Family Parrotfishes Scaridae 7 Genera 41 Species Included

Virtually every reef in the Indo-Pacific is home to a bustling community of parrotfishes. These robust assemblies are typified by foraging herds of nondescript, two- to six-inch females, and large, solitary, brightly colored males, which spend their day methodically taking bite after bite of algae from the bottom. Parrotfishes share many traits with their close relatives and forerunners, the wrasses. Members of both families swim primarily with their pectoral fins, change sex from females to males, generally exhibit two or more color patterns within the same species, and have complex social and mating systems. However, unlike wrasses, which use conspicuous canines to capture hard-shelled crustaceans, the teeth of parrotfishes have fused into powerful beaks capable of rasping filamentous algae from the porous external skeletons of dead coral. In the process, large quantities of the reef's structure - calcium carbonate - are routinely consumed. On average, nearly 75 percent of the gut content of parrotfishes is composed of inorganic sediment. Broad, bony teeth plates, known as the pharyngeal mill grind the grit into tiny bits, and a long, specialized alimentary tract, without a true stomach, extracts food, leaving the remains with nowhere to go but back to the reef as sand. In fact, the family's copious processing system generates much of the sand associated with tropical reefs and beaches. It has been estimated that large parrotfishes deposit more than 5,000 pounds of sediment annually.

Contrary to the territorial nature of many reef fishes, that partition and defend limited food supplies, parrotfishes specialize in a plentiful and rapidly renewable plant food source, allowing several species to share overlapping feeding grounds harmoniously. The average parrotfish diet also includes the tender, uncalcified tips of algal bushes, sea grass blades, occasional crustaceans and, now and again, a bite or two of sponge. A few of the larger Indo-Pacific species feed in part on living coral.

During maturation most parrotfishes go through a series of changes that dramatically alter their colors, markings and body shapes. These transformations are marked by a JUVENILE PHASE (JP), INITIAL PHASE (IP) and TERMINAL PHASE (TP), which represents the largest, brightest, most aggressive and least numerous individuals. IP typically consists of females and, in some species, may also include males. Most parrotfishes are hermaphroditic and go through a sex change to become TP, while the IP males of other species simply mature into TP without changing sex. TP, always males, have reached the apex of sexual maturity and experience the greatest reproductive success.

Most parrotfishes live in harems with a single dominant TP, and from two to seven female IP with which they exclusively mate. All species are pelagic spawners that typically release gametes in paired male/female spawning rushes daily at traditional times and locations. A strict, size-related pecking order governs social rank within harems. Such hierarchies allow the largest IP in a harem to transform into a terminal male after the disappearance of the harem's previous TP. These two- to three-week metamorphoses reorder the gonads from ovaries to testes and confer a bright new coat on the recently transformed females.

Bleeker's Parrotfish - IP

ID: Dark brown with 3-4 faint pale whitish bars.

Parrotfish Vanuatu

BLEEKER'S PARROTFISH Chloruws bleeken

ID: TP - Green with pink to lavender scale edges; large pale yellowish to greenish patch on cheek with green border, dark green margin and borders on tail. Sheltered coastal reefs, lagoons and outer slopes in 3-35 m. West Pacific: Indonesia to Vanuatu and Fiji - Philippines and Marshall Is. in Micronesia to E. Australia.

Bleeker's Parrotfish - IP

ID: Dark brown with 3-4 faint pale whitish bars.

GREENHEAD PARRROTFISH Chlorurus uoschelii

SIZE: to 35 cm (14 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green with pmk to lavender scale edges gradating to bluish on lower body; large pale patch on cheek extends to lower head, dark band from snout to eye. Solitary. Clear waters of seaward reefs in 5-25 m.

East Indian Ocean: E. Andaman Sea to Sumatra and Java in

Indonesia.

Greenhead Parrrotflsh - IP

ID: Dark gray-brown to black with 3 - 4 pale yellowish bars.

Chlorurus Capistratoides

Indian Parrotfish - IP

INDIAN PARROTFISH Chlorurus capistratoides

SIZE: to 55 cm (22 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green back with rosy pink streak on each scale, pale below and yellowish pectoral region; green bands around mouth and eye. Form groups. Inner and outer reef crests, usually in shallow surge zone.

Indian Ocean: E. Afnca. Mauritius. Seychelles and Andaman Sea to Sumatra and Bali in Indonesia.

Indian Parrotfish - IP

ID: Dark gray with pale pinkish snout and tail; 4 - 5 whitish bars and yellowish outer margin on pectoral fin.

Bulletheod Porrotfish - TP Variation

BULLETHEAD PARROTFISH Chlonuus sordidus

ID: TP • Highly variable shades of green with lavender scale edges, pale green tail base, pale yellowish cheek; blue to lavender to pale green patch on snout. Solitary. Coral reefs and adjacent rubble to 30 m.

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and E. Africa to Hawaii and Ducie Is. east of French Polynesia. • S.W. Japan to Australia.

Bulletheod Porrotfish - TP Variation

ID: Pale green tail base, pale yellowish cheek and blue to lavender to green snout patch are the most consistent markings of this highly variable species. A square cut tail also distinguishes the Bullethead Parrotfish from many similar appearing species. This variation lacks the bright green band from head to pectoral region like the previously pictured variation.

Bullethead Parrotfish Juvenile Phase

Bullethead Parrotfish • IP

Bulletheod Porrotfish - IP/JP

Bullethead Parrotfish • IP

ID: Light reddish brown head and forebody gradating to dark rear body with 3 - 4 vertical rows of small white spots (spots can rapidly fade or intensify). Often form small to large groups.

Bulletheod Porrotfish - IP/JP

ID: Light reddish brown head and forebody gradating to dark rear body; white tail and base with large centred spot. Large JP and small IP display tins marking pattern; with maturity, IP take on the marking of the previous pictured IP.

Bullethead Parrotfish - JP

BOWER'S PARROTFISH Chloruwsbowersi

SIZE: to 30 cm (12 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green with rosy pink streak on scales: broad lavender patch on snout, large triangular orange patch on forebody. Usually solitary. Coral-rich areas of lagoons or upper edge of channels in 2-20 m.

Asian Pacific: Indonesia. Philippines and Palau, north to S.W. Japan.

Bullethead Parrotfish - JP

ID: Alternating black and white stripes of equal width, 3 each, from head to tail.

STEfPHEAD PARROTFISH Chlomrus microrhmos

ID: Blunt forehead profile; shades of green to blue-green with lavender-pink scale edges, blue snout and pale lower head. IP - Similar to TP. Solitary. Sheltered reefs to 50 m. Pacific: Bah in Indonesia and Philippines to Line Is. and Pitcaim Is. east of French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

ID: Steep forehead; red with blue or green scale margins and yellowish tail, dark green back, red below; some have light gTeen heads. Similar Steephead Parrotfish red variation [above] can be distinguished by location.

Steephead Parrotfish - Red Variation

ID: Blunt forehead profile; reddish upper two-thirds of head and body, yellow or whitish below, yellow fins. Red vanation is generally rare. Both variations can be either TP or IP. West Pacific: Great Bamer Reef and S. Pacific Is.

ROUNDHEAD PARROTFISH Chlorurus strongycephalus SIZE: to 70 cm (2 7> ft.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Steep forehead; gTeen to greenish blue with lavender-pink streak on body scales and extensive yellow area on cheek. Solitary or with smaller females. Coastal, lagoon and outer reefs in 2-35 m.

Indian Ocean: E. Africa to Andaman Sea and Cooos-Keeling Is. to S.W. Indonesia.

Indian Ocean: E. Africa to Andaman Sea and Cooos-Keeling Is. to S.W. Indonesia.

Roundhead Parrotfish - IP

ID: Yellow-green upper half of head, back and tail, red to dark brown or greenish below; dark green around mouth, blue-green margin and borders on tail.

Steephead Parrotfish - JP

ID: Black to dark brown with 3-4 yellow to pale stnpes.

Roundheod Porrotfish - TP Red Variation
Japanese Parrotfish

TAN-FACED PARROTFISH Chlorurus frontalis

SIZE: to 50 cm (20 in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

JAPANESE PARROTFISH Chlorums japanensis

ID: TP - Light green with broad purple band from forehead to belly: lavender patch on snout IP - Dark brown; red-orange tail with dark margin. Solitary. Sheltered seaward and lagoon reefs to 20 m.

West Pacific: Sulawesi in Indonesia and Philippines to Samoa. - S.W. Japan to E. Australia.

West Pacific: Sulawesi in Indonesia and Philippines to Samoa. - S.W. Japan to E. Australia.

Leptoscarus Vaigiensis

MARBLED PARROTFISH Leptoscarus vaigiensis

SIZE: to 35 cm (14 in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

ID: IP - Well camouflaged. Green or olive to greenish brown, often mottled and speckled, two horizontal rows of widely spaced white spots on upper side TP - Similar, but with white stripe on mid-side. Form groups. Seagrass beds to 10 m. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and E. Africa to Easter Is. in southeast Pacific. - S.W. Japan to N. New Zealand.

STAREYE PARROTFISH Calotomus carolinus

SIZE: to 50 cm (20 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Blue-green with orange-pink bands radiating from eye. Solitary or form groups. Lagoon and seaward reefs on coral, rubble, weed and seagrass bottoms in 2 - 30 m. Indo-Pacific: E. Africa to Pitcaim Is east of French Polynesia and Mexico. - S. Japan to Australia.

TAN-FACED PARROTFISH Chlorurus frontalis

SIZE: to 50 cm (20 in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP/IP - Green with tan patch and markings on upper head: pale green base of tail Large TP - Develop near vertical head profile and elongate tail lobes. Form groups. Exposed reef flats and seaward reefs to 40 m.

Pacific: S.W. Japan and Great Barrier Reef to Line Is. and Ducie Is. east of French Polynesia.

Pacific: S.W. Japan and Great Barrier Reef to Line Is. and Ducie Is. east of French Polynesia.

RAGGEDT00TH PARROTFISH Calotomus spmidens

ID: TP/IP - Small; brown or greenish brown; broken stripe of rose spots runs below dorsal fin. Usually form groups; often camouflaged. Seagrass beds and dense patches of sea weed to 25 m.

Indo - West Pacific: E. Africa to Fiji and Tonga. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Indo - West Pacific: E. Africa to Fiji and Tonga. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Stareye Parrotfish - IP

ID: Mottled brown with whitish patches on back; spoke-like bands radiate from eye.

Cetoscarus Bicolor Indian Ocean

BIC010R PARROTFISH Cetoscarus bicolor

ID: TP - Green with pinkish red spots and lines on head; band from mouth to belly, stripes or bands on fins. Usually with group of IP. Lagoon and seaward reefs to 30 m. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and E. Africa to Tuamotu Is. in French Polynesia. - S. Japan to Australia.

Hipposcarus

PACIFIC 10NGN0SE PARROTFISH Hipposcarus longiceps

PACIFIC 10NGN0SE PARROTFISH Hipposcarus longiceps

ID: IP • Long snout; pale yellowish gray with pale vertical streaks on scales, yellow tail base; short tail lobes. TP - Similar, but lack yellow tail base. Lagoons and seaward reefs on sand bottoms near reefs in 2 - 40 m.

Pacific: Indonesia to Line Is. and Tuamotu Is. in French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Bicolor Porrotfish - IP

ID: Pale yellowish back with pale greenish scale markings forming netted pattern over black undercolor, gray head with golden iris. Solitary or in harems with other IP.

Hipposcarus Longiceps

10NGN0SE PARROTFISH Hipposcarus hand

SIZE: to 75 cm (2 7j ft.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Long snout; pale yellow to green with vertical blue streaks on scales, blue tail; elongate tail lobes. IP - Similar, but lack elongate tail lobes. Form aggregations. Sheltered areas, usually on sand bottoms near reefs to 25 m. fndian Ocean: Red Sea and E. Africa to Andaman Sea and Java in Indonesia.

Pacific Longnose Porrotfish - JP

ID: Pearly white with orange stripe from eye to tail; black spot at end of stripe on tail base.

Bicolor Porrotfish - JP

ID: White with broad orange bar encircling head from eye to rear gill cover; large orange-edged black spot on dorsal fin. orange outer rim on tail. Solitary.

Yellowfin Porrolfish - IP

ID: Pale yellowish green to light gray with dark gray tail, bright yellow pectoral fin. Usually form groups.

YEllOWFIN PARROTFISH Scarus tlavipectoralis

ID: TP - Blue to green, bicolored with light head and forebody and dark behind; green band from snout to rear gill cover, yellowish patch on tail base. Solitary or form groups. Coastal, lagoon and outer reefs in 8 - 40 m.

East Indo • Asian Pacific: Andaman Sea to Solomon Is. ■ Marshall Is. in Micronesia to Great Barrier Reef.

YEUOW-BARRED PARR0TFI5H Scanis dimidiatus

ID: TP - Dark bluish to greenish gray with large blue-green to green area over nape and upper forebody; dark and pale band from eye to pectoral fin. Lagoon and seaward reefs to 25 m. West Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines to Samoa. - S. W. Japan to Australia.

DARK-CAPPED PARR0TFI5H Scarus oviceps

SIZE: to 31 cm (12 'h in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP • Blue-green with narrow pink scale margins, lime green and dark blue-green pectoral fin; upper head and forebody darker shade of purple. Solitary. Reef flats, lagoons and outer slopes to 20 m.

Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines to Line Is. and Society Is. in French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Yellowfin Porrolfish - IP

ID: Pale yellowish green to light gray with dark gray tail, bright yellow pectoral fin. Usually form groups.

Yellow-barred Porrolfish - IP

ID: Yellowish with gray head and 3 gray saddle-bars on back; may have whitish stnpe from eye to tail.

Dark-copped Porrolfish - IP

ID: Light gray with dark gray "cap" on upper head and forebody; 1 -2 yellow bands behind; white or yellowish cheek.

Dark-copped Porrolfish - IP

ID: Light gray with dark gray "cap" on upper head and forebody; 1 -2 yellow bands behind; white or yellowish cheek.

Bluepatch Porrotfish - IP

ID: Reddish brown; blue patch centered with green to blue-green on mid-side behind gill cover, may display a white spot above the blue patch. Solitary.

BLUEPATCH PARROTFISH Scarus forsteni

SIZE: to 55 cm (22 in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green with pink scale edges; darkish "cap" on upper head, wide green band around mouth, occasionally pink area on central body. Solitary or form small groups. Lagoon and seaward reefs in 3 -30 m.

Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines to Ducie I. east of French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Great Barrier Reef.

Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines to Ducie I. east of French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Great Barrier Reef.

CHAMELEON PARROTFISH Scarus chameleon

SIZE: to 31 cm (12 Vi in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP • Blue to green; broad area of pale salmon behind pectoral fin, blue-green band links eyes and nanow green band around mouth. Can quickly alter or intensify color. Coral- rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs to 35 m.

West Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines to Fiji. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Chameleon Parrolfish - IP

ID: Brown, often with abruptly white belly. Can quickly change or intensify color.

Bridled Porrotfish - IP

BRIDLED PARROTFISH Scams frenatus

SIZE: to 47 cm (18 '■/> in.) Panotfishes • Scaridae

ID: TP - Shades of green, abrupt transition from dark to light green on tail base; pale green bands around mouth. Usually solitary. Seaward slopes and reef crests to 25 m. Indo- Pacific: Red Sea and E. Afnca to Line Is. and Ducie Is. east of French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Bridled Porrotfish - IP

ID: Gray to red with broad blackish stripes (sometimes broken into series of diamond-shaped marks) on sides; dorsal, anal and ventral fins frequently bright red. Solitary or form small groups.

Eost Indies Parrotfish - IP

EAST INDIES PARROTFISH Scarushypselopterus

SEE: to 31 cm (12 7i in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Body salmon to green-brown, green tail base and blue tail, green head with reddish worm markings radiating from eye and green stripe from eye to behind pectoral fin. Solitary. Coral and rubble areas in 10 - 30 m. Asian Pacific: S.W. Japan to Indonesia and Vanuatu.

Eost Indies Parrotfish - IP

ID: Gray to brown with two white stripes and white belly; black spot in forward anal fin. Solitary or form small groups.

Blue Barred Parrotfish

BLUE-BARRED PARROTFISH Scams ghobban

ID: TP • Yellow to yellowish brown undercolor with large blue-gTeen scale markings; blue-green band markings around mouth and borders of tail. Solitary. Sheltered silty inshore reefs and areas of sand and rubble in 2 - 30 m. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and E. Africa to French Polynesia. Galapagos, Gulf of California and Panama. - S. Japan to Australia.

Blue-barred Parrotfish - IP

ID: Yellow to yellow-brown with 4-5 diffuse blue bars (sometimes broken into spots) on side; blue bands around mouth and eye and blue tail borders. Solitary.

Greenthroot Porrotfish - IP

ID: Reddish brown with some scattered white speckling. Compare with similar IP Filament-fin Parrotfish.

GREENTHROAT PARROTFISH Scarus prasiognathos

ID: TP - Dark green with yellowish upper head and green below; broad green band across snout. Often form large aggregations. Reef flats and seaward slopes in 3-25 m. Indo-Asian Pacific: Seychelles and Maldives to New Ireland east of Papua New Guinea, north to S.W. Japan.

Greenthroot Porrotfish - IP

ID: Reddish brown with some scattered white speckling. Compare with similar IP Filament-fin Parrotfish.

Scarus Globiceps

Violet-lined Parrotfish - IP

VI01EHINED PARROTFISH Scarus globiceps

ID: TP - Small: shades of green and blue with salmon-pink scale margins; numerous green broken lines and spots on upper head and pale lower head, 2 - 3 violet stripes on belly. Solitary Reef flats, lagoons and seaward reefs to 30 m. Indo-Pacific: E. Africa to Line Is. and French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Violet-lined Parrotfish - IP

ID: Grayish brown with 3 thin white stripes on belly, may display several pale curved bars on sides and tail base.

PAIENOSE PARROTFISH Scaws psittacus

SEE: to 30 cm (12 in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Yellow to green with salmon-pink scale margins, lavender-gray snout and bluish tail. Form groups. Reef flats, lagoons and seaward slopes in 2-25 m. Indo - Pacific: Red Sea to Hawaii and French Polynesia. • S. Japan to S.E. Australia and Lord Howe I.

Polenose Parrotfish - IP

ID: Reddish brown to gray with pale snout. Feed in large mixed-species schools.

Scarus Rivulatus Surf

belly

SURF PARROTFISH Scaws rivulatus

SEE: to 40 cm (16 in.) Panotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green to blue body, bright green pectoral fins; orange patch on gill cover, wavy green bands/lines on head. Form schools. Silty coastal reefs, lagoons and seaward reefs to 20 m. East Indo-Asian Pacific: Andaman Sea to Australia and New Caledonia, north to S.W. Japan.

Surf Parrotfish - IP

ID: Gray or gray-brown with 2 pale stripes on belly

Yellowbar Parrotfish - IP

Pygmy Porrotfish - IP

Scarus Spinus

ECIIPSE PARR0TFI5H Scarus russelUi

ID: TP - Blue to purple to purplish green head and forebody and abruptly green rear body with pink scale streaks, reddish pectoral fins, yellowish cheek; bands on head. Solitary. Mainly on outer reef slopes in 6 ■ 15 m. Indian Ocean: E. Africa to India and Andaman Sea

GREENSNOUT PARROTFISH Scarus spinus

ID: TP - Small; green to blue body, green snout and nape and yellow to yellow-green cheek/gill cover. Solitary. Outer reefs in 2-25 m.

West Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines to Samoa. - S.W. Japan to Great Barrier Reef.

Yellowbar Parrotfish - IP

ID: Grayish brown with 5-6 whitish bars. Sometimes form large feeding aggregations m areas ..rich with soft and stoney corals

YEUOWBAR PARROTFISH Scarus schlegeli

SIZE: to 38 cm (15 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Dark green to blue except lighter on upper head and foreback; short bnght yellow bar on mid-back continues as pale bar below. Solitary or groups. Coral-rich areas of coastal, lagoon and outer reefs to 50 m.

Pacific: E. Indonesia to French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Eclipse Parroffish - IP

ID: Dark reddish brown head and forebody and abruptly pale rear body with faint darkish bars. Usually form groups.

Pygmy Porrotfish - IP

ID: Dark brown to nearly black with 4 faint pale bars or vertical rows of whitish spots on side.

Scarus Tricolor

TRICOLOR PARROTFISH Scarus tncolor

TRICOLOR PARROTFISH Scarus tncolor

ID: TP - Shades of green, often with strong tints of pink or yellow on sides; green bands around mouth; dorsal and anal fins and long, pointed lobes of tail lavender-pink with dark margins. Solitary. Outer slopes in 10 - 40 m.

Indo-Pacific: E. Africa to Palau. Papua New Guinea, Nauru and Line Is. in eastern Central Pacific.

ID: Dark gray to blackish head and upper back shading to blue-green or blue on lower side with blackish margins on scales, red tail, yellow-orange anal fin. dusky orange or yellowish ventral fins.

Scarus Rubroviolaceus Male

REOUP PARROTflSH Scarus rubroviolaceus

SIZE: to 70 cm (2'A ft.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Shades of green, often bicolor with darker forebody; green to blue band on upper lip and double bands on chin, numerous blue to blue-green stripes on tail. Solitary or in pairs. Outer reef slopes to 30 m.

Indo-Pacific: E. Africa to Hawaii, Tuamotu Is. in French Polynesia. Galapagos and Panama. • S.W. Japan to Australia.

Redlip Porrotfish - IP

DD: Shades of red to reddish brown to gray with small black spots and irregular lines on scales, often bicolor with darker forebody. fins and usually lips red. Frequently accompany large males.

RED PARROTFISH Scarus xanthopleura

SIZE: to 55 cm (22 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green with pink scale margins, dark green hps; irregular dark green patch on lower cheek and chin, faint banding or spotting on head. Solitary. Clearwater lagoons and seaward reefs in 3-30 m.

East Indo-Asian Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Is. to Indonesia, S.W. Japan and Marshall Is. in Micronesia.

Red Porrotfish - IP

ID: Bright red with 3-4 faint pale bars on side. Rare. Solitary or form small groups.

Tricolor Porrotfish - IP

Filament-fin Parrotfish - IP

ID: Red-brown with scales edged in darker shade; a few small white spots often align to form 3 - 4 vertical rows. Compare with similar IP Greenthroat Parrotfish.

FILAMENT-FIN PARROTFISH Scaius altipinnis

SIZE: to 60 cm (2 ft.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Green with scales edged in salmon-pink; dark bands around mouth; short filamentous extension at middle of dorsal fin. Form large aggregations. Shallow protected reefs and outer slopes to 30 m.

Pacific: S W. Japan to Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, to Line Is. and Ducie I. east of French Polynesia.

Swarthy Parrotfish - IP

ID: Red head, belly and fins except tail; wavy black and white stripes on body to foretail. dark bands around mouth and eye. Coral-rich areas of coastal reefs, lagoons and outer slopes to 20 m.

SWARTHY PARROTFISH Scarusnigei

SIZE: to 35 cm (14 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Dark reddish brown becoming purplish green with size, red lips; yellow to green spot or streak behind eye, dark bands around mouth. Solitary except during courtship. Coral- rich areas to 20 m.

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and E. Africa to Society Is. in French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and E. Africa to Society Is. in French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

Swarthy Parrotfish - JP

ID: Black to red-brown with numerous small white spots, tail translucent; often display white bar across tail base. Usually in small groups on rubble bottoms near reefs.

Filoment-fin Parrotfish - JP

ID: Grayish white with yellowish snout; two black stripes and broken black stnpe on dorsal fin. With maturity gTayish white undercolor darkens and stnpes disappear.

FESTIVE PARROTFISH Scams (estivus

SEE: to 43 cm (17 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP/IP - Blunt forehead: green with orange to violet scale edges, large yellow-green spot on tail base, green bands around mouth and radiating from eye. Solitary and rare. Lagoon and seaward reefs in 3 -30 m.

Indo-Pacific: E. Africa to S.W. Japan and Tuamotu Is. in French Polynesia.

MARQUESAN PARROTFISH Scaruskoputea

ID: TP - Gray head and body with black scale margins; yellow-green tail base and white stripe on side of snout. IP - Shades of red with black scale margins; white patch on lower side and white stripe on anal fin base. Inner bays and outer reef slopes to 18 m.

Localized: Marquesas Is. in French Polynesia.

HIGHFIN PARROTFISH Scaius longipinnis

SEE: to 40 cm (16 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP - Purple with wide pale bar on forebody; green band runs from eye to pectoral fin; high rounded yellow dorsal fin, elongate tail lobes. IP - Light brownish orange, often with dark bars. Clear outer slopes and atoll reefs in 10-55 m. Pacific: Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea to Pitcaim Is. east of French Polynesia.

GREENUP PARROTFISH Scams virdifucatus

SEE: to 32 cm (13 in.) Parrotfishes - Scandae

ID: TP - Shades of green to blue to purplish; blue-green cheek/gill cover with variable mark behind mouth, blue borders on dorsal, anal and tail fins. IP - Dark brown. Solitary. Coastal, lagoon and outer reefs to 15 m.

Indian Ocean: E. Africa. Aldabra, Seychelles, Maldives to Sumatra and Bali in Indonesia.

QUOY'S PARROTFISH Scaws quoyi

SEE: to 21 cm (8 in.) Parrotfishes - Scaridae

ID: TP-Small; shades of green to pinkish gray: lime green saddle on upper tail base, green "moustache" and cheek. Solitary or form small groups. Sheltered inshore reefs, occasionally on outer slopes in 2-18 m.

Indo- Asian Pacific: India to Vanuatu. - S.W Japan to New Caledonia.

Indo- Asian Pacific: India to Vanuatu. - S.W Japan to New Caledonia.

BUMPHEAD PARROTFISH Bulbometopon muricatum

ID: TP - Huge, with large hump on forehead: greenish gray. JP - Brownish to green with 5 vertical rows of whitish spots on side. Form small groups. Uses head to break coral. Lagoons and seaward reefs to 40 m. Indo - Pacific: Red Sea and E. Afnca to Line Is and Tuamotu Is. in French Polynesia. - S.W. Japan to Australia.

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