium you create satisfies their lifestyle needs. Many coral reef biotopes develop similarly, regardless of the part of the globe in which they occur. This no doubt stems from the precise requirements of corals themselves and the stability of conditions in reef-friendly environments. As a...

The Quarantine Tank

Without a quarantine tank, you must choose between having a minireef without fish or accept the high probability that you will lose an entire tank of fish at some point. It is pointless to gloss over this unpleasant truth. Fish need to recover from the stress of capture and shipment or a stress to the display aquarium by spending some time in a quarantine tank. Disease problems are most likely to occur within two weeks after a fish is purchased. Territorial squabbles are a natural part of...

Wildness versus Control

A simplistic example of wildness versus control is the separation of predators and prey. Although the lionfish may feed on blue damselfish on the reef, we avoid combining them in the aquarium. Similarly, some invertebrates, such as soft corals, need regular pruning and thinning. We don't usually allow them to grow rampantly. Another, more subtle kind of control has to do with manipulating the viewer's perception of space. By the controlled placement of natural objects, fooling the eye into...

Foods and Feeding

Choosing foods appropriate for your aquarium should pose little difficulty if you keep a few basic points in mind. Saltwater fish tend to be specialists when it comes to food. Quite a few vegetarians exist, for example. Some of them feed on many types of algae, others need a specific kind. Carnivores can usually be satisfied with a varied diet, but some feed only on specific classes of food, such as crustaceans. Many predatory saltwater fish need the movement of living prey to stimulate their...

Indo Pacific Upper Fore Reef

This is the model design that many reef tank enthusiasts aspire to. The corals found in this high-energy environment demand plenty of light and water movement but will reward you with a stunning exhibit. Aquarium Capacity 120 to 180 gallons Life Support live rock, live sand, standard reef filtration Lighting two to three 150-watt metal halide lamps, depending upon Background pale blue Decoration none Special Requirements calcium above 400 ppm, alkalinity at about 4 Meq L, very low levels of...

An Eels Lair

Of all the big fish found in aquarium shops, few inspire the attention enjoyed by eels. People seem to find eels either repulsive or adorable no one seems to be on the fence about them. Here's a model design that can be scaled for any eel you are likely to encounter. Aquarium Capacity 40 to 120 gallons crushed coral rock fine grade coral rock a few large pieces branching coral skeletons artificial or natural Background black Moray eel 1 (see text) Eels excel at finding a way to escape the tank....

Guidelines for Design

Creating an aquarium involves bringing together diverse elements, both living and nonliving, and integrating them into a functioning system. An aquarium is not a true ecosystem, of course, but does tend to exhibit many of the characteristics of natural ecosystems. A simplistic example is the formation of an aquarium food web. Even in the absence of added food, an aquarium contains producers, consumers, and degraders, whose lives depend, at least to some extent, upon each other. Algae growing on...

Utilitarian Invertebrates

I have alluded to this group several times previously. I define utilitarian invertebrate as any that the aquarist adds, deliberately or by accident, that perform some useful ecological task. Such critters may or may not also be colorful and entertaining to watch. Algae-grazers, including snails, hermit crabs, and small sea urchins, fit the category, as do brittle stars, burrowing sea cucumbers, echiurids, and peanut worms. We can also include sponges, bryozoans, hydrozoans, and many kinds of...

The Blue Lagoon

Clear shallow water and relative calm characterize the lagoon. Here live some of the most lovely species collected for the aquarium. Lagoons often have a floor of sediment with tiny patch reefs dotted here and there. This diversity of topography and bottom type result in a correspondingly diverse fauna and flora. Aquarium Capacity 75 gallons Life Support live rock, live sand, standard reef filtration Lighting two 150-watt metal halide lamps Background deep blue Decoration none Special...

Aquascaping with Rock

Fish-only aquariums can be aquascaped either with live rock, dry rock, coral skeletons, or a combination of all three. Add these items before the substrate, so they will sit securely on the bottom of the tank. Also, rocks, live or dead, look more natural if partially buried. Place a flat rock across two rocks of similar height and you've made the simplest kind of shelter for a saltwater fish. Reef fish are generally territorial, and their need for personal space becomes more pronounced in the...

Biotope Tanks

Any display of reef fish impresses with bold colors and constant motion. For sheer fascination, however, minireef aquariums offer more than any fish-only tank can. Defining what, exactly, constitutes a minireef depends upon whom you ask, but a typical example features sessile invertebrates and live rock. Fishes, if included, are species that will leave the invertebrates alone. Beyond that basic pattern, aquarists have set up everything from minireefs devoted to different color forms of the same...

Diet Related Problems

A condition known as head and lateral line erosion, abbreviated HLLE, appears to be caused by an insufficiency of some important food component. It most often develops in vegetarian or mostly vegetarian fishes, such as tangs, angelfish, and damselfish. Areas around the face and gill covers lose coloration and take on an eroded appearance. The fish looks debilitated, although it may feed and swim normally. Eventually, the problem spreads along the lateral line, giving the whole fish a decidedly...

Nuts and Bolts

This chapter concerns itself primarily with the practical aspects of incorporating an aquarium into the d cor of a room in your home. The basic premise of the book is that the aquarium's primary function is decorative, as opposed to, say, reproductive, for breeding a certain species of fish. To retain the aquarium's decorative value over the long term requires planning. Unlike nonliving art, the aquarium is dynamic, always changing due to the growth, maturation, and, yes, death, of its...

Venomous Invertebrates

Many people not familiar with the saltwater aquarium trade will be shocked to know this, but sometimes invertebrates are imported that can cause human fatalities. While only the most irresponsible person would do so knowingly, aquarists have brought home colorful specimens without knowing what they are buying. Include yours truly in that group. I fortunately learned about the real dangers in time to avoid harm. The stinging properties of some coelenterates reach epic proportions in a few. Fire...

Classification of Saltwater Fish

Believe it or not, although nearly 25,000 fish species have been described, biologists disagree about what should be called a fish. Old schoolers include the jawless hagfishes and lampreys, as well as sharks, rays, and skates, with the bony fishes in one big vertebrate class. New thinking separates the bony fishes from the others and creates four groups at the taxonomic level of class. Thus, jawless fishes comprise the superclass Agnatha (jawless), with one class for hagfishes and another for...

BreakIn Period

Live rock and live sand seed the aquarium with beneficial bacteria and a host of other organisms. A fish-only system decorated entirely with dead rock and sand must have a source for these microscopic helpers. When you are finished aquascaping, add a bag of commercially packaged live sand on top of the substrate, or place a few small pieces of live rock in the tank. You can also purchase cultured bacterial tank starters, but I prefer using the natural materials. The bacteria need a source of...

Saltwater Aquarium Models

Recipes for Creating Beautiful Aquariums That Thrive Copyright 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. All rights reserved. Photography Aaron Norman Howell Book House Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United...

Sources of Saltwater Specimens

Saltwater aquarium enthusiasts have a plethora of choices for purchasing both supplies and livestock, from local specialty dealers to big-box pet retail chains to mail-order suppliers. Finding the right combination of these for your aquarium needs will facilitate the creation of the tank you want at a cost you can afford. Look for a store with a large saltwater dry goods section and a varied inventory of healthy marine fishes and invertebrates living in well-maintained holding tanks. A dirty,...

Polka Dot Grouper

I hesitate to include this fish because it has been overfished in many parts of its range, both for the aquarium and as a food fish. For a truly bulletproof tank subject, however, this big grouper is hard to best. Aquarium Capacity At least 75 gallons, preferably larger crushed coral rock fine grade coral rock a few large pieces coral skeletons artificial or natural Background see text Chromileptes altivelis up to 3 Start this fish in a large tank, and you won't be faced with a crisis when it...

Water Movement

Sessile invertebrates benefit from strong currents that wash away wastes and bring nutrients and oxygen to them. Fish get exercise by swimming against currents. Any saltwater aquarium benefits from all the water movement you can provide, as long as it is not so vigorous as to slosh water over the rim. The return pipe from the sump discharges water in one direction only, and in a continuous stream. Natural water movement on the reef is multidirectional and intermittent. You can simulate natural...

Plumbing

The most universally useful system design, as mentioned in chapter 5, Nuts and Bolts, employs a sump underneath the tank. Other devices can be used, especially on smaller tanks, but none is as satisfactory. For most of the model designs presented later, I assume this system is used. Otherwise, I will make a specific recommendation. Manufacturers produce many tank sizes reef ready. Drilling the drain and installing the standpipe takes place at the factory. Surrounding the standpipe, a plastic...

Floor Load

You must also make certain the floor can carry the weight. Water itself weighs 8 pounds per gallon. Water to fill the 210-gallon tank in our example, therefore, weighs almost 1700 pounds. Substrate will add more weight, not to mention the tank itself, especially if it is made of glass. You should assume the completed aquarium weighs a ton. Dividing by the tank's footprint of twelve square feet yields a load on the floor of 167 pounds per square foot. Typical building code requirements for a...

Free Standing Installations

If you cannot afford a built-in aquarium, you can have plenty of fun not to mention impress your guests with a skillfully done free-standing system. When making the recommendations that follow, I am assuming that one of the aquarium's main purposes is to be an artistic focal point for your living space. Some of my suggestions, therefore, merely enhance the look of the finished tank without affecting its functionality. You can cut corners on these purely decorative options to save money. Do not...

Condylactis and Friends

The primary distinction between this tank and the Bartholomea aquarium is the need for proper lighting for the anemone. Bartholomea lack zooxanthellae and lighting is thus immaterial to its well-being. This model design is a miniature version of the sea grass bed tank described in the previous chapter. Aquarium Capacity 20 gallons long Life Support live sand, hang-on filter with built-in skimmer Lighting two to four fluorescent lamps Background light green Decoration plastic reproductions of...

Lighting Systems

Fluorescent lamps come in many types that vary in terms of their intensity, color, and the amount of electricity they consume. The most important of these factors from a purely aesthetic point of view is the color. Ever notice how people appear unhealthy under industrial fluorescent lighting This is because the lamps typically used in such applications are the cool white type. This lamp imparts a yellowish green cast to everything, although it is supposedly the best for illuminating a work...

Amyloodinium and Cryptocaryon

Two microorganisms, one a free-swimming protozoan and the other a form of algae, are responsible for almost all of the disease problems with which saltwater aquarium enthusiasts must cope. Both of these parasites can be easily treated with copper medication, but a novice aquarist may fail to notice the telltale signs of disease until it is too late. Don't make this common mistake Any fish that exhibits rapid, shallow fanning of the gill covers or that stays in an area of high water movement...

Tank Proportions and Habitat Types

Unless you plan on ordering a custom-built tank, you will have to make do with one of the stock sizes. In my experience, people usually purchase a tank based on their budget. I would suggest you consider both the size and proportions of any tank in terms of how your intended habitat will fit. Appendix C lists typical aquarium sizes from 20 to 300 gallons. A quick inspection of this table reveals that manufacturers maintain certain proportions from one tank to the next. In aquarium lingo, depth...

Symbiotic Invertebrates

Aside from the well-known symbioses between anemones and clownfish, and between corals and zooxan-thellae, numerous forms of cooperative living have evolved on the reef. Cleaning, for example, is a form of mutualism practiced by many species of crustaceans and fish. The cleaner removes parasites from the host, usually a larger fish, thereby gaining food while performing a valuable service. Distinctive coloration and behavior patterns identify cleaners, and predators often spare them. This has...