As organic because they all contain the element carbon in their

The list of these things is quite lengthy, and includes such goodies as amino acids, proteins, phenols, creosols, terpenoids, fats, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, plant hormones, vitamins, carotenoids and various organic acids such as fatty, acetic, lactic, glycolic, malic and citric (deGraaf, 1968 Moe, 1989). Fortunately for us, we generally lump all these things together under the all-encompassing term, dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These organic substances can have...

Nitrate

Nitrate is discussed in detail in chapters 2 and 9. The nitrate level in reef aquariums should be less than lppm as nitrate-nitrogen ideally, but need not be maintained so low. In fact, elevated nitrate levels as high as 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen (approximately 40 ppm nitrate ion) may encourage more rapid growth of both soft and stony corals (D. Stiiber, pers. comm.). The principal disadvantage to higher nitrate levels is the affect on alkalinity and pH described in the section on control of...

Subclass Opisthobranchia

Common Names Nudibranchs, Sea Slugs Nudibranchs, or sea slugs, are found in all the world's oceans. They exhibit a wide range of body forms, colours and feeding preferences. It is these feeding preferences that we are most concerned with. Most nudibranch species are quite specific in what they will eat, often feeding only on one species of prey, while others have more catholic diets, feeding on several different species within a family. Most nudibranchs only have a maximum life span of 1-2...

Crabs

Crabs are mostly omnivorous, but there are several primarily herbivorous species that can be utilized in a reef aquarium. We discourage their use in small reef aquariums (less than 400 liters 100 gal.) because the crabs generally grow large enough to present a threat to fish, which they can capture at night. The two types of herbivorous crabs commonly available are the Sally Lightfoot crab, Percnon gibbesi, and the various hardback or coral crabs, Mithraxspp. Though these crabs are especially...

Caution in Closed Systems

Both Z-spar and 20 minute epoxy produce a milky substance in the water when first spread onto the rocks. In the 250 gallon open system aquariums at the Waikiki Aquarium this substance has not bothered fish or invertebrates at all (B. Carlson, pers, comm.). However, it is possible that fish and invertebrates in smaller, closed system aquariums could be affected by the milky substance. We recommend that you set up a separate aquarium, bucket, or other container with sea water, for adhering rocks...

Instead of sand Jaubert 1991 Water enters and exits such a

Chamber, but is not forced through the media, encouraging the diffusion process and preventing the media from becoming clogged (Jaubert, 1991). The confined water behind the partition in these reactor tanks has an average oxygen concentration of 1 mg L. If it should rise above 1.5 mg L, denitrification is incomplete, producing excess nitrite. If it should fall below 0.5 mg L, the production of toxic hydrogen sulfide occurs. The thickness of the sand layer or fibrous material used determines the...

Establishing an Aquarium without a Trickle Filter

Setting up an aquarium without a trickle filter has as many methods as there are aquarists who have tried it. Still, at least two distinct subdivisions exist starting with seeded live rock and starting with foul, stinking, rotten rock. As most aquarists obtain their rock in the latter condition, we will consider that method first. When live rock is first received it should be rinsed in saltwater in order to remove such goodies as newspaper ink (from the paper used to wrap it and keep it moist),...

Lighting the Reef Aquarium

Reef Aquarium

Sunlight is essential for life on the coral reef. Our aquariums rely on a suitable artificial light source. What type of lighting is best to use for reef aquariums There is no best type of lighting, but there are considerations that determine generally what lights are best for a particular aquarium. There are also some rules about the usage of different types of lights, and the proper orientation of marinelife in the aquarium. Your choice from an enormous range of workable lighting options...

Quick Setting Portland Cements Thorite

The quick-set type of pure portland cement is an ideal material for permanently cementing corals in place because it is very adhesive even to damp surfaces, sets in about one hour, is non-toxic, and strong (Bronikowski, 1982 1993). Bronikowski exposes the horny skeleton of gorgonians at the base, and dries it with paper towels. Then he positions the gorgonian on a rock base outside the aquarium, applying a thick mix of the quick-setting cement on the exposed part to hold it in place. The cement...

Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, the blue-green, smear or grease algae are a potential source of nitrate to the closed system aquarium since they have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen dissolved in the water and incorporate it in their tissue. As herbivores graze these algae, the nitrogen which has been fixed is converted to ammonia, and thus enters the pathway to nitrate (see chapter 2). Methods of Nitrate Control Protein Skimming Protein skimming removes some amino acids from the water along with the...

Tank Selection and Construction

The main advantage of building your own tank is that you can tailor it to fit exactly where you want it. We will not attempt to go into the details of how to make an aquarium, but will briefly describe the most common options. See Moe (1982, 1992), Hunnam et al., (1989), and Dewey (1986) for more detailed descriptions of tank construction techniques. The most common and easiest to construct are all-glass aquariums using silicone adhesive caulk as a sealant. Be sure that you buy a brand that is...

Poor expansion

If the coral is not expanding well, it may or may not be reason for concern. In the morning, wrhen the lights have only just come on, the condition is normal. Late in the afternoon, poor expansion usually indicates that the coral is being disturbed by fish or neighbouring corals. Other possibilities include the temperature, pollution in the water, or low dKH and pH. A general disturbance in the aquarium, as from the shopkeeper's hand removing a nearby coral, may also result in a poorly expanded...

Types of Coral Reefs

Coral reefs can be divided into two basic classes, shelf reefs and oceanic reefs Wood, 1983 . Shelf reefs grow on the continental shelf that surround the major continents, while oceanic reefs develop in deeper waters, beyond the continental shelf. Oceanic reefs generally develop along the slopes of submarine mountains, often of volcanic origin, that reach within a few hundred metres of the surface. In some cases, such as Hawaii and Tahiti, these volcanic mountains will extend above the water...

Phosphate

Phosphate can cause problems in marine aquaria, especially reef aquaria if allowed to build to levels above 0.1 ppm as orthophosphate. Elevated phosphate levels will fuel unwanted algae growth and interfere with the calcification processes of corals and coralline algae. Phosphates are present in many forms in the aquarium, and not all of them can be easily measured. The majority of phosphate test kits used by aquarists measure only inorganic phosphate orthophosphate and ignore organic...

Deep Some exporters have transplanted colonies of rare local soft

Corals and anemones to sites near their facility so that they can have a nearby source for them P. Wilkens, pers. comm. . This form of coral farming can supply our hobby with many of the popular species. The Tridacna spp. clams available to hobbyists are mostly farm raised, though some w ild caught specimens of T. maxima, T. crocea, and T. squamosa are occasionally available. We expect i hat in the near future all Tridacna clams available to hobbyists will be tank raised. While most aquarists...

Ammonium and Nitrite

Normally, ammonium and nitrite levels in an established aquarium will be zero. If you can measure detectable ammonia or nitrite, your aquarium is new and has not yet cycled completely or you have something decaying in the aquarium. You should carefully inspect your aquarium for any decaying animals, food or live rock, and remove it immediately. Decaying live rock is easily recognized by the smell and the white film that usually accompanies it. Ammonium and nitrite can also be produced in the...

Cyanoacrylate

Cyanoacrylate glues can be used for attaching small coral fragments to substrates, including glass, and for reattaching lightweight broken branches. Unless the two pieces fit together perfectly, the bond that forms is brittle, and easily broken. The value of its use is to hold a piece in place until it has the chance to grow and form a more permanent attachment. Cyanoacrylate works best if the items being attached can be partially dried, as we described for quick-setting cements. It does work...

Phylum Arthropoda

Cnistaceans include many of the invertebrates that we commonly encounter in the marine aquarium such as amphipods, barnacles, copepods, crabs, lobsters, Mantis shrimp and true shrimp. Very little is known about the food, feeding methods or behaviour of reef crustaceans Bruce, 1984 . A large number of cnistaceans live symbiotically with other reef inhabitants such as corals, gorgonians, sponges, sea squirts, clams, snails, starfish, sea cucumbers, sea urchins and anemones. In many of these...

Placement

Tridacnid Clams

Since these animals love light, one is often tempted to place them close to the surface. Be warned, however, that they can close their shells with some force and can expel a surprising amount of water out of their siphons and out of the tank In some cases, they can also trap small, slow moving fish that rest on their mantle, such as mandarins, gobies, hawkfish or blennies Achterkamp, 1987a . When first placing the clam into the aquarium make sure that the byssal opening is placed flush against...

Subclass Cirripedia

Most reef barnacles belong to the order Thoracica and many of them live in association with sponges and corals Bruce, 1984 . These barnacles are often encountered by the aquarist as they are commonly found growing on Euphyllia corals, especially E. glabrescens. They do not bother the coral, but merely live in association with it, filter feeding from the water column. There are, however, parasitic barnacles belonging to the order Ascothoracica that can be either external or internal parasites....

Live Rock

Many of you are probably wondering where biological filtration will take place if there is no trickle filter. The answer is in the live rock. The use of live rock as a biological filter medium within the aquarium allows for the establishment of natural biological processes such as occur on the reef. That marine aquaria could be simple and very natural was recognized by Lee Chin Eng, the father of the natural system aquarium Eng, 1961 1976 . The establishment of biological filtration and a...

Preface

The marine aquarium hobby, if we disregard the millenium-old cultivation and propagation of goldfish, is older than the freshwater hobby. Approximately in the mid-nineteenth century the marine hobby began in Great Britain, from whence it rapidly expanded throughout central Europe. Before me lies the oldest reference book in the German languge, which appeared in 1872 and is, for me, a bibliophilic treasure. What is, then, this curious phenomenon which lures people of the most diverse education,...

Order Mesoagastropoda

Common Names Box Snails, Sundial Snails One of the most commonly encountered coral predators is the Checkered Box snail, Heliacus areola. These snails are often found nestled between the polyps of a zoanthid colony on which they feed at night. They outstretch their extendible proboscis and make a small hole near the base of the polyp from which they proceed to suck out the contents. The polyp eventually shrivels up and falls Heliacus snail feeding on zoanthids. S.W. Michael. off the rock...

The dry shipping technique is as follows

Dry Shipping Corals

Wrap the specimens up loosely in strips of plastic or with bubble wrap. Plastic strips roughly 1 to 2 cm broad can be cut from heavy duty fish shipping bags using a pocket knife. If the plastic is from too thin a material i.e. plastic garbage bags , it will be difficult to handle and will collapse into a useless mass when wet. Note The plastic strips or bubblewrap should be clean. Old plastic bags may have salt or bacteria on them, and should be avoided. Also avoid re-using the plastic strips....

Coral Skeletons

Coral Soft Stony Skeletons

One can build a really nice reef structure using dead coral skeletons instead of live rock. Many Dutch hobbyists build their reef tanks this way Delbeek, 1992 . As we said before, once the tank is set up, a few pieces of live rock with coralline algae will seed the system, and with herbivores, control of nutrients, and care of the calcium and alkalinity levels, the coralline al ae can be encouraged to dominate, and problem algae growth can be eliminated. Using monofilament line, one can attach...

Undesirable Algae in Closed Systems

This is the topic that is the biggest stumbling block for everyone. We're told that the reef is a nutrient poor environment. Compared to our aquariums it is. It's hard to call the reef one environment, since there are many different zones of different reefs in different localities around the world see chapter 1, Reef Zonation . In general, the further out from shore, the further out in the open ocean that a reef occurs, the more nutrient poor it will be. Land runoff and the waste from birds and...

Monofilament Line aka fishing line nylon wire

Monofilament is one of the most versatile construction aids for building the aquascape. Its advantages include, that it is inert, inexpensive, strong, and invisible. It is easy to work with if you have good manual dexterity, can tie knots, and use a scissors. In addition, its thin diameter allows you to use it in place of cable ties where the ties would be too broad. It is the ideal aid to attaching zoanthids, soft corals, or cuttings from corals to live rock, and when the specimen has made a...

Activated Carbon

Many of us are familiar with the use of charcoal in the corner-box filters in freshwater aquariums. These usually consisted of small, shiny, irregularly-shaped pieces of bone or wood charcoal. This type of carbon is not really suitable for use in marine aquariums, and has been replaced by activated carbon. In this form the carbon has been subjected to extremely high pressures and temperatures to drive out all impurities and gases leaving behind extremely porous and pure grains of carbon....

Molecular Adsorption Filters

Although this form of chemical filtration is a relatively new addition to marine aquariums, there has been a rapid proliferation of products for the removal of various organics, nitrates, and phosphates. This type of filtration usually consists of styrene or acrylic polymers that selectively adsorb polar organics and nitrogen containing compounds onto their surface Mae, 1989 . Molecular adsorption media should be situated so that water is forced through the medium, not around it, with adequate...

Trouble Shooting Ailing Corals and Tridacnid Clams Brown Jelly

Disintegration of coral tissue sometimes proceeds as a front or band of what looks like brown jelly Behind the front, hard corals show a white, denuded skeleton in front is healthy tissue. The front can move several inches per day and may rapidly consume an entire coral head. Sometimes a large portion of the head can turn to jelly1' when it is injured. In soft corals such as Xenia spp., entire colonies can be totally consumed within a day or two. If this brown matter is examined under the...

In mgL The standard conversion is to multiply the calcium

Also, some kits are not designed to measure high calcium levels this is indicated in the instructions . Measurement of water with over 400 mg L may require that the test sample be diluted. A dilution using pure freshwater should be performed, usually by half, which will require a multiplication of the final value by 2. Performing such dilutions additionally saves on the consumption of the titrant. Generally, calcium test kits are designed to give a range of calcium, but...

Automatic water makeup system Then the frequency of

Involvement by the aquarist depends on the capacity of the freshwater reservoir and the rate of evaporation of the tank. Automatic water make-up systems can be made with a freshwater reservoir and gravity fed float valve, a float switch and pump arrangement, or a metering pump. Always have a reservoir to draw from. Never use a make-up system attached directly to the water mains of the house, unless you want to find your salt water aquarium suddenly full of freshwater, and your carpet, driveway,...

Molybdenum

The addition of molybdenum to aquariums has become popular in the past few- years in North America, after reports of its use in aquariums by Peter Wilkens. Some recent manufacturers of molybdenum containing trace element supplements claim that it benefits stony corals and prevents separation of the tissue from the skeleton. In fact, no such function of molybdenum has been demonstrated. The value of molybdenum for aquariums is its use by various forms of bacteria, including cyanobacteria,...

Before needing replacement Moe 1989 Wilkens and Birkholz

Generally the presence of yellowing substances in the water can be used as a guide to determine if your GAC needs replacing, since these compounds are easily removed by GAC, and start to accumulate when the GAC begins to lose its activity. Moe 1989 describes the following method. Obtain a strip of white plastic and colour one half a faint yellow with a non-water soluble marker. Place the strip in the water at one end of the tank and observe from the opposite end. When you can no longer...

Is A Protein Skimmer Better Than Ozone Reactor For Ozone

Ozone is a naturally occurring gas in the upper atmosphere, where its UV absorbing properties have been given wide exposure in news reports, regarding its recent depletion caused by chlorofluorocarbons CFC's . Ozone is a powerful oxidant since it consists of three atoms of oxygen O2 and readily releases the extra oxygen atom to become the more stable form of oxygen gas, O It is this property that we utilize in the aquarium to oxidize organic compounds. Unfortunately, other potentially harmful...

Solution because C02 from the air reacts with calcium ions to yield

Furthermore, mixing the powder that settles on the bottom of the container in old kalkwasser may sometimes cause the alkalinity to drop in the aquarium. This powder is not undissolved calcium hydroxide, it is calcium carbonate which has precipitated from the water, and it will not re-dissolve unless exposed to very low pH. It is hypothesized that when these fine particles of pure calcium carbonate are added to the aquarium, the alkaline micro-environment around them...

Holding Your Catch

Hold specimens in buckets or, preferably, shallow trays such as the white plastic refrigerator trays, with air pumps and air stones for water circulation. Strong water circulation is very important. Locate the holding containers in a cool place, ideally cooler than 29 C 80 F , where they will receive some sunlight. A small fluorescent lamp may also be used for illumination. It is useful to collect some small shells or coral skeletons from shore to prop the specimens up, and to provide a new...

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity is used to measure the relative salinity of seawater compared to distilled water. Distilled water has a specific gravity of 1.000 while seawater ranges from 1.022 to 1.030. The acceptable range for specific gravity is between 1.015 and 1.032. Specific gravity values depend on the temperature of the water, and so aquarists' measurements of specific gravity are usually only approximate. Estimates of salinity based on specific gravity maybe much lower than the actual value see...

Mechanical Filtration

The main function of a mechanical filter is to remove large particles from the water before they begin to decay. This helps to reduce the amount of substrate or stuff' available for mineralizing bacteria to convert into ammonia and other substances. The mechanical filter could be considered equivalent to the currents and tidal flushing on a natural reef, as both help to remove particulates. The key to proper mechanical filter design, if one is used at all, lies in regular cleaning. The easier...

Scientific Name Caulastrea Dana 1846

Common Names Torch, Trumpet, Bullseye, Candycane Coral Colour Caulastrea Jure at a Dana, 1846 is beautifully coloured, usually brown polyps with neon green centers. The brown portion also has white stripes. Occasionally entirely green or brown, with or without stripes. Caulastrea echini lata Edwards and Haime, 1849 is usually grayish-green. Caulastrea curvata Wijsman-Best, 1972 may have colouration like C. Ji t rcata or like C. ech inn lata. Distinguishing Characteristics Colonies phaceloid. In...

Scientific Name Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus 1758

Common Names Horse's Hoof, Bear Paw or Strawberry Clam Colour Mantle is dull greenish-brown to grey with some faint gold stripes. Distinguishing Characteristics Mantle does not extend past the edge of the shell shells thick and strongly ribbed with reddish blotches incurrent aperture without tentacles and very narrow byssal opening bordered with interlocking teeth Lucas, 1988 . The name, horse's hoop refers to the appearance of the shell when the clam is resting on its byssal opening with the...

Bleaching

Loss of the symbiotic zooxanthellae makes the coral or clam look white, pale yellow or pale green, as if it had been dipped in bleach. The tissue is still alive, but now it is transparent. Bear in mind that some corals are naturally quite pale brown or yellow, especially if they come from a shallow, heavily illuminated zone. Corals and clams that have undergone bleaching appear less healthy than they should, generally exhibiting poor tissue expansion. In some cases there is no actual reduction...

Trace Element Additions Iodine

Natural seawater has about 60 parts per billion of iodine, including all forms such as iodide, iodate, and organically bound iodine. This value is the standard for natural oceanic seawater, away from coastal influences. We suspect that iodine values in coastal water are somewhat higher, as a result of concentration of iodine by algae in their tissues, and subsequent release of organic iodine when the algae decompose. If this is true, then oceanic reefs may be more iodine limited than coastal...

Suborder Doridacea

The Doridacea contain over 25 families and is the most familiar form of nudibranch to aquarists. They are characterized by having two prominent rhinophores horn-like projections on the head that are involved in chemoreception. Dorids also have a dorso- Above Phyllida nudibranchs can release toxins into the water. S.W. Michael. A dorid nudibranch on the left and a small aeolid nudibranch on the right. S.W. Michael. ventrally flattened body where the edge of the back extends over the foot. At the...

Packets of Zooxanthellae Emitted from the Mouth

The appearance of dark brown strings or pellets emitted from the mouth of a coral or the exhalent siphon of a tridacnid clam is an indication that it is regulating the population of zooxanthellae in its tissues. It is normal for them to do this periodically, especially when they are first placed in the aquarium or moved. The symbiotic relationship between these organisms and zooxanthellae depends on a variety of environmental factors, most important of which are temperature, light intensity and...

Chapter One The Reef in Nature

One of the main goals in keeping coral reef aquariums should be to recreate the environment as closely as possible. Not only the design of the aquarium, but also the selection of the organisms should be based upon knowledge of the natural environment. Yet, there are almost as many different reef environments as there are marine aquarium hobbyists. This fact makes it almost impossible to generalize when it comes to recommending strategies for recreating reef environments. Too often aquarists tiy...

Poor Coral and Clam Tissue Expansion

Euphyllia Feeding Tentacles

At times a coral or clam will not expand fully, or will remain completely contracted for several days or longer. There can be quite a few reasons for this occurring, some of which are mentioned above it is mainly a process of eliminating the possibilities. Certain soft corals and at least one stony coral genus, Pontes, produce a waxy film that results in the coral being closed for a number of days. This film is eventually shed, but this process can be aided by directing a current across the...

Wave Buckets

Dump Bucket Fish Tank

Surge motion in the aquarium can he generated by means of a simple device called a wave or dump bucket. See diagram. Water being returned to the aquarium is fed into the bucket. When the weight of the water it contains creates an imbalance, the bucket tips over. The bucket pivot points can be made from plastic bearings or just pvc pipes of different diameter. Salt entering the bearings or rubbing parts will hinder the performance and may erode the plastic with time and the continuous turning of...

Lighting Parameters

Actinic Blue Phillips Spectrum

Three important qualities of light are of most concern to the aquarium keeper photoperiod, spectrum, and intensity. The photoperiod refers to the duration of illumination how long the day is. In our experience the best results are achieved when the day length is ten to twelve hours, not longer. Photosynthetic organisms need a dark period just as much as they need light. Since most reef aquaria are illuminated with more than one light source, it is convenient and desirable, though not absolutely...

Outer collection cup so that only a small portion extends beyond

Make sure the bore is not much larger tiian 1 cm 0.5 in. in diameter. Bait and place the trap as before and remove the next day. This time the worms will have gotten too fat to fit through the bore of the funnel Nooyen, 1990 . Smaller worms in the substrate are relatively easy to remove, but their large numbers make the task a difficult one, and considering their beneficial aspects, an unnecessary one. If you merely wish to reduce the numbers of worms, a technique that works well is...

Eggcrate

Aquarium Egg Crate

In order to minimize the rocks' contact with the bottom and prevent the formation of dirt traps, some people use eggcrate as an elevated, open base. Eggcrate is manufactured as a diffuser for overhead fluorescent lights. It is a grid-like plastic material with squares approximately 1 cm 0.5 inch wide. The typical color is white, but it is also available in black. Metallic eggcrate, manufactured to lend a high-tech look to overhead fluorescents, is probably unsuitable for use inside aquariums....

Pistons and Paddles

Aquarium Overflow

Wre have seen three other surge devices employed in aquariums in our travels to different public aquaria. The National Aquarium in Baltimore uses a paddle system controlled by an hydraulic arm to generate a beautiful back and forth surge in their living coral reef exhibit. The paddle is located behind the artificial rock-work. We have seen similar paddle systems moved by motor or air compressor at the Virginia Beach Science Museum and the New7 York Aquarium. The most magnificent surge device at...

Family Hippolytidae

Hippolytidae

Shrimp of the genus Savon are occasionally offered for sale to aquarists. When kept in fish only aquariums, they make very Saron marmoratus female . A.J. Nilsen. interesting additions. They are also easy to sex and should prove to be a good breeding challenge. However, they can wreak havoc in a reef aquarium with corals and clams. The Marble shrimp, Saron marmoratus, so named due to their green mottled appearance although they can alter their colour to blend in with the background , is a large...

Scientific Names Plerogyra sinuosa Dana 1846 Physogyra lichtensteini Edwards and Haime 1851

Common Names Bubble Coral, Pearl Coral, Bladder Coral Colour Usually whitish gray, bluish gray, or brown. Sometimes green, especially the unidentified Plerogyra species described below. Plerogyra sinuosa often has a cats-eye appearance in the bubbles. Distinguishing Characteristics Three species of bubble corals are imported from Indonesia, Plerogyra sinuosa Dana, 1846 , Pbysogyra lichtensteini Edwards and Haime, 1851, and an unidentified Plerogyra sp. All have bubble-like polyp vesicles, light...

From terrestrial sources such as freshwater runoff resulting in

This is particularly pronounced when the land is heavily forested. Islands or coastlines that are drier tend to show reef formations more like those found on oceanic reefs. Both stony and soft coral diversity tends to be lower on near-shore reefs Along the coastline, one can often find extensive mangrove beds. These areas are home to many of the juvenile forms of creatures found on the nearby reef. It is not unusual to find some stony corals in this area as well,...

Subclass Malacostraca Superorder Hoplocarida

Common Names Mantis Shrimp, Thumb Splitters Mantis shrimp are the bane of almost every reef aquarist. We all dread hearing that tell-tale snapping sound coming from deep within the rock-work of our aquaria. These shrimp are voracious predators feeding on small fish, shrimp, worms, clams and crabs. They have an elongated body with two well-developed eyes located on short stalks, and a pair of powerful pincers held folded underneath the body similar to the terrestrial praying mantis. There are...

Acontia Filaments

Sometimes a stressed coral may appear to be covered with fine white strings. These are its digestive filaments that can be ejected externally for defensive purposes see photo chapter 3 . Acontia are used to attack neighboring corals and where they contact another species, tissue disintegration is sure to follow. The release of terpenoid compounds by soft corals can also stimulate acontia release in stony corals, as can the presence of other noxious compounds in the water. Supersaturation of...

Light

We have successfully kept tridacnid clams under both fluorescent R.O., H.O. and V.H.O. and metal halide H.Q.I. lighting systems. However, the more light you give them the better they will do. Also, with brighter light you can place them lower in the aquarium. To really appreciate the colours of these animals, they should be viewed from a downward angle. Lower light intensity systems will require that the clams be placed closer to the surface, and therefore the brilliant colours will not be as...

Scientific Name Tridacna gigas Linnaeus 1758

Gigas Clam For Sale

Common Names Giant Clam, Gigas Clam Colour The mantle of this species is usually golden brown, yellow or green, and has numerous iridescent blue or green spots on its surface, particularly around the edges. In larger specimens the blue spots become so numerous that the whole mantle may appear bluish or purplish. Numerous pale or clear spots, especially Upper and lateral view of shell Below Map with geographical distribution of the clam. After Lucas 1988. Note Although the map indicates the...

Chapter Seven

Live Stony Coral

These living ecosystems we create, these aquariums, are really living works of art each living plant or animal a combination of colour, pattern and texture. In creating a natural environment we make a sculpture that grows, and this creative process is perhaps the most satisfying aspect of the hobby. In the creation of your living masterpiece you have choices to make, and it is wise to plan from the start what kind of reef you wish to create, what it will look like and what you plan to grow....

Temperature

Temperature is the most critical physical parameter for captive reef systems. If all other parameters are ideal, but the temperature is not, the reef will not thrive see chapter 2 . The temperature in reef aquariums should be between 21-27 C 70-80 F for the best results, and as stable as possible. In our experience, a temperature of 23-24 C 74-76 F is ideal. If the temperature varies plus or minus one or two degrees Fahrenheit during the course of the day, this is not a problem. The most common...

Coral Reef Flat

Behind the outer reef flat lies an area of aligned corals, where tongues of sand and rubble extend leeward giving a pronounced spur and groove appearance. Stony corals such as Acropora and Pocillopora are dominant in these areas, along with Goniastrea, Favia, Favitesand Porites Veron, 1986 Davies et al,1984 . Waves carry sand and rubble from these areas to the sand flat and lagoon areas behind them Davies et a ., 1984 . The coral reef hat gives way to a sandy area in some reefs. These areas are...

As a result of a genetic trait G Hesliim oers comm

Clam Shell

Below Map with geographical distribution of the clam. After Lucas 1988. A possible hybrid cross between T. derasa and T. gigas, as mentioned in the text. The specimen is tank-raised. It is also possible that this is only a localized form of T. derasa with features similar to T. gigas. Note the clear windows at the center of the mantle, like T. gigas, and the unusual small teardrop-shaped clear windows scattered over the mantle. J.C. Delbeek. Compare the hybrid or unusual form of T. derasa on...

Scientific Name Tridacna tevoroa Lucas Ledua and Braley 1990

Map Cnidarians Habitats

Colour The mantle is predominantly brownish-grey in colour and rugose having many protuberences . The mantle colour is usually uniform, but it may also have some pattern, with numerous pale spots, including but not limited to the tip of the exhalent siphon and grooves between the mantle protuberences. Distinguishing Characteristics Similar to T. derosa but has a thinner, sharper edged shell more prominent guard tentacles on the incurrent siphon a rugose mantle and red bands on the shell near...

Systems for Maintaining Corals and Clams

Before you can begin planning an aquarium, its location, filtration, lighting, size etc., you must have some idea of what it is you will be keeping. Will you be keeping hard corals, soft corals or a mixture of these Will the aquarium be invertebrates only or fish and invertebrates will macroalgae also be included The decision you make here affects not only the types of organisms you will keep, but also the filtration system used, the amount and type of lighting, the size of the aquarium, and...

Scientific Name Tridacna maxima Roding 1798

Common Names Great, Maxima, or Rugose Clam Colour Tridacna maxima displays a wide variety of colours and patterns, exhibiting combinations of blue, brown, green, grey, purple and yellow in stripes, blotches and spots. Usually there are larger areas of solid colour, such as blue, than in the other species. For example, certain individuals from the Red Sea can be almost solid blue. Often but not always has a prominent row of black pigmented eye spots along the outer edge of the mantle....

True Crabs

Soft Coral Crab

True crabs come in many different shapes and sizes but they all possess flattened bodies, short antennae and a small abdomen tightly held against their underside. These crabs have filled many ecological niches ranging from herbivores to scavengers some are commensals and some are crawlers while still others are swimmers. We offer here only a few examples that you may find in your aquarium. Family Xanthidae Common Name Stone Crabs This family is one of the most well-represented on the reef and...

Order Milleporina

Fire Coral Aquarium Fast Growing

Family Milleporidae Fleming, 1828 Scientific Name Milleporaspp. Linnaeus, 1758 Common Names Fire Coral, Ridge Coral Although fire corals are not true stony corals, we include them here because of their resemblance to them, and similar requirements. Fire corals are hydrozoans, more closely related to jellyfish. Milleporasp. growing in a reef aquarium. Note that new tissue has encrusted over the adjacent rock. Such growth proceeds very rapidly, and can harm soft corals such as gorgonians. J.C....

Tongue Coral Characteristics

Long Tongue Morph

Caulastrea ecbinulata and C. curvata also expand well when they receive enough light. Caulastrea species feed well at night, hut need not be led at all. Aquarium Reproduction Individual polyps divide into two, three, or four new polyps, and colonies can proliferate rapidly. In C. furcata and C. curvata, boring sponges and worms weaken the columns, causing branches to fall away from the main colony. Such fragmentation produces daughter colonies. Both species are...

Scientific Name Tridacna ferasa Roding 1819

Stony Corals

Common Names Smooth Giant Clam or Derasa Clam Colour Tridacna derasa generally have either a striped pattern of wravy lines or a spotted pattern consisting of various combinations of orange, yellow, black, blue and white. Some specimens can also have brilliant blue or green lines. Distinguishing Characteristics Heavy, very plain shell absence of strong ribbing and scutes incurrent aperture has pronounced tentacles loses byssus gland as it grows very small, narrow byssus gland opening most have...

Shipping Xenia

The technique used to ship Xenia was developed by Peter Wilkens, and continues to be used today. Since Xenia spp. foul very rapidly when maintained on the bottom of a stagnant container of water, Wilkens tried floating the colonies upside-down attached to a piece of styrofoam by means of a rubber band. The.technique works extremely well for most species. It is important to use very clean water, and it is beneficial to allow the specimens to clean themselves1' first by the drying and re-wretting...

Spectacular Reef Aquariums from Around the World

4000 Aquarium

Imagine what it would be like to own a reef aquarium like this In our travels we have encountered some pretty amazing public and private reef aquariums, and we thought it would be inspirational to give a tour of some of these tanks. Their beauty demonstrates the kind of success that one can attain. With perseverance, patience, and by following the techniques described in this book, one really can reproduce thriving ecosystems like these. We also want to show some variation in the types of...

ZSpar Splash Zone Compound A 788

This compound is a two-part epoxy putty. After mixing equal parts of A and B according to the directions, some heat will be generated, but not enough to really be a problem underwater. Virtually all epoxies are very sticky above water, but do not adhere well when wet. Z-Spar loses enough stickiness to make it easy to handle if your gloved fingers are wet, but one of the unique characteristics of this compound is that it still stays relatively sticky and adheres well to rocks even underwater....

Order Neogastropoda

Small Snails Fish Tank

Family Muricidae Common Name Oyster Drills Above Two unidentified muricidae snails feeding on Zoanthussp. colonial anemones from Indonesia. J. Sprung. Oyster drills, belonging to the genus Urosalpinx, are occasionally introduced into the aquarium with live rock. These small snails use a tongue-like appendage called a radula to bore a hole in the shell of an oyster and suck out the contents. They should be removed as a precaution to prevent any damage to any other bivalves in the aquarium....

Polyurethane Foam

Coraline Algae Styrofoam

Some large public and private reef aquariums in Europe have very little limestone rock at all in them. What looks like rock in these tanks is actually a polyurethane foam substance which has been shaped to look like rock. The surface is apparently very attractive to coralline algae which rapidly colonize it, making it virtually indistinguishable from the real McCoy. The Aquaria-Vattenmuseet in Stockholm, Sweden, Hagenbeck s Tierpark in Hamburg, Germany and the Lobbecke Museum in Dusseldorf have...

Phylum Cnidaria

Aiptasia spp. anemones are probably one of the most bothersome pests in the reef aquarium. In some cases they can proliferate so quickly that they can completely cover an entire aquarium in only a few months. In aquariums that receive regular feedings, they can multiply even faster. Some aquarists consider this is a desirable thing and they proudly present these aquariums as reef tanks'1, Aiptasia anemones stinging a colony of star polyps, Pachyclavularia sp. S.W. Michael. however, we do not...

Family Acroporidae Verrill 1902 Scientific Name Acropora spp Oken 1815

Common Names Staghorn Coral, Acropora Colour Usually golden-brown with pale tips that may lie white, pink, purple, blue, or green. Whole colonies may also be vividly coloured, with blue, pink, purple, orange, green, and yellow being typical in the Pacific. Caribbean species seem to be only shades of brown to yellow. Distinguishing Characteristics Acropora species are characterized by rapidly growing terminal polyps at the tips of branches. Similar Species The only other species covered by this...

Purchasing Tridacnid Clams

When tridacnid clams are first imported, they generally exhibit a behaviour called gaping. This means that the shell is fully open, the mantle is poorly extended and the inhalant siphon widely stretched. As this condition eventually passes the inhalant siphon will gape less, the shell will not be open as much and the mantle will begin to expand. If, however, the clam is kept under unsuitable light conditions, is damaged or unhealthy, this gaping behaviour will continue and the mantle will begin...

Scientific Name Tridacna crocea Lamarck 1819

Common Names Boring or Crocus Clam, Crocea clam Colour Tridacna crocea is probably the most colourful member of this genus. Colours can include various mixtures of blue, purple, yellow, green, brown, gold, and orange in a variety of patterns. The mantle usually has numerous iridescent blue, yellow or green blotches, small spots or lines. Below Map with geographical distribution of the clam. After Lucas 1988. Distinguishing Characteristics Large, wide byssus gland opening normally smooth shell...

Alternative Filtration Systems

Lee Eng Filtration System

In the late 1950s and early 60s Lee Chin Eng, an aquarist who lived in Indonesia, reported great success with a method of aquarium keeping that he called nature s system Eng, 1961 . Mr. Eng used unfiltered seawater, and circulation in his aquariums was achieved with air bubblers within the tank, either airstones or open ended air hoses for larger bubbles. The aquarium decor consisted of live rocks with attached plants and invertebrates, and live corals. His technique, now called the natural...

Scientific Name Pavona spp Lamarck 1801

Sexual Reproduction Pocillopora

Common Names Lettuce Coral, Cactus Coral, Leaf Coral Several species of Pavona have been grown in reef aquaria, getting their start as small colonies attached to live rock with other invertebrates such as mushroom anemones or soft corals. Aquarists with a sharp eye can spot such little treasures and grow nice colonies from them. Pavona cactus Forskal, 1775 and Pavona decussata Dana, 1846 are the most often encountered species. Colour Brown with slight greenish hue Distinguishing Characteristics...

Nutrient Regulation on Coral Reefs

Nutrients dissolved in the aquatic environment make life possible since aquatic organisms have to directly or indirectly extract most of their required elements from the water that surrounds them. The availability of organic and inorganic nutrients limits biological productivity. Coral reefs develop best in nutrient poor water, but reef communities may also exist in more nutrient rich coastal waters. In order to appreciate some strategies employed in maintaining corals, one needs to understand...

Appendix CSuggested Readings Computer Programs Videos Books

Dynamic Aquaria Building Living Ecosystems. Academic Press, Inc., 643 pp. Barnes, R.D. 1980. Invertebrate Zoology. W.B. Saunders Co., Toronto, 1089 pp. Copeland, J.W. and J.S. Lucas 1988. Giant Clams in Asia and the Pacific. ACIAR Monograph No.9, Canberra, Australia, 274 pp. cleGraaf, F. 1968. Handboek Voor Het Tropisch Zeewateraquarium. A.J.G. Strengholt Boeken, Utrecht, The Foss , S. and A.J. Nilsen. 1992a. Korallen riff-Aquarium. Banc 1. Birgit Schmettkamp...

Tissue receding

Look around the base of the specimen of large-polypecl fleshy corals such as Catalaphyllia, Lobophyllia, and Euphyllia, to observe the appearance of the tissue connecting the polyp to its skeleton. If it appears to be pulling away, exposing the costae or septae, it is not perfectly healthy. With good conditions temperature, lighting, water quality this condition can heal rapidly. In making a purchasing decision, one must judge howr badly the coral is affected, and how magnificent a specimen it...

Letters from the Authors

When I first became interested in keeping marine invertebrates, especially corals, I was very frustrated by the lack of information available about how to recognize them and how to keep them healthy in a marine aquarium. Although I was lucky enough to have access to large amounts of scientific literature that was helpful in identification and ecology, there was little available on how to keep invertebrates alive in closed systems. For this information I had to turn to Dutch, German and other...

Scientific Name Hippopus porcellanus Rose water 1982

Hippopus Porcellanus

Common Names China or Porcelain Clam. Colour Mantle similar to H. hippopus and T. derasa. Distinguishing Characteristics Similar to H. hippopus but shell is thinner and smoother when small. Hippopus porcellanus has numerous fringing tentacles around the incurrent aperture Lucas, 1988 . Max. Length 40 cm 18 in . Natural Habitat This species occurs in the same habitat as H. hippopus but, as mentioned earlier, it has a much smaller geographic range. Aquarium Care Little is known about the...

Scientific Name Catalaphyllia jardinei Saville Kent 1893

Bubble Tip Anemone Stuck

Common Names Elegance Coral, Elegant Coral, Elegans Coral, Wonder Coral, Comb Coral, Meat Coral Catalaphyllia jardinei was named for Dr. Rene Catala, the curator of the aquarium at Noumea, New Caledonia, who displayed this coral under blue and ultraviolet light, showing off its spectacular fluorescent green tentacles with bright pink tips. Colour Several colour morphs exist, and there are also some differences in tentacle structure. The most typical morph is green with light pink tips on the...

Black Band Disease

Black band disease is characterized by a front of black, gooey material mostly algae behind which is denuded skeleton and in front of which is healthy tissue. The denuded skeleton is rapidly coated with many species of algae, including the black gooey mats characteristic of the black bands. It affects hard corals mostly, but also some soft corals, including gorgonians and Sinularia spp. Current scientific studies indicate that several organisms cause this disease. While a particular species of...

Competitive and Defensive Mechanisms of Corals

Competition for space is one of the most important factors limiting populations on marine hard substrata. Obviously there must be some sort of controls to allow a high diversity of life to exist in such a limited area. This is why sessile colonial marine organisms such as anemones, sponges, soft and stony corals have developed various mechanisms for defending their space and moving into new ones Sammarco et al., 1983 . Failure to recognize this fact can cause a lot of frustration for the...

Bryopsis

Herbivorous Snails

Another kind of filamentous algae, Bryopsis, is very similar to Derbesia, except that the tips of some of the filaments have feather-like shape. The colour is dark green, often with an iridescent blue sheen. Both Derbesia and Bryopsis can occur simultaneously, growing together as tangled masses. While Derbesia is readily eaten by fish, Bryopsis is tougher to chewr and apparently not too delicious. Tangs will avoid it unless they are very hungry. Sea urchins will eat it, however. In established...

Order Pyramidellacea

There are a wide variety of snails that feed on clams and oysters. The majority of these belong to the family Pyramidellidae, of which there are at least 1000 species in the Pacific alone Cumming, 1988 . These snails are generally quite small reaching a maximum length of 2-4 mm 0.08-0.16 in. , and look like small grains of rice. The majority of what is known about these snails comes from the species that are commonly found feeding on oysters and clams in commercial operations. Very little is...

Hermit crabs

How Small Can Hermit Crabs

There are some species of hermit crabs that remain small and present little risk to the fish. Though omnivorous, these small 5 , Jymw-it yt J J L - 1 '1 lt V 1 4 M 1 jV ' t - Mithrax sculptus, an herbivorous crab from the Caribbean. J.C. Delbeek. Mithrax crabs are good herbivores for large aquariums. Mithrax sculptus only grows to about 6.3 cm 2.5 in. , but is capable of capturing small fish. Some Mithrax species grow very large, and are therefore unsuitable for most aquariums. We have heard...

Filtration setup consisting of an UGF and an outside power filter OPF

Wilkens Aquarium Filter

The main disadvantage of an UGF is the trapping of detritus in the gravel bed or below the filter plate, which leads to a declining water quality and reduced oxygen level in 1 le tank. Some UGFs are designed to prevent this accumulation though, and passing water through a gravel bed can allow the formation of beneficial denitrifying zones see denitrification, chapters 2, 7, and 8 . We wish to emphasize, however, that no further biological filtration devices are...

Family Coralliophilidae

Leather corals are often preyed upon by snails. For example snails of the family Coralliophilidae such as Rapa rapa are often associated with Sarcophyton, Sin id aria and Lobopbytum leather corals Wilkens and Birkholz, 1986 . These cream-coloured snails have an onion-like appearance and can reach a length of 50-90 mm 2-4 in. . They are often found near the base of the coral and have the ability to bore a hole into the side of the animal, moving into the body column from where they proceed to...

Removed from the display tank and treated with antibiotics in a

Streptomycin and neomycin, shown to be effective in larval tridacnid clam rearing experiments Fitt et al., 1992 , may prove beneficial in the treatment of bacterial infections in corals. One drop of Lugo Is iodine solution diluted with aquarium water in an eyedropper can be directly applied over affected zoanthid anemones, and some soft corals see chapter 8 . Once the affected corals have healed, the protozoans seem to disappear and do not usually affect healthy corals in the...

White Paste

When a stony coral does not open up and appears to be engulfed by a pasty white substance, it is an indication of another kind of infection. A stressed coral secretes excess mucus to protect itself from an irritant in the water or the attack of a neighbouring coral. This excess mucus, which is teaming with bacteria, can suffocate the coral when there is insufficient water flow. In aquaria, this condition most often affects Catalaphyllia jardinei, Euphyllia spp. and Gonioporaspp. Treatment Move...

Common Name Brisileworms Polychaetes

Oenone Fulgida

Rristleworms come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some species can be several centimetres in length, while others are less than 1 cm 0.4 in. . Most are elongated in shape, having a typical worm-like appearance. The body is segmented, with each segment sporting a pair of fleshy appendages called parapodia. It is from these appendages that the characteristic 'bristles7 , or setae, of polychaetes arise. In some species these setae are short and few while in others, such as the infamous Fire...

Suborder Dendronotacea

The Dendronotacea, contain 10 families and are characterized by having rhinophores that can be retracted into rhinophoral sheaths. Members of this group also have cerata that are often highly branched in appearance. The most commonly encountered genus in the aquarium is Dendronotus. These nudibranchs are usually 1-6 cm 0.4-2.4 in. in length and have a milky white body covered with highly branched cerata. They prey on just about every type of soft coral but are most often associated with...

Tissue Recession White Band Bisease

The retreat of living tissue off of the skeleton is a malady that can have numerous causes. Injury can cause loss of tissue by physically abrading it or tearing it off, thus weakening the coral, exposing it to infection. Stings by neighboring corals with sweeper tentacles can also cause rapid tissue recession as can predation by fish and invertebrates. Most problematic tissue recession is of a much slower nature, and the incidence may be the result of several factors combined. Tissue recession...

Current knowledge on the culture and maintenance requirements for each

Species commonly found in reef tanks today. Most books written about corals and other invertebrate builders of tropical reefs are concerned with the natural history, taxonomy, distribution and ecology of these fascinating organisms. Delbeek and Sprung, however, use these basics as the foundation for a text that brings the capability to maintain and propagate stony corals into the realm of any advanced aquarist. This book will play an important role in the continuing explosion of the marine reef...