From terrestrial sources such as freshwater runoff resulting in

elevated nutrient levels. This is particularly pronounced when the land is heavily forested. Islands or coastlines that are drier tend to show reef formations more like those found on oceanic reefs. Both stony and soft coral diversity tends to be lower on near-shore reefs

Intertidal mudflats

Along the coastline, one can often find extensive mangrove beds. These areas are home to many of the juvenile forms of creatures found on the nearby reef. It is not unusual to find some stony corals in this area as well, particularly Pocillopora spp., growing on the roots of the mangroves (Veron, 1986). As one moves seaward the water increases in depth, and coral cover begins to increase. Seagrasses may be encountered growing with the corals. Corals found in this area include Catalapbyllia, Goniopora, Euphyllia, Montipora and certain Acropora spp.

Sand Flats

Between the seagrass bed and the outer slope a broad sandy area may exist. In this area several mixed coral communities may occur composed of Acropora, Favia, Favites, Galaxea, Goniastrea, Platygyra, Plerogyra, Pocillopora, and Pontes. Soft corals include Heliopora, Lobopbytum, Sarcophyton and Sinularia, but Xenia and Cespitulana tend to be die most common soft coral genera (Dinesen, 1983).

Outer Slope

Near the upper edge of the reef one finds low encrusting corals, mostly Acropora, Pocillopora, and Millepora. Tubipora, Heliopora, Lobopbytum, Sarcophyton, Sinularia,, and Xenia are common soft corals in this zone, and the zoanthid Palytboa is also abundant here (Stoddart, 1973).

As the water deepens, the reef slopes down towrards the sea floor, which may be only 10 m (33 ft.) deep in some cases (Veron, 1986). These slopes usually have a wide variety of stony and soft corals, but few Acropora species are present. Most other stony coral genera are found, with Goniopora,, Pavona, Pontes, and Turbinaria being the most dominant (Veron, 1986). Free-living fungiids are not uncommon in cleaner waters and many shelf-forming species occur i.e. Turbinaria, Fcbinopora, and Montipora (Veron, 1986). Many of the corals collected for the aquarium trade occur in this region.

Acropora sp. with Green Chromis and Butterfly fish on back-reef flat, Fiji. B. Carlson.

Acropora Nana

Lagoon in New Guinea. S. W. Michael.

""""""----------- # !

Green water turbid lagoon at 12 m (40 ft.) in Palau. Pavona, Plerogyra, and Lobophyllia visible. B. Carlson.

Turbid Lagoon

Figure 1.1 Barrier Reef

Beach

Sand Flat

Fringing Reel

Lagoon

Fore Reef Slope Spur & Groove

Beach

Sand Flat

Fringing Reel

Lagoon

Fore Reef Slope Spur & Groove

Reef Flat

Fore Reef Zone

Back Reef Slope

Figure 1.2 Fringing Reef

Reef Flat

Back Reef Slope

Figure 1.2 Fringing Reef

Beach Back Reef Margin

Patch Reef Sand Flat

Lagoon Reef Flat

Spur & Groove Reef Crest Fore Reef Slope

Beach Back Reef Margin

Patch Reef Sand Flat

Lagoon Reef Flat

Spur & Groove Reef Crest Fore Reef Slope

Atoll Lagoon Patch Reef Pictures

Figure 1.3 Atoll Reef

Fringing Reef Outer Lagoon

Lagoon -

Reef Face Island with Sand Bank

Fringing Reef Outer Lagoon

Lagoon -

Reef Face Island with Sand Bank

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The COMPLETE guide to Aquariums

The word aquarium originates from the ancient Latin language, aqua meaning water and the suffix rium meaning place or building. Aquariums are beautiful and look good anywhere! Home aquariums are becoming more and more popular, it is a hobby that many people are flocking too and fish shops are on the rise. Fish are generally easy to keep although do they need quite a bit of attention. Puppies and kittens were the typical pet but now fish are becoming more and more frequent in house holds. In recent years fish shops have noticed a great increase in the rise of people wanting to purchase aquariums and fish, the boom has been great for local shops as the fish industry hasnt been such a great industry before now.

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