Saltwater Aquarium Models

Recipes for Creating Beautiful Aquariums That Thrive

JOHN TULLOCK

nl-Ir

BICENTENNIAL

Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. All rights reserved. Photography © Aaron Norman Howell Book House

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1SBN-13: 978-0-470-04424-7 1SBN-10: 0-470-04424-1

Printed in the United States of America

10 987654321

Book design by Elizabeth Brooks Cover design by José Almaguer

Book production by Wiley Publishing, 1nc. Composition Services table of contents

INTRODUCTION

The Allure of Saltwater Aquariums 1

Hobby versus Passion 2

What You Can Find in This Book 2

How Saltwater Differs from Freshwater 4

Part I

Saltwater Aquarium Basics

CHAPTER 1

Caring for an Aquarium 9

Sources of Saltwater Specimens 10

Choosing a Dealer 10

Purchasing Fish Based on Collecting Practices . . . 10

Selecting Healthy Fish 13

Making Rational Purchasing Decisions 14

Ordering Fish by Mail 15

The Chemistry You Need 15

Salinity 16

pH Measurement 19

Alkalinity Measurement 19

Calcium 20

Dissolved Oxygen 21

Phosphate 21

Iodide 22

Copper 22

Nitrogen Compounds 22

Physical and Chemical Cycles 22

Biological Filtration 23

Gas Exchange 24

Lighting 26

Foods and Feeding 28

Feeding Invertebrates 28

Availability of Foods 30

Feeding 30

Live Foods from the Aquarium Store 31

Culturing Live Foods 32

Routine Maintenance 33

Changing Water 33

Water Tests 35

Record Keeping 39

Equipment Maintenance 40

Using a Maintenance Service 42

CHAPTER 2

Bringing Out the Best in

Saltwater Aquariums 45

Guidelines for Design 45

Selecting Invertebrates and Fishes 47

Types of Fishes 47

Types of Invertebrates 48

Seaweeds 48

Quarantine Tanks 49

Acclimating New Arrivals. . Developing a Stocking Plan

Part II

Saltwater Aquarium Mechanics

CHAPTER 3

Making Your Aquarium Look Real 53

Space Limitations of Tanks 54

Tank Proportions and Habitat Types 54

Lighting 55

Lighting Systems 55

Inverse Square Law 57

Safety and Maintenance 58

Backgrounds 58

Solid Colors 58

Photography 59

Dry Installations 59

Including Terrestrial Components 59

Aquascaping 60

Substrates 60

Decorative Materials 61

Placement 61

Borrowing from Japanese Gardeners 62

Inspiration from Nature 63

Wildness versus Control 63

Personal Expression 63

Idealization 64

Designing with Life 64

Live Rock 64

Live Sand 65

Microinvertebrates 66

CHAPTER 4

Understanding Invertebrates 69

Recognizing Relationships 69

Aquarium Roles 70

Utilitarian Invertebrates 70

Anemones 72

Other Photosynthetic Invertebrates 73

Filter-Feeding Invertebrates 74

Symbiotic Invertebrates 74

Predatory Invertebrates 75

Other Invertebrates 75

Invertebrate Pests 75

Venomous Invertebrates 76

CHAPTER 5

Nuts and Bolts 79

Built-In Installations 79

Size 80

Electricity and Water Supplies 80

Floor Load 80

Lighting 81

Filtration 81

Maintenance 83

Finishes 83

Free-Standing Installations 83

Size 83

Electricity and Water Supplies 84

Floor Load 84

iv Saltwater Aquarium Models iv Saltwater Aquarium Models

Lighting 84

Filtration 85

Maintenance 86

Finishes 86

CHAPTER 6

Troubleshooting 89

Combating Diseases and Parasites in Saltwater Fish 89

Amyloodinium and Cryptocaryon 89

Brooklynella 90

Lymphocystis 91

Flukes, Worms, and Crustacean Parasites 91

Bacterial Infections 91

Injuries 92

Diet-Related Problems 92

Preventing Problems with Saltwater Fish 93

Invertebrate Problems 93

Environmental Causes of Disease 94

Temperature Fluctuations 94

Overcrowding 94

Overfeeding 94

Medicating Unnecessarily 94

Algae Problems 95

CHAPTER 7

Basic Setup Procedures 97

Tank Location 97

Tank Support 97

Filling the Tank 98

Plumbing 99

Water Movement 100

Lighting 100

Testing the System 100

Adding Salt Mix 101

Aquascaping 102

Adding Live Rock and Live Sand 102

Aquascaping with Rock 102

Adding Dry Substrate 103

Break-In Period 103

Settling In with Your Habitat 104

Part III Saltwater Aquarium

Model Designs

CHAPTER 8

Basic Low-Maintenance Designs 109

Maintenance Requirements 109

Filtration Requirements 110

Other System Components 110

The Designs 110

Model Design 1: A Minimalist Look 111

Model Design 2: Cheerful Yellow 112

Model Design 3: Regal Tang Showcase 114

Model Design 4: Colorful Community Tank I: Large 115

Model Design 5: Colorful Community Tank II: Small 117

Model Design 6: Common Lionfish 118

Model Design 7: An Eel's Lair 120

Model Design 8: Polka Dot Grouper 122

Table of Contents v

Model Design 9: Nocturnal Fish 123

Model Design 10: Weird and Wonderful 125

Model Design 11: Shark! 126

CHAPTER 9

Biotope Tanks 127

Reef Biotopes 127

Major Reef Types 128

Zonation 129

System Components 130

Filtration 131

Lighting 131

Water Movement 131

Maintenance Considerations 131

Food Production 131

Water Changes 131

Monitoring 132

Supplementation 132

The Designs 132

Model Design 12: Anemonefish 132

Model Design 13: Anemonefish II 135

Model Design 14: Anemonefish III 136

Model Design 15: Royal Gramma 138

Model Design 16: The Blue Lagoon 140

Model Design 17: Turtle Grass Bed 1 142

Model Design 18: Seahorses 145

Model Design 19: Indo-Pacific Upper Fore Reef 147

Model Design 20: Indo-Pacific Fish Community I 149

Model Design 21: Indo-Pacific Fish Community II 150

vi Saltwater Aquarium Models

Model Design 22: Soft Corals and Seaweeds. . . 151

Model Design 23: Jawfish 153

Model Design 24: Filter-Feeding Invertebrates 155

Model Design 25: Hawaii 157

Model Design 26: Convict Blenny 159

Model Design 27: Easy Corals 160

Model Design 28: Pseudochromis 162

Model Design 29: Dragonets 164

Model Design 30: Florida Keys Garden 165

Model Design 31: Octopus 167

Model Design 32: False Corals 169

Model Design 33: Red Sea I 170

Model Design 34: Red Sea II 171

Model Design 35: Palace for a Queen 172

CHAPTER 10

Small Tanks 175

Special Considerations for Small Tanks 175

Nanotanks 176

The Model Designs 176

Model Design 36: Bartholomea and Friends. . . 177

Model Design 37: Condylactis and Friends. . . . 178

Model Design 38: Heliofungia and Friends. . . 179

Model Design 39: Goby and Shrimp 180

Model Design 40: Harlequin Shrimp 181

Model Design 41: Boxing Crab 182

Model Design 42: Decorator Crab 183

Model Design 43: Elysian Fields 184

Model Design 44: Atlantic-Caribbean Nanotank 185

Model Design 45: Indo-Pacific Nanotank . . . . 186

Part IV The Appendixes

APPENDIX A

Catalog of Saltwater Fish 189

Classification of Saltwater Fish 189

Cross-Reference Lists 191

APPENDIX B

Catalog of Invertebrates, Seaweeds, and Marine Plants 221

Classification of Invertebrates 221

Phylum Porifera (Sponges) 222

Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 223

Phylum Nemertina (Ribbon Worms) 223

Phylum Phoronida (Entoprocts, Phoronid Worms) 223

Phylum Brachiopoda (Lamp Shells, Brachiopods) 223

Phylum Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) 224

Phylum Mollusca (Mollusks) 224

Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms) 225

Minor Worm Phyla 225

Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods) 225

Phylum Echinodermata (Spiny Skins) 227

Phylum Chordata (Chordates) 227

Cross-Reference Lists 228

Over Twenty Seaweeds and Saltwater Plants. . . . 264

APPENDIX C

Tank Specifications 267

APPENDIX D

Measurements and Conversions 269

Water 269

Liquid Measure 269

Surface Area 269

Light Intensity 270

Temperature Conversions 270

Alkalinity Conversions 270

INDEX 271

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