That the release of sperm is a cue for the release of eggs by other

Clams, and that the presence of eggs in the water is a cue for clams still further downstream, to release sperm (Lucas, 1988). Under hatchery conditions sperm release can be artificially induced by introducing macerated clam gonads (fresh, frozen or freeze-dried), or neurotransmitters such as serotonin (Hesiinga and Fitt, 1987). In the home aquarium, tridacnid clams have been known to spawn both spontaneously and after some sort of disturbance in the aquarium i.e. after adding large amounts of...

Sources of Nitrate Feeding

The majority of nitrate in most aquariums comes from the breakdown of food added to the aquarium to feed the fish and invertebrates. Restricting the inputs of food can effectively reduce the nitrate accumulation, but this practice should not be done to the detriment of the fishes' health. We have seen anorexic fish resulting from the psychology of their owners who fear too much food added to the tank will harm it. Please don't neglect your fish this way, it is cruel Many tanks produce enough...

Another type of surge device that mimics the long duration surge

See figure 5.7. He uses a stationary bucket above the aquarium into which water from the aquarium is fed. During the time this water is feeding into the bucket the water level in the aquarium falls, simulating the water drawing back before a long wave. When the water in the bucket reaches a critical height, the large automatic siphon built into it rapidly empties the water back into the tank, generating lots of turbulence and powerful currents.

Appendix A

Right Light and water movement table showing acceptable ranges for the different species of stony corais and tridacnid clams. Low numbers correspond to low intensity. High numbers indicate high intensity. Some corals and clams tolerate wider ranges of light intensity and water movement than others. The lighting values also correspond approximately to the light spread drawings on pages 483 and 484, affording some indication of where to place specimens in the aquarium. v, - t. . '. v . r o ' '- '...

Appendix BGeneral Maintenance Procedures

One might reasonably ask, How much work is involved in the upkeep of these tanks Well, from day to day there might not be a lot that needs to be done, and it is quite possible to leave the tank for extended periods of several weeks or more, depending on the size of your freshwater reservoir to make up for evaporated water. Still, a number of chores need to be done to perpetuate your living ecosystem indefinitely. Most people don't consider this duty a chore at all, since the pleasure of viewing...

Associated Organisms

Certain species, such as wild specimens of T. maxima and T. squamosa, may have extensive growths of encrusting organisms on their shells. Check these growths to make sure there are no dead or necrotic areas that might foul your aquarium. There are various parasitic snails that can be imported along with the clam. These will usually be visible as small rice grain-sized, cream coloured spots near the base of the shell or, at night, along the upper edge of the shell. If the clam is still attached...

Bicarbonates borates and hydroxides The rather confusing term

Carbonate hardness has also been used to describe alkalinity, but this refers only to the carbonate and bicarbonate portions of alkalinity and does not take into consideration the other compounds involved. Therefore alkalinity is generally slightly higher than carbonate hardness (Spotte, 1979). To further add to the confusion, there are several scales used to measure alkalinity. Two different units of measurement are commonly used by aquarists, milliequivalents per litre (meq L), and degrees of...

Care

With proper lighting and careful attention that they are not being irritated or fed upon by other organisms, tridacnid clams require little else in the way of care. As discussed in Chapter 4, these clams receive the majority of their nutrition from their zooxanthellae, so no additional feeding is required. Some people believe that tridacnids should be fed, based on the assumption that they are filter feeders like other clams, but on every occasion that w7e have attempted to feed them, the clams...

Collecting Corals

Branching stony corals are possible to collect with a gloved hand, as it is easy to find loose heads or branches. It can also be useful to bring along a stainless steel scissor, bone scissors, or gardening clippers to cut branches off a large colony. Be sure to cut branches at least 7.5 cm (3 in.) long for best survival. We wish to emphasize that branch corals such as Acropora spp., Pocillopora spp., Pontes spp., and Stylophora spp. are fast growing, so that it makes sense to collect small...

Dinoflageliates

Recently, a number of hobbyists have reported the appearance of a mysterious slimy material coating both living and non-living Valonia sp. algae encroaching upon living tissue of this Goniastrea palauensis. J. Sprung. surfaces in the aquarium. This material has the consistency of nasal mucus and it can be dark brown, light tan or nearly colourless. It usually develops as a light coating but soon entraps air and forms long strings that float up into the water. In some cases, microscopic...

Diseases Parasites Pests and Commensals of Corals and Clams

Many unwanted hitchhikers often come along for the ride with the corals and clams we keep. Typically, these interlopers go unnoticed and the decline of the specimen is attributed to some other cause. Failure to recognize and remove potential problem organisms can result in serious damage that is often lethal. The pests include but are not limited to, snails, nudibranchs, crabs, shrimp, polychaete worms, flatworms, anemones and algae. The vast majority of these are introduced along with newly...

Epoxy Cements

There are some non-toxic (when cured) epoxy cements that are useful both for locking devices and for actually forming a bond between pieces. The following recommendations for Z-spar and Sea repair compounds are provided by Dr. Bruce Carlson, who has used both products extensively (and very successfully we might add) at the Waikiki Aquarium, Hawaii. Both products and Devcon Underwater Repair Putty, described afterward, can be obtained from marine supply and yachting supply stores. We caution...

Family Cymatiidae

Cymatium muricinum has shown to be predatory on tridacnid clams, and is particularly a problem for clam farms that have ocean based grow-out (Perron, et al., 1985). This snail is found throughout the Indo-Pacific and in the western Atlantic, so its introduction to the aquarium with live rock is a possibility. The snail's larvae are believed to settle directly on a tridacnid, and then undergo metamorphosis. At this point they enter through the clam s byssal opening and lodge between the shell...

Gray or black sulphursmelling spots

The occurrence of a rotten egg smell and dark spots around the base of a coral usually is indicative of a fouling sponge or a dead boring clam. Sometimes the fouling matter can be removed by probing with a screwdriver and flushing the area with plenty of seawater. Sometimes the whole colony may become consumed by the fouling of sponges which bore through the skeleton. Avoid selecting colonies with such fouling areas unless it is clear that the area affected is isolated and easily cleaned....

Limestone and Cement

It is possible to build the reef structure dry, with pieces of limestone fused together with pure portland cement. Coral skeletons can also be incorporated in the structure. Once the cement dries and hardens, the structure must be soaked for a couple of weeks in a heavy brine solution to cure it. Once the structure has cured and the brine solution is drained and flushed out, the tank can be set up. A few small pieces of live rock with coralline algae will seed the system, and with herbivores,...

Nudibranchs can quickly devour an entire colony and should he

Yellow Sarcophyton Leather

Removed as soon as they are detected. Other soft coral eating genera include 7 nt o n ops illa a n d Ma no n iops is (C o 1 e ma n, 1989). Tritoniopsisfrydis occurs in the Caribbean and is commonly found on gorgonians from this region. Tritonia nudibranch feeding on a gorgonian, Pseudopterogorgia sp. S.W. Michael. Tritoniopsis sp.( ) that feeds on leather corals, Sarcophyton spp. This specimen was imported with a yellow leather coral from Tonga. It was discovered after it had consumed half of...

Physical Means of Control

In addition to control by limiting nutrients and using herbivores, one can intervene physically in the eradication of undesirable algae. Derbesia is easily removed with a siphon or with a toothbrush, such removal affording the herbivores a head start. A wooden stick or toothpick can also be used to remove algae growing on invertebrates. The stick is twirled slowly to draw the algae off. After physically removing algae such as Cladophorat Cladophoropsis, and Bryopsis from the rock, re-growth in...

Plastic Toothpicks

When company comes over for dinner, your guests may smile knowingly as they eat hors d oeurvres with their fingers and admire your reef. Your spouse will wonder why sooner or later everything in the house is used for the reef tank. Just as the plastic toothpicks are useful for spearing those little hot dogs, they work really well for soft corals since one end pierces and holds the coral while the other end can be inserted into the rockwork. Small, lightweight stony corals can also be positioned...

Problem Algae

The presence of problematic filamentous and slime algae in the aquarium results from a combination of factors, including the introduction of the algae with live rock, the lack of herbivory by herbivores, and the availability of limiting nutrients, especially in organic form. We have already discussed means of controlling the nutrients that limit algae growth. Here we present a description of some of the most common problematic species, and our recommendations for natural ways to control them....

Procedure must be clone at normal room temperature and there

Should be no breeze to overdry the specimen. Next return the specimen to the water with good current flow. This will wash away the profuse mucus that the coral will have produced in response to being emersed. It can also be beneficial to gently swish the specimen underwater. It may be necessary to repeat the drying and re-wetting procedure several times for certain types of corals. By following this procedure first, it is possible to ship Xenia dry (B. Carlson, pers comm.), and some of the...

Reef Front

This region is exposed during low tide and receives the greatest wave action. The corals tend to be short and robust in structure, in response to growing in such a high energy area. Stony coral populations tend to be dominated by pocillop rids and acroporicls ( Ve f on, 1986). Lobophytu m, Sa reap by to n and Si n u la via a re the most abundant soft corals in these higher wave energy areas The outer reef flat lies above the mean low-water mark of spring tides. Seaward regions contain spur and...

Refugia

The use of a refugium has important benefits to the aquarium. Adey (1983) uses the term refugia to describe chambers separate from the main display but connected with it where populations of organisms can develop in the absence of predation. The term also applies to places within the tank where these organisms may develop prolifically without predation, such as within a stack of rocks or in the sand substrate. This concept is typically employed within other natural systems, but Adey's use of...

Reproduction

Tridacnid clams are simultaneous hermaphrodites (i.e. they possess functional sets of both male and female gonads) and reach full sexual maturity after about 5-7 years. The age of maturation is different for each species 0 ieslinga, et al,, 1990). Some clams can become sexually mature as males within two years and then gradually acquire female gonads as they mature further (Lucas, 1988). Although clams possess both male and female sex organs at maturity, the release of sperm and eggs are...

Response of Coral to Artificial Lighting

Coral placement in the tank is a critical factor. See appendix A for recommendations. New specimens should NOT be placed near the surface directly under the metal halide light Many well-intentioned aquarists have reasoned that they are rejuvenating their corals after a period of mistreatment1' in a dealer's tanks. This is like running out on the first sunny day in the spring and lying in the sun for 8 hours, hoping to make up for lost light and vitamin D synthesis deficiency acquired during the...

Silicate

Silicate is a minor component of seawater that is an important nutrient for many invertebrates and the golden-brown algae called diatoms. Silicates are most commonly imported to the system with freshwater used for topping-off evaporation. While some silicate is essential, excess silicate can produce undesirable blooms of diatoms that coat the glass and rocks very rapidly. With herbivores, especially snails, silicate can be effectively exported from the system via fecal pellets, and diatom...

Sites where many species of algae can gain a foothold and shade

The algae not only shade the coral tissue, but may also leach compounds that damage it. In the case of Valonia spp. and Ventricaria spp., Green Bubble algae, the growth of the plant may physically push the coral tissue away. In dense filamentous species that trap detritus, the elevated phosphate in the microenvironment resulting from ti ie breakdown of this detritus can poison coral tissue or prevent calcification (growth) in the area. Cladophoropsis,...

Solenoids

The use of solenoids for controlling the water flow l ias been explored by some crafty hobbyists, and has potential use for the generation of pulsed wave-like currents or, like motorized ball valves, tidal currents. The generation of real surge within the aquarium is a challenge with numerous rewards, including improved health of the organisms, rapid growth, and the virtual elimination of dead spots and detritus accumulation. Pulsed water flow from powerheads achieves the same effects, but less...

Stainless Steel Wire

We have seen some hobbyists and public aquaria in Germany using a fine stainless steel wire instead of monofilament line. The wire is easy to cut, like monofilament, but does not need to be tied. It can be looped around and twisted to secure a specimen in place. We caution aquarists that stainless steel comes in different grades. Not all stainless steel can withstand the corrosive effect of saltwater. As with monofilament, the wire mav be removed after the specimen has attached to the rock.

Subclass Prosobranchia

O rde r Arch a eoga stro p oda Superfamily Fissure 1 lacea Common Name Keyhole Limpets Keyhole Limpets are primitive gastropods with a cap-like or depressed cone- shaped shell that is adapted for close adherence to the substrate (Gosner,1971), and a single apical hole from which the siphon emerges. These small snails are usually introduced into the aquarium along with live rock. Although these snails are primarily herbivores, we have observed them feeding on both stony and soft corals.

Switching devices With simple household utility timers one can

Turn powerheads on or off for set intervals, simulating the change in water flow and direction associated with tidal change. Powerheads come in two types submersible synchronous motors and non-submersible non-synchronous motors. Both types work well, but the switching devices for them are different. The submersible types, most popular in North America, can only be used with so-called wave makers that turn the pump on and off intermittently. Some submersible pumps do not tolerate these...

Synergistic Effect of Phosphate and Trace Elements

The trace elements iron, iodine, and molybdenum are important for marine algae, and it has been inferred that this means they might stimulate algae growth. When there is sufficient phosphate available in the aquarium, either inorganic or organic, these elements may enhance the growth of algae in the same manner as illumination, but it would be incorrect to say that they cause algae to grow. The availability of phosphate can be compared to the power button of a radio. The intensity of light is...

Tap Water MakeUp Water

Another potential input of nitrate to the aquarium is make-up or top-off water used to replenish evaporation. This daily addition of water can provide significant quantities of nitrate to the closed1' system aquarium when the tap-water, well-water, or other source used is tainted with nitrate. Not all tap-water or well-water contains nitrate, but many urban and rural areas (especially agricultural areas) may have it in the water, often in high concentrations. The use of a water purification...

The Return

It is best to plan to bring the specimens with you in your carry-on luggage. If you have collected too many specimens to carry, save the most precious ones for carry-on, and pack the rest to go with your checked-on luggage. This will minimize your losses. For specimens that are packed wet, bring extra plastic bags in case you need to change the water in mid-flight, or in case a bag leaks . If you bring a little artificial sea-salt mix and dechlorinator with you, you can use water from the...

The Trip Back to Shore

Once you get back on the boat you may sort your specimens into buckets or live wells, or other temporary holding containers for the ride back to shore. Never place live fish or other invertebrates in the same bucket or holding container with live corals. The exuded mucus and shed nematocysts of corals will kill other invertebrates and fish. If the trip is not long, the corals may be left in the plastic containers inside the mesh bag and unpacked only after you get back to shore. They are safer...

Tides seasonal changes in sun elevation algae growth etc

Light and water movement are intimately related. We have mentioned the light alteration caused by sedimentation or depth of water associated with tides, but another affect that water motion has on the light is the formation of so-called glitter lines1', as can be seen on the bottom of a swimming pool on a sunny day, or in the aquarium when a point source of light, such as metal halide or an incandescent spotlight is used. Glitter lines are intensely magnified sun rays caused by the diffraction...

Of mantle expansion over the shell margins by wide gaping of the

Aquarium Care Preliminary work with this species indicates that it is sensitive to bright light (Lewis and Ledua, 1988). Mortality of the clams when placed in shallow, sunlit aquariums was attributed to light intensity, since they were kept in 3m depth after being collected from 20 m. Tevoro clams may lack sufficient amounts of protective pigments, and therefore may be sensitive to UV light (see Dunlap and Chalker, 1986). They also may lack sufficient enzymes to detoxify excess oxygen produced...

As organic because they all contain the element carbon in their

The list of these things is quite lengthy, and includes such goodies as amino acids, proteins, phenols, creosols, terpenoids, fats, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, plant hormones, vitamins, carotenoids and various organic acids such as fatty, acetic, lactic, glycolic, malic and citric (deGraaf, 1968 Moe, 1989). Fortunately for us, we generally lump all these things together under the all-encompassing term, dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These organic substances can have...

Nitrate

Nitrate is discussed in detail in chapters 2 and 9. The nitrate level in reef aquariums should be less than lppm as nitrate-nitrogen ideally, but need not be maintained so low. In fact, elevated nitrate levels as high as 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen (approximately 40 ppm nitrate ion) may encourage more rapid growth of both soft and stony corals (D. Stiiber, pers. comm.). The principal disadvantage to higher nitrate levels is the affect on alkalinity and pH described in the section on control of...

Subclass Opisthobranchia

Common Names Nudibranchs, Sea Slugs Nudibranchs, or sea slugs, are found in all the world's oceans. They exhibit a wide range of body forms, colours and feeding preferences. It is these feeding preferences that we are most concerned with. Most nudibranch species are quite specific in what they will eat, often feeding only on one species of prey, while others have more catholic diets, feeding on several different species within a family. Most nudibranchs only have a maximum life span of 1-2...

Crabs

Crabs are mostly omnivorous, but there are several primarily herbivorous species that can be utilized in a reef aquarium. We discourage their use in small reef aquariums (less than 400 liters 100 gal.) because the crabs generally grow large enough to present a threat to fish, which they can capture at night. The two types of herbivorous crabs commonly available are the Sally Lightfoot crab, Percnon gibbesi, and the various hardback or coral crabs, Mithraxspp. Though these crabs are especially...

Caution in Closed Systems

Both Z-spar and 20 minute epoxy produce a milky substance in the water when first spread onto the rocks. In the 250 gallon open system aquariums at the Waikiki Aquarium this substance has not bothered fish or invertebrates at all (B. Carlson, pers, comm.). However, it is possible that fish and invertebrates in smaller, closed system aquariums could be affected by the milky substance. We recommend that you set up a separate aquarium, bucket, or other container with sea water, for adhering rocks...

Instead of sand Jaubert 1991 Water enters and exits such a

Chamber, but is not forced through the media, encouraging the diffusion process and preventing the media from becoming clogged (Jaubert, 1991). The confined water behind the partition in these reactor tanks has an average oxygen concentration of 1 mg L. If it should rise above 1.5 mg L, denitrification is incomplete, producing excess nitrite. If it should fall below 0.5 mg L, the production of toxic hydrogen sulfide occurs. The thickness of the sand layer or fibrous material used determines the...

Establishing an Aquarium without a Trickle Filter

Setting up an aquarium without a trickle filter has as many methods as there are aquarists who have tried it. Still, at least two distinct subdivisions exist starting with seeded live rock and starting with foul, stinking, rotten rock. As most aquarists obtain their rock in the latter condition, we will consider that method first. When live rock is first received it should be rinsed in saltwater in order to remove such goodies as newspaper ink (from the paper used to wrap it and keep it moist),...

Lighting the Reef Aquarium

Reef Aquarium

Sunlight is essential for life on the coral reef. Our aquariums rely on a suitable artificial light source. What type of lighting is best to use for reef aquariums There is no best type of lighting, but there are considerations that determine generally what lights are best for a particular aquarium. There are also some rules about the usage of different types of lights, and the proper orientation of marinelife in the aquarium. Your choice from an enormous range of workable lighting options...

Quick Setting Portland Cements Thorite

The quick-set type of pure portland cement is an ideal material for permanently cementing corals in place because it is very adhesive even to damp surfaces, sets in about one hour, is non-toxic, and strong (Bronikowski, 1982 1993). Bronikowski exposes the horny skeleton of gorgonians at the base, and dries it with paper towels. Then he positions the gorgonian on a rock base outside the aquarium, applying a thick mix of the quick-setting cement on the exposed part to hold it in place. The cement...

Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, the blue-green, smear or grease algae are a potential source of nitrate to the closed system aquarium since they have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen dissolved in the water and incorporate it in their tissue. As herbivores graze these algae, the nitrogen which has been fixed is converted to ammonia, and thus enters the pathway to nitrate (see chapter 2). Methods of Nitrate Control Protein Skimming Protein skimming removes some amino acids from the water along with the...

Tank Selection and Construction

The main advantage of building your own tank is that you can tailor it to fit exactly where you want it. We will not attempt to go into the details of how to make an aquarium, but will briefly describe the most common options. See Moe (1982, 1992), Hunnam et al., (1989), and Dewey (1986) for more detailed descriptions of tank construction techniques. The most common and easiest to construct are all-glass aquariums using silicone adhesive caulk as a sealant. Be sure that you buy a brand that is...

Poor expansion

If the coral is not expanding well, it may or may not be reason for concern. In the morning, wrhen the lights have only just come on, the condition is normal. Late in the afternoon, poor expansion usually indicates that the coral is being disturbed by fish or neighbouring corals. Other possibilities include the temperature, pollution in the water, or low dKH and pH. A general disturbance in the aquarium, as from the shopkeeper's hand removing a nearby coral, may also result in a poorly expanded...

Types of Coral Reefs

Coral reefs can be divided into two basic classes, shelf reefs and oceanic reefs Wood, 1983 . Shelf reefs grow on the continental shelf that surround the major continents, while oceanic reefs develop in deeper waters, beyond the continental shelf. Oceanic reefs generally develop along the slopes of submarine mountains, often of volcanic origin, that reach within a few hundred metres of the surface. In some cases, such as Hawaii and Tahiti, these volcanic mountains will extend above the water...

Phosphate

Phosphate can cause problems in marine aquaria, especially reef aquaria if allowed to build to levels above 0.1 ppm as orthophosphate. Elevated phosphate levels will fuel unwanted algae growth and interfere with the calcification processes of corals and coralline algae. Phosphates are present in many forms in the aquarium, and not all of them can be easily measured. The majority of phosphate test kits used by aquarists measure only inorganic phosphate orthophosphate and ignore organic...

Deep Some exporters have transplanted colonies of rare local soft

Corals and anemones to sites near their facility so that they can have a nearby source for them P. Wilkens, pers. comm. . This form of coral farming can supply our hobby with many of the popular species. The Tridacna spp. clams available to hobbyists are mostly farm raised, though some w ild caught specimens of T. maxima, T. crocea, and T. squamosa are occasionally available. We expect i hat in the near future all Tridacna clams available to hobbyists will be tank raised. While most aquarists...

Ammonium and Nitrite

Normally, ammonium and nitrite levels in an established aquarium will be zero. If you can measure detectable ammonia or nitrite, your aquarium is new and has not yet cycled completely or you have something decaying in the aquarium. You should carefully inspect your aquarium for any decaying animals, food or live rock, and remove it immediately. Decaying live rock is easily recognized by the smell and the white film that usually accompanies it. Ammonium and nitrite can also be produced in the...

Cyanoacrylate

Cyanoacrylate glues can be used for attaching small coral fragments to substrates, including glass, and for reattaching lightweight broken branches. Unless the two pieces fit together perfectly, the bond that forms is brittle, and easily broken. The value of its use is to hold a piece in place until it has the chance to grow and form a more permanent attachment. Cyanoacrylate works best if the items being attached can be partially dried, as we described for quick-setting cements. It does work...

Phylum Arthropoda

Cnistaceans include many of the invertebrates that we commonly encounter in the marine aquarium such as amphipods, barnacles, copepods, crabs, lobsters, Mantis shrimp and true shrimp. Very little is known about the food, feeding methods or behaviour of reef crustaceans Bruce, 1984 . A large number of cnistaceans live symbiotically with other reef inhabitants such as corals, gorgonians, sponges, sea squirts, clams, snails, starfish, sea cucumbers, sea urchins and anemones. In many of these...

Placement

Tridacnid Clams

Since these animals love light, one is often tempted to place them close to the surface. Be warned, however, that they can close their shells with some force and can expel a surprising amount of water out of their siphons and out of the tank In some cases, they can also trap small, slow moving fish that rest on their mantle, such as mandarins, gobies, hawkfish or blennies Achterkamp, 1987a . When first placing the clam into the aquarium make sure that the byssal opening is placed flush against...

Subclass Cirripedia

Most reef barnacles belong to the order Thoracica and many of them live in association with sponges and corals Bruce, 1984 . These barnacles are often encountered by the aquarist as they are commonly found growing on Euphyllia corals, especially E. glabrescens. They do not bother the coral, but merely live in association with it, filter feeding from the water column. There are, however, parasitic barnacles belonging to the order Ascothoracica that can be either external or internal parasites....

Live Rock

Many of you are probably wondering where biological filtration will take place if there is no trickle filter. The answer is in the live rock. The use of live rock as a biological filter medium within the aquarium allows for the establishment of natural biological processes such as occur on the reef. That marine aquaria could be simple and very natural was recognized by Lee Chin Eng, the father of the natural system aquarium Eng, 1961 1976 . The establishment of biological filtration and a...

Preface

The marine aquarium hobby, if we disregard the millenium-old cultivation and propagation of goldfish, is older than the freshwater hobby. Approximately in the mid-nineteenth century the marine hobby began in Great Britain, from whence it rapidly expanded throughout central Europe. Before me lies the oldest reference book in the German languge, which appeared in 1872 and is, for me, a bibliophilic treasure. What is, then, this curious phenomenon which lures people of the most diverse education,...

Order Mesoagastropoda

Common Names Box Snails, Sundial Snails One of the most commonly encountered coral predators is the Checkered Box snail, Heliacus areola. These snails are often found nestled between the polyps of a zoanthid colony on which they feed at night. They outstretch their extendible proboscis and make a small hole near the base of the polyp from which they proceed to suck out the contents. The polyp eventually shrivels up and falls Heliacus snail feeding on zoanthids. S.W. Michael. off the rock...

The dry shipping technique is as follows

Dry Shipping Corals

Wrap the specimens up loosely in strips of plastic or with bubble wrap. Plastic strips roughly 1 to 2 cm broad can be cut from heavy duty fish shipping bags using a pocket knife. If the plastic is from too thin a material i.e. plastic garbage bags , it will be difficult to handle and will collapse into a useless mass when wet. Note The plastic strips or bubblewrap should be clean. Old plastic bags may have salt or bacteria on them, and should be avoided. Also avoid re-using the plastic strips....

Coral Skeletons

Coral Soft Stony Skeletons

One can build a really nice reef structure using dead coral skeletons instead of live rock. Many Dutch hobbyists build their reef tanks this way Delbeek, 1992 . As we said before, once the tank is set up, a few pieces of live rock with coralline algae will seed the system, and with herbivores, control of nutrients, and care of the calcium and alkalinity levels, the coralline al ae can be encouraged to dominate, and problem algae growth can be eliminated. Using monofilament line, one can attach...

Undesirable Algae in Closed Systems

This is the topic that is the biggest stumbling block for everyone. We're told that the reef is a nutrient poor environment. Compared to our aquariums it is. It's hard to call the reef one environment, since there are many different zones of different reefs in different localities around the world see chapter 1, Reef Zonation . In general, the further out from shore, the further out in the open ocean that a reef occurs, the more nutrient poor it will be. Land runoff and the waste from birds and...

Monofilament Line aka fishing line nylon wire

Monofilament is one of the most versatile construction aids for building the aquascape. Its advantages include, that it is inert, inexpensive, strong, and invisible. It is easy to work with if you have good manual dexterity, can tie knots, and use a scissors. In addition, its thin diameter allows you to use it in place of cable ties where the ties would be too broad. It is the ideal aid to attaching zoanthids, soft corals, or cuttings from corals to live rock, and when the specimen has made a...

Activated Carbon

Many of us are familiar with the use of charcoal in the corner-box filters in freshwater aquariums. These usually consisted of small, shiny, irregularly-shaped pieces of bone or wood charcoal. This type of carbon is not really suitable for use in marine aquariums, and has been replaced by activated carbon. In this form the carbon has been subjected to extremely high pressures and temperatures to drive out all impurities and gases leaving behind extremely porous and pure grains of carbon....

Molecular Adsorption Filters

Although this form of chemical filtration is a relatively new addition to marine aquariums, there has been a rapid proliferation of products for the removal of various organics, nitrates, and phosphates. This type of filtration usually consists of styrene or acrylic polymers that selectively adsorb polar organics and nitrogen containing compounds onto their surface Mae, 1989 . Molecular adsorption media should be situated so that water is forced through the medium, not around it, with adequate...

Trouble Shooting Ailing Corals and Tridacnid Clams Brown Jelly

Disintegration of coral tissue sometimes proceeds as a front or band of what looks like brown jelly Behind the front, hard corals show a white, denuded skeleton in front is healthy tissue. The front can move several inches per day and may rapidly consume an entire coral head. Sometimes a large portion of the head can turn to jelly1' when it is injured. In soft corals such as Xenia spp., entire colonies can be totally consumed within a day or two. If this brown matter is examined under the...

In mgL The standard conversion is to multiply the calcium

Also, some kits are not designed to measure high calcium levels this is indicated in the instructions . Measurement of water with over 400 mg L may require that the test sample be diluted. A dilution using pure freshwater should be performed, usually by half, which will require a multiplication of the final value by 2. Performing such dilutions additionally saves on the consumption of the titrant. Generally, calcium test kits are designed to give a range of calcium, but...

Automatic water makeup system Then the frequency of

Involvement by the aquarist depends on the capacity of the freshwater reservoir and the rate of evaporation of the tank. Automatic water make-up systems can be made with a freshwater reservoir and gravity fed float valve, a float switch and pump arrangement, or a metering pump. Always have a reservoir to draw from. Never use a make-up system attached directly to the water mains of the house, unless you want to find your salt water aquarium suddenly full of freshwater, and your carpet, driveway,...

Molybdenum

The addition of molybdenum to aquariums has become popular in the past few- years in North America, after reports of its use in aquariums by Peter Wilkens. Some recent manufacturers of molybdenum containing trace element supplements claim that it benefits stony corals and prevents separation of the tissue from the skeleton. In fact, no such function of molybdenum has been demonstrated. The value of molybdenum for aquariums is its use by various forms of bacteria, including cyanobacteria,...

Before needing replacement Moe 1989 Wilkens and Birkholz

Generally the presence of yellowing substances in the water can be used as a guide to determine if your GAC needs replacing, since these compounds are easily removed by GAC, and start to accumulate when the GAC begins to lose its activity. Moe 1989 describes the following method. Obtain a strip of white plastic and colour one half a faint yellow with a non-water soluble marker. Place the strip in the water at one end of the tank and observe from the opposite end. When you can no longer...

Is A Protein Skimmer Better Than Ozone Reactor For Ozone

Ozone is a naturally occurring gas in the upper atmosphere, where its UV absorbing properties have been given wide exposure in news reports, regarding its recent depletion caused by chlorofluorocarbons CFC's . Ozone is a powerful oxidant since it consists of three atoms of oxygen O2 and readily releases the extra oxygen atom to become the more stable form of oxygen gas, O It is this property that we utilize in the aquarium to oxidize organic compounds. Unfortunately, other potentially harmful...

Solution because C02 from the air reacts with calcium ions to yield

Furthermore, mixing the powder that settles on the bottom of the container in old kalkwasser may sometimes cause the alkalinity to drop in the aquarium. This powder is not undissolved calcium hydroxide, it is calcium carbonate which has precipitated from the water, and it will not re-dissolve unless exposed to very low pH. It is hypothesized that when these fine particles of pure calcium carbonate are added to the aquarium, the alkaline micro-environment around them...

Holding Your Catch

Hold specimens in buckets or, preferably, shallow trays such as the white plastic refrigerator trays, with air pumps and air stones for water circulation. Strong water circulation is very important. Locate the holding containers in a cool place, ideally cooler than 29 C 80 F , where they will receive some sunlight. A small fluorescent lamp may also be used for illumination. It is useful to collect some small shells or coral skeletons from shore to prop the specimens up, and to provide a new...

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity is used to measure the relative salinity of seawater compared to distilled water. Distilled water has a specific gravity of 1.000 while seawater ranges from 1.022 to 1.030. The acceptable range for specific gravity is between 1.015 and 1.032. Specific gravity values depend on the temperature of the water, and so aquarists' measurements of specific gravity are usually only approximate. Estimates of salinity based on specific gravity maybe much lower than the actual value see...

Mechanical Filtration

The main function of a mechanical filter is to remove large particles from the water before they begin to decay. This helps to reduce the amount of substrate or stuff' available for mineralizing bacteria to convert into ammonia and other substances. The mechanical filter could be considered equivalent to the currents and tidal flushing on a natural reef, as both help to remove particulates. The key to proper mechanical filter design, if one is used at all, lies in regular cleaning. The easier...

Scientific Name Caulastrea Dana 1846

Common Names Torch, Trumpet, Bullseye, Candycane Coral Colour Caulastrea Jure at a Dana, 1846 is beautifully coloured, usually brown polyps with neon green centers. The brown portion also has white stripes. Occasionally entirely green or brown, with or without stripes. Caulastrea echini lata Edwards and Haime, 1849 is usually grayish-green. Caulastrea curvata Wijsman-Best, 1972 may have colouration like C. Ji t rcata or like C. ech inn lata. Distinguishing Characteristics Colonies phaceloid. In...

Scientific Name Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus 1758

Common Names Horse's Hoof, Bear Paw or Strawberry Clam Colour Mantle is dull greenish-brown to grey with some faint gold stripes. Distinguishing Characteristics Mantle does not extend past the edge of the shell shells thick and strongly ribbed with reddish blotches incurrent aperture without tentacles and very narrow byssal opening bordered with interlocking teeth Lucas, 1988 . The name, horse's hoop refers to the appearance of the shell when the clam is resting on its byssal opening with the...

Bleaching

Loss of the symbiotic zooxanthellae makes the coral or clam look white, pale yellow or pale green, as if it had been dipped in bleach. The tissue is still alive, but now it is transparent. Bear in mind that some corals are naturally quite pale brown or yellow, especially if they come from a shallow, heavily illuminated zone. Corals and clams that have undergone bleaching appear less healthy than they should, generally exhibiting poor tissue expansion. In some cases there is no actual reduction...

Trace Element Additions Iodine

Natural seawater has about 60 parts per billion of iodine, including all forms such as iodide, iodate, and organically bound iodine. This value is the standard for natural oceanic seawater, away from coastal influences. We suspect that iodine values in coastal water are somewhat higher, as a result of concentration of iodine by algae in their tissues, and subsequent release of organic iodine when the algae decompose. If this is true, then oceanic reefs may be more iodine limited than coastal...

Suborder Doridacea

The Doridacea contain over 25 families and is the most familiar form of nudibranch to aquarists. They are characterized by having two prominent rhinophores horn-like projections on the head that are involved in chemoreception. Dorids also have a dorso- Above Phyllida nudibranchs can release toxins into the water. S.W. Michael. A dorid nudibranch on the left and a small aeolid nudibranch on the right. S.W. Michael. ventrally flattened body where the edge of the back extends over the foot. At the...

Packets of Zooxanthellae Emitted from the Mouth

The appearance of dark brown strings or pellets emitted from the mouth of a coral or the exhalent siphon of a tridacnid clam is an indication that it is regulating the population of zooxanthellae in its tissues. It is normal for them to do this periodically, especially when they are first placed in the aquarium or moved. The symbiotic relationship between these organisms and zooxanthellae depends on a variety of environmental factors, most important of which are temperature, light intensity and...

Chapter One The Reef in Nature

One of the main goals in keeping coral reef aquariums should be to recreate the environment as closely as possible. Not only the design of the aquarium, but also the selection of the organisms should be based upon knowledge of the natural environment. Yet, there are almost as many different reef environments as there are marine aquarium hobbyists. This fact makes it almost impossible to generalize when it comes to recommending strategies for recreating reef environments. Too often aquarists tiy...

Poor Coral and Clam Tissue Expansion

Euphyllia Feeding Tentacles

At times a coral or clam will not expand fully, or will remain completely contracted for several days or longer. There can be quite a few reasons for this occurring, some of which are mentioned above it is mainly a process of eliminating the possibilities. Certain soft corals and at least one stony coral genus, Pontes, produce a waxy film that results in the coral being closed for a number of days. This film is eventually shed, but this process can be aided by directing a current across the...

Wave Buckets

Dump Bucket Fish Tank

Surge motion in the aquarium can he generated by means of a simple device called a wave or dump bucket. See diagram. Water being returned to the aquarium is fed into the bucket. When the weight of the water it contains creates an imbalance, the bucket tips over. The bucket pivot points can be made from plastic bearings or just pvc pipes of different diameter. Salt entering the bearings or rubbing parts will hinder the performance and may erode the plastic with time and the continuous turning of...

Lighting Parameters

Actinic Blue Phillips Spectrum

Three important qualities of light are of most concern to the aquarium keeper photoperiod, spectrum, and intensity. The photoperiod refers to the duration of illumination how long the day is. In our experience the best results are achieved when the day length is ten to twelve hours, not longer. Photosynthetic organisms need a dark period just as much as they need light. Since most reef aquaria are illuminated with more than one light source, it is convenient and desirable, though not absolutely...

Outer collection cup so that only a small portion extends beyond

Make sure the bore is not much larger tiian 1 cm 0.5 in. in diameter. Bait and place the trap as before and remove the next day. This time the worms will have gotten too fat to fit through the bore of the funnel Nooyen, 1990 . Smaller worms in the substrate are relatively easy to remove, but their large numbers make the task a difficult one, and considering their beneficial aspects, an unnecessary one. If you merely wish to reduce the numbers of worms, a technique that works well is...

Eggcrate

Aquarium Egg Crate

In order to minimize the rocks' contact with the bottom and prevent the formation of dirt traps, some people use eggcrate as an elevated, open base. Eggcrate is manufactured as a diffuser for overhead fluorescent lights. It is a grid-like plastic material with squares approximately 1 cm 0.5 inch wide. The typical color is white, but it is also available in black. Metallic eggcrate, manufactured to lend a high-tech look to overhead fluorescents, is probably unsuitable for use inside aquariums....

Pistons and Paddles

Aquarium Overflow

Wre have seen three other surge devices employed in aquariums in our travels to different public aquaria. The National Aquarium in Baltimore uses a paddle system controlled by an hydraulic arm to generate a beautiful back and forth surge in their living coral reef exhibit. The paddle is located behind the artificial rock-work. We have seen similar paddle systems moved by motor or air compressor at the Virginia Beach Science Museum and the New7 York Aquarium. The most magnificent surge device at...

Family Hippolytidae

Hippolytidae

Shrimp of the genus Savon are occasionally offered for sale to aquarists. When kept in fish only aquariums, they make very Saron marmoratus female . A.J. Nilsen. interesting additions. They are also easy to sex and should prove to be a good breeding challenge. However, they can wreak havoc in a reef aquarium with corals and clams. The Marble shrimp, Saron marmoratus, so named due to their green mottled appearance although they can alter their colour to blend in with the background , is a large...

Scientific Names Plerogyra sinuosa Dana 1846 Physogyra lichtensteini Edwards and Haime 1851

Common Names Bubble Coral, Pearl Coral, Bladder Coral Colour Usually whitish gray, bluish gray, or brown. Sometimes green, especially the unidentified Plerogyra species described below. Plerogyra sinuosa often has a cats-eye appearance in the bubbles. Distinguishing Characteristics Three species of bubble corals are imported from Indonesia, Plerogyra sinuosa Dana, 1846 , Pbysogyra lichtensteini Edwards and Haime, 1851, and an unidentified Plerogyra sp. All have bubble-like polyp vesicles, light...

From terrestrial sources such as freshwater runoff resulting in

This is particularly pronounced when the land is heavily forested. Islands or coastlines that are drier tend to show reef formations more like those found on oceanic reefs. Both stony and soft coral diversity tends to be lower on near-shore reefs Along the coastline, one can often find extensive mangrove beds. These areas are home to many of the juvenile forms of creatures found on the nearby reef. It is not unusual to find some stony corals in this area as well,...

Subclass Malacostraca Superorder Hoplocarida

Common Names Mantis Shrimp, Thumb Splitters Mantis shrimp are the bane of almost every reef aquarist. We all dread hearing that tell-tale snapping sound coming from deep within the rock-work of our aquaria. These shrimp are voracious predators feeding on small fish, shrimp, worms, clams and crabs. They have an elongated body with two well-developed eyes located on short stalks, and a pair of powerful pincers held folded underneath the body similar to the terrestrial praying mantis. There are...

Acontia Filaments

Sometimes a stressed coral may appear to be covered with fine white strings. These are its digestive filaments that can be ejected externally for defensive purposes see photo chapter 3 . Acontia are used to attack neighboring corals and where they contact another species, tissue disintegration is sure to follow. The release of terpenoid compounds by soft corals can also stimulate acontia release in stony corals, as can the presence of other noxious compounds in the water. Supersaturation of...

Light

We have successfully kept tridacnid clams under both fluorescent R.O., H.O. and V.H.O. and metal halide H.Q.I. lighting systems. However, the more light you give them the better they will do. Also, with brighter light you can place them lower in the aquarium. To really appreciate the colours of these animals, they should be viewed from a downward angle. Lower light intensity systems will require that the clams be placed closer to the surface, and therefore the brilliant colours will not be as...

Scientific Name Tridacna gigas Linnaeus 1758

Gigas Clam For Sale

Common Names Giant Clam, Gigas Clam Colour The mantle of this species is usually golden brown, yellow or green, and has numerous iridescent blue or green spots on its surface, particularly around the edges. In larger specimens the blue spots become so numerous that the whole mantle may appear bluish or purplish. Numerous pale or clear spots, especially Upper and lateral view of shell Below Map with geographical distribution of the clam. After Lucas 1988. Note Although the map indicates the...

Chapter Seven

Live Stony Coral

These living ecosystems we create, these aquariums, are really living works of art each living plant or animal a combination of colour, pattern and texture. In creating a natural environment we make a sculpture that grows, and this creative process is perhaps the most satisfying aspect of the hobby. In the creation of your living masterpiece you have choices to make, and it is wise to plan from the start what kind of reef you wish to create, what it will look like and what you plan to grow....

Temperature

Temperature is the most critical physical parameter for captive reef systems. If all other parameters are ideal, but the temperature is not, the reef will not thrive see chapter 2 . The temperature in reef aquariums should be between 21-27 C 70-80 F for the best results, and as stable as possible. In our experience, a temperature of 23-24 C 74-76 F is ideal. If the temperature varies plus or minus one or two degrees Fahrenheit during the course of the day, this is not a problem. The most common...

Coral Reef Flat

Behind the outer reef flat lies an area of aligned corals, where tongues of sand and rubble extend leeward giving a pronounced spur and groove appearance. Stony corals such as Acropora and Pocillopora are dominant in these areas, along with Goniastrea, Favia, Favitesand Porites Veron, 1986 Davies et al,1984 . Waves carry sand and rubble from these areas to the sand flat and lagoon areas behind them Davies et a ., 1984 . The coral reef hat gives way to a sandy area in some reefs. These areas are...

As a result of a genetic trait G Hesliim oers comm

Clam Shell

Below Map with geographical distribution of the clam. After Lucas 1988. A possible hybrid cross between T. derasa and T. gigas, as mentioned in the text. The specimen is tank-raised. It is also possible that this is only a localized form of T. derasa with features similar to T. gigas. Note the clear windows at the center of the mantle, like T. gigas, and the unusual small teardrop-shaped clear windows scattered over the mantle. J.C. Delbeek. Compare the hybrid or unusual form of T. derasa on...

Scientific Name Tridacna tevoroa Lucas Ledua and Braley 1990

Map Cnidarians Habitats

Colour The mantle is predominantly brownish-grey in colour and rugose having many protuberences . The mantle colour is usually uniform, but it may also have some pattern, with numerous pale spots, including but not limited to the tip of the exhalent siphon and grooves between the mantle protuberences. Distinguishing Characteristics Similar to T. derosa but has a thinner, sharper edged shell more prominent guard tentacles on the incurrent siphon a rugose mantle and red bands on the shell near...