Harlequin Shrimp Hymenocera picta

To about 5 cm (2 in.) long Indo Pacific Red Sea Aquascaping Most appropriate for a small reef aquarium where the beauty of this species can be appreciated and its interesting biology studied. Best kept in pairs or a small group. Feeding Carnivorous. Lives exclusively by attacking and eating sea stars (in particular Naroda and Linckia species). Must be given feeder sea stars in order to survive. A glorious small shrimp that is hardy and long-lived if fed with live sea stars and has been bred in...

Warty Bush Coral Pocillopora verrucosa

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs high-intensity lighting. Circulation Requires strong water movement. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Not as easy to keep as P. damicomis (above), but generally a hardy species that grows well and can be propagated asexually by cuttings. Usually brownish, but sometimes pink or red. Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Pocilloporidae

Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Caryophylliidae Elegance Coral Catalaphyllia jardinei

To 50 cm (19.5 in.) across Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs medium to strong light intensity. Water Quality Like all stony corals it needs excellent water quality, including calcium for building the calcareous skeleton. Aquascaping Occurs in turbid water, often on muddy or sandy bottoms or among seagrass, and is best kept in similar habitats placed in soft substrate and not wedged among live rocks. Often a centerpiece coral, growing large and beautiful. Usually easy to keep, but...

Chelidonura varians

Lighting Photosynthetic requires brightly lit conditions. Feeding Herbivore. Feeds on cell fluids from green algae of the genus Bryopsis only. Needs a peaceful aquarium with enough light and nutrients to support lush algal growth. Conservation Doomed in most reef tanks because of its special way of feeding. This attractive slug lives in shallow water and incorporates photosyn-thesizing chloroplasts from the algae it consumes into its own tissue. Lighting Photosynthetic requires brightly lit...

Pizza Anemone Cryptodendrum adhaesivum

To 30 cm (11.7 in.) across Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs intense lighting. Feeding Carnivore that needs plankton and meaty marine foods, such as pieces of shrimp or squid and live adult brine shrimp. Compatibility Extremely sticky and a deadly threat to sessile animals it touches. Can kill fishes and corals. Hazards Sting is painful to most humans. Handle with gloves. Hardy and handsome, this anemone is a potent hazard in most aquariums and is best kept in its own...

Corkscrew Anemone Macrodactyla doreensis

To 50 cm (19.5 in.) across Central Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs strong light intensity. Circulation Needs moderate but steady water motion. Aquascaping Needs a deep sand bed in which to bury its column. Compatibility Has a strong sting and will severely burn neighboring sessile animals. A commonly available and relatively hardy anemone. The lower column is orange to brilliant red, and the disc is purplish gray to brown, sometimes with radial lines. Has tentacles of equal length.

Sand Anemone Phymanthus sp

10-15 cm (3.9-5.9 in.) across Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs high light intensity. Aquascaping Prefers sandy habitats this genus is well-suited to small tanks and sand-zone aquariums. Compatibility A perfect anemone to combine with corals, commensal shrimps, and other sessile animals in a community tank. Small, easy to keep, and an excellent host for symbiotic crabs and shrimps. Disc is usually greenish or brownish. Tentacles are long with many treelike outgrowths...

Bubble Coral Plerogyra sinuosa

To 1 m (3.3 ft.) across Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic, needs medium to strong light intensity. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Feeding Responds well to occasional meals of meaty foods offered at night when its feeding tentacles are extended. Compatibility Will sting other corals within its reach. A favorite coral that is long-lived in many reef aquariums. Easy to keep, but the skeleton is sensitive to becoming invaded...

Porifera Demospongiae Halichondrida Axinellidae Cork Sponge Stylissa carteri

Grows slowly to medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Needs medium to low light intensities. Circulation Needs medium to strong alternating water motion Feeding Filter feeder that needs fine suspended organic particles and minute plankton. This orange or yellow-orange sponge forms irregular colonies and is fairly easy to keep. The outward parts of the colonies are thin, laminar and Irregular in shape. Stylissa flabelliformis is a similar-looking species.

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Alcyoaniina Nidalidae Chironephthya Chironephthya sp

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Does not contain symbiotic algae and has no protections against UV-radiation. Requires dim to moderate lighting. Circulation Must have strong back-and-forth water motion. Feeding Requires almost constant feedings with minute plankton and dissolved organic compounds. A beauty in the wild, but very difficult to keep. Forms tree-shaped colonies often hanging from the roofs of caves in the nature. The colonies can retract and change their size...

Sun Anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

To 12 cm (4.7 in.) across Caribbean Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs intense lighting. Water Quality Needs long acclimation and perfect water quality. Compatibility Strong sting will severely bum neighboring sessile animals. There are no anemonefishes in the Caribbean, but commensal crustaceans, such as Thor amboinensis shrimp and Mitrax crabs, do find protection with these small carpet-type anemones. Relatively hardy. Cnidaria Anthozoa Actiniaria Stichodactylidae

Sally Lightfoot Urchin Crab Percnon gibbesi

To 6 cm (2.3 in.) Caribbean, Atlantic, Eastern Pacific Aquascaping Occurs in the tidal zones of rocky shores and coral reefs.Very appropriate for a biotope with a tidal zone or land zone. Feeding Omnivorous feeds primarily by scraping algae off rocks. Compatibility Reef safe. Usually harmless, but may catch small fishes. Often associated with the sea urchin Diadema spp. (page 153) under which it hides. A flattened, fast-moving crab that eats algae and will make itself at home on and among live...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Poritidae Daisy coral

Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs medium to strong light intensity. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Feeding Difficult to feed. Dissolved organic nutrients are likely important for these corals, but their needs are still poorly understood. Long-term survival is unusual. Often declines gradually, with polyps refusing to open completely and tissue slowly receding. Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Agariciidae

Crustacea Decapoda Trapeziidae Spotted Coral Crab

Feeding A self-sufficient little crab that lodges within the branches of a stony coral and scrapes the surface of the coral with modified appendages to collect mucus and food particles. Compatibility Reef safe. Lives between stony coral branches of Pocillopora spp. and must be given such shelter In the aquarium. A single colony of corals often contains many specimens of this crab and there is absolutely no need to remove the harmless crabs from the host. Hardy if kept with a healthy coral.

Cabbage corals velvet coralsMontipora spp

Small to very large colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contain symbiotic algae and need high-intensity lighting. Circulation Require strong water movement. Water Quality Demand excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. This hardy genus has many encrusting species, but can also form branches, plates, and whorling vase shapes. The polyps are small and live in open corallites. Occasionally arrives on live rock. Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Acroporidae Pearled...

Warty Nudibranch Phyllida varicosa

To 11 cm (4.3 in.) in length Indo-Pacific Feeding Carnivorous. Feeds exclusively on sponges and will not accept other foods In captivity. Conservation Will starve in most aquariums. Do not purchase. Compatibility Carries a deadly toxin that can wipe out a reef tank. The most common of the about 70 spp. in the genus, this species is similar to the others in being nearly impossible to feed. It is also highly toxic and a threat to both fishes and invertebrates. Feeding Prey only on certain species...

Green Mussel Mytilus smaragdinus

Aquarium Filter For Shallow Water

To 6.5 cm (2.5 in.) long Western Pacific Water Quality Lives in shallow, brackish coastal waters where the salinity is 20-30 and the temperature 20-28 C (68-82 F). Feeding Filter feeder that extracts small organic particles and plankton from the water column. May need intentional feeding. This brilliant bluish green mussel is an important source of food in Southeast Asia and sometimes appears in the aquarium trade. Difficult to keep in normal reef tanks where the salinity is too high for its...

Thorny Bush Coral Seriatopora hystrix

Small to medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs high-intensity lighting. Circulation Requires strong water movement. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. With Its needle-sharp branches, this is a distinctive coral but delicate and sensitive to being overgrown by algae. The branches break easily. Usually pale brownish, occasionally pink. Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Pocilloporidae

Annelida Polychaeta Sabellidae Feather duster worm

Feather Duster Worm

Aquascaping Best kept on reasonably deep sandy substrate where the worm can bury its tube. Feeding Collects tiny plankton and organic particles with its feathery crown. Needs plenty of food in the reef aquarium. One of many ornamental worms that are peaceful and attractive additions to the marine aquarium. Hardy if well fed. Note sand grains covering the worm's protective tube.

Crustacea Decapoda Hippolytidae Pinecone Marble Shrimp

Aquascaping A very shy, nocturnal species that needs shadowy hiding caves and crevices. Feeding Natural diet includes tiny invertebrates and small-polyped corals, but it will accept most meaty foods. Compatibility Not reef safe. May feed on corals and other invertebrates. Only moderately hardy and rather reclusive. A candidate for a special system with other nocturnal species. Crustacea Decapoda Hippolytidae Violet-legged marble shrimp Aquascaping Provide protective hiding caves and crevices....

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Alcyoaniina Nephtheidae Broccoli coralsNephthea spp

Medium-sized to large colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic species that need strong light. Feeding Derive most of their nutrition from photosynthetic products produced by their symbiotic algae, but may also utilize minute plankton. Excellent beginner's corals that are easily kept and fast growing. Simple to propagate by cuttings. Color is usually light brown, with nonretractable polyps. Related to a complex group of large, branching soft corals, including the genera Neospongodes and...

Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Sciaenidae Highhat Pareques acuminatus

Reef Tank Aquascape Techniques

Aquascaping Shy fish that needs many good, shady hiding places. A thick sand bed and live rock provide live, natural foods. Feeding Feeds on crustaceans and polychaete worms in the wild. Expect to use live foods only, at least initially. Compatibility Safe with corals, but will eat various invertebrates and small fishes. Grows too large for most reef systems An interesting Caribbean species, and not quite as delicate and demanding as the related Jackknife Fish. Needs peaceful surroundings....

Annelida Polychaeta Amphinomida Amphinomidae Bearded Fireworm Hermodice carunculata

Amphinomida

Hazards This worm's bristles are sharp and contain a toxin that causes painful, burning stings and can lead to inflammations. Compatibility Not reef safe. An active predator that feeds on corals, anemones, and other sessile invertebrates. May appear mysteriously in the reef aquarium, usually having arriving with live rock. Bristleworms that become pests can be caught and removed with tube traps available from aquarium suppliers.

Pineapple Coral Blastomussa wellsi

Large Aquarium Aquascape Lagoon

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae but does best in subdued or indirect lighting. Circulation Prefers locations with quiet water conditions. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Somewhat uncommon, this is a beautiful, hardy coral with large, robust corallites. Normally bright red in color, sometimes with fluorescent green highlights. Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Mussidae Meat Coral Lobophyllia...

Echinodermata Asteroidea Valvatida Oreasteridae Cushion Star Bahama Star Oreaster reticulatus

Echinodermata Asteroidea

Caribbean, Tropical Atlantic Feeding Omnivorous, feeds on a variety of food sources, including detritus, algae, sponges, and other echinoderms. Feeds on live mollusks, such as clams and oysters, everting its stomach and digesting them in their own shells. Compatibility Not reef safe. Needs a large system with an open sandy bottom. Found in typical seagrass habitats. Also known as the Reticulated Sea Star, this large, common species needs a roomy aquarium. Hardy, but must be...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Coraiiimorpharia Discosomatidae Hairy Mushroom Anemone Rhodactis indosinensis

To 11 cm 4.3 in. across Indo-Pacific Lighting Does contain symbiotic algae and seems to thrive in bright light intensities, although moderate lighting will suffice. Compatibility These mushroom anemones can bud rapidly and have the potential to overgrow large portions of the aquascape. There are many similar species In this easy to keep genus. Disc is brown and covered with prominent branched tentacles.

Cats Paw Club Finger Coral Stylophora pistillata

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs high-intensity lighting. Circulation Requires strong water movement. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Hardy and relatively easy to keep and propagate by cuttings. Forms a variety of colony shapes, depending on lighting and current conditions. Usually yellow or green, occasionally pink. Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Acroporidae

Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae Goldenflake Angelfish Apolemichthys xanthopunctatus

Central Pacific Aquascaping Live rock will provide this fish with natural surroundings and a source of live food organisms. Feeding A specialized sponge feeder that is difficult to adapt to substitute foods. Compatibility Not reef safe. Will usually eat or nip at corals and other sessile invertebrates. Sadly, a difficult species to keep. Suitable for advanced aquarists able to invest time and effort in experimental husbandry techniques.

Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae Blueface Angelfish Pomacanthus xanthometopon

Blueface Angelfish

Indo-west-Pacific Aquascaping Live rock provides excellent natural surroundings and a variety of food organisms for all angelfishes. Feeding In the wild, eats sponges, tunicates, other sessile invertebrates, and algae. May be slow to accept substitute foods. Compatibility Not reef safe. Not as aggressive as other large angelfishes. A coveted species, but not among the easiest angelfishes to keep. A fish suited to more experienced aquarists. Many grazing fishes, such as this large...

Golden Coral Shrimp Stenopus scutellatus

Enoplometopus Occidentalis

To 3 cm 1.2 in. long Caribbean 5 Feeding In nature, this species feeds by removing parasites from fishes. It will readily adapt to substitute foods in captivity. Compatibility Reef safe. Very aggressive toward other specimens of the same species. Should be kept singly or in male-female pairs. This is a delicate species that may not fare well in a large, competitive reef tank. Relatively hardy if carefully acclimated and given a peaceful aquarium. Debelius' Reef Lobster Enoplometopus debelius To...

Petaloconchus spp

Vermetid Snail

Known as vermetid gastropods, these snails secret calcareous tubes and have caplike opercula for protection. Hardy and long-lived. Feeding Lives as a filter-feeder, screening organic particles from the water column. Needs a lot of particulate food. Compatibility Reef safe. May arrive on live rock or embedded in stony corals. Another genus of vermetid snails that sometime appear in reef aquariums. They are harmless, and a number of species are known. May be successfully kept in nutrient-rich...

Dardanus pedunculatus

Examples Mutualism Relationships

Feeding Omnivorous grazes on small invertebrates, dead organisms, and food remains, as well as algae. Compatibility Generally reef safe. Lives in association with the Calliactis polypus anemones, which attach to the crab's shell. Best kept in a small aquarium where the relationship can be observed. A fascinating example of mutualism, with two different organisms providing benefit to each other. The anemones provide camouflage, while the hermit crab hunts for food remains. Crustacea Decapoda,...

Crustacea Decapoda Diogenidae Blueeyed Hermit Crab

Feeding Grazes on algae and food remains. May need intentional feeding of dried Spirulina or nori sushi seaweed if algae supplies are limited. Compatibility Reef safe. Needs to be stocked in high numbers to be efficient as an algae control. Another of the many small, hardy hermit crabs that can help control l-gae growth in the aquarium. Many color forms exist, but the eyestalks are always orange and blue. Hardy, but lives just 1-2 years.

Porifera Demospongiae Spirophorida Suberitidae Yellow Encrusting Sponge Pseudosuberites andrewsi

Yellow Encrusting Sponge

Grows slowly to medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Needs medium to low light intensities. Circulation Needs medium to strong alternating water motion. Feeding Filter feeder that needs dissolved or very fine suspended organic particles and minute plankton. This is a hardy and easy to keep sponge with a bright or light yellow color. Frequently arrives on live rock. Colony may be encrusting or lumpy and irregular.

Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Grammatidae Blackcap Basslet Gramma melacara

Plectorhinchus Chaetodonoides

Aquascaping Needs numerous hiding places caves and crevices. Feeding Carnivorous accepts most meaty foods. Compatibility Reef safe, but fairly aggressive, particularly toward similar looking fishes. Should not be kept with docile and shy species, crustaceans, or other small free-living invertebrates. Highly sought-after fish for reef tanks, and one that can be combined with most other commonly kept animals. May be shy and secretive, particularly for the first few weeks in a new aquarium....

Chromodoris spp

Feeding Cannot be sustained in a home aquarium. Feeds mainly on sponges, but also on tiny invertebrates like sea squirts, mollusks, and ecbinoderms. Conservation Will starve in most aquariums. Do not purchase. A stunning animal, often seen swimming with graceful movements that give it its common name. Will die shortly after being purchased and should not be caught, Imported, or kept.

Major Elements

Gramma Brasiliensis

Manganese Mn2 , MnCI 0.0002 Iron Fe OH 2 , Fe 0H 4 0.002 After Spotte, 1979. Seawater Aquarium, the Captive Environment. John Wiley amp Sons. Vertebrata Elasmobranchii Rajiformes Dasyatidae Bluespotted Ribbontail Ray Taeniura lymma 70 cm 27 in. total length Indo-Pacific, Red Sea Aquascaping Needs a very large open sand flat overhung by rocky cave formations in a large aquarium. Feeding Carnivorous often difficult to feed. May accept fresh seafood items. Try live shrimp and worms. Compatibility...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Caryophylliidae Frogspawn Coral Euphyllia divisa

Medium-sized to large colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs medium- to high-intensity light. Circulation Requires moderate water movement. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Compatibility As with other Euphyllia species.it has sweeper tentacles and can attack and harm other corals within its reach. A hardy coral that grows fast and is generally easy to keep. The sexes are separate. Needs plenty of space to expand...

Spotted Porcelain Crab Neopetrolisthes ohshimai

The Porcellanidae

Indo-Pacific Lighting Requires bright lighting for its host sea anemone. Feeding A filter feeder that captures suspended organic particles with its specially modified appendages. Will also take bits of meaty foods that come its way. Compatibility Reef safe. Lives in pairs commensally with sea anemones. In the aquarium, it must have a host to survive. Very hardy and can live for years if kept with a host anemone, which the tiny crab never leaves. Larger spots than P. maculatus...

Table coralsAcropora spp

Large Acropora Millepora

Form large colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic need high-intensity lighting. Circulation Require strong water movement. Water Quality Demand excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Aquascaping Need plenty of space should be affixed to form coral tiers in the water column. Will expand to shade other corals. With good conditions, many of the table-shaped Acropora grow extraordinarily fast and are relatively easy to keep and propagate. A colony of...

Sabellastarte spectabilis

Sabellastarte Spectabilis

Compatibility Completely harmless and a natural companion for stony corals. Excellent choice for small tanks and sand-bottom blotopes. Feeding Feeds on tiny plankton and organic particles collected by the crown. Does well in systems with ample organic matter and detritus, but may need Intentional feeding in the reef aquarium. A good invertebrate for beginning aquarists. Hardy if fed well with mi-croplankton or liquid organic foods for filter feeders.

Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacentridae Black Damselfish Neoglyphidodon melas

Microspathodon Dorsalis

Feeding Eats soft corals in the wild, but readily accepts meaty and algae-based substitute foods. Compatibility Not reef safe. May eat corals. Aggressive toward other fishes. Juveniles can be kept in groups, but adults become extremely aggressive. Keep singly or in mated pairs. Hardy but aggressive species. This genus has juveniles that are stunningly attractive, but that grow into dull-looking, brownish black adults that will bully most other fishes in a home aquarium. Vertebrata...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Alcyoaniina Alcyoniidae Mushroom coral Leather coralSarcophyton sp

Alcyoniidae

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae needs high light intensity. Feeding Nourished primarily by the photosynthetic products produced by its symbiotic algae probably does not require feeding. Water Quality Often found on oceanic reefs in nutrient-poor water. This bright yellow species normally grows in very shallow water and has a mushroom colony shape typical of the Sarcophyton genus. An excellent candidate for a special biotope aquarium copying a shallow reef...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Actiniaria Stichodactylidae Magnificent Sea Anemone Heteractis magnifica

Actiniaria

To 100 cm 39 in. across Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs strong light intensity. Circulation Needs moderate but steady water motion. Compatibility Has a strong sting and will severely burn neighboring sessile animals. Feeding Carnivore that needs meaty marine foods. A large anemone with a poor record of survival in the aquarium. Very sensitive to physical damage to its tissue. The column is brilliant purple or bright orange the tentacles are greenish. Cnidaria Anthozoa Actiniaria...

Panulirus versicolor

Caribbean Big Claw Hermit Crab

Aquascaping Should be given overhangs and small caves in which it can hide. Feeding A scavenger that feeds on food remains will accept a variety of meaty foods, including frozen and dried rations. Compatibility Not completely reef safe. May prey on fishes and invertebrates. May become destructive to the reefscape as it grows. One of the few spiny lobsters that is suited for a robust community tank with very stable rockwork. Hardy, but allow slow, careful acclimation. Crustacea Decapoda,...

Anemone Mushroom Coral Heliofungia actiniformis

Fungia Spp

Huge solitary polyp Central Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs medium to strong lighting. Water Quality Demands excellent water quality, including calcium supplementation for skeletal growth. Aquascaping Should be on a quiet sandy bottom where it can expand freely. Keep away from strong currents. Resembles an anemone, but is a solitary single polyp stony coral. Often damaged in collection or shipping, but is hardy once established. Needs very careful acclimation. Cnidaria Anthozoa...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Zoanthidea Zoanthidae Sea mats

Wild Ricordea

Lighting Photosynthetic need moderate to high light intensity. Hazards Symbiotic bacteria living with Palythoa spp. produce palytoxin, a potent toxin in the mucus. Handle with care gloves are recommended. These easily kept polyps are connected by fleshy tissue that encrusts the substrate. They often form large colonies in shallow water. Colors are usually yellowish or brownish. Lighting Probably needs moderate light intensity. Feeding Should be given minute plankton during the night when the...

Annelida Polychaeta Sabellidae Social Feather Duster

Polychaeta Sabellidae

Colony 20-30 cm 7.8-11.7 in. across Aquascaping Needs peaceful conditions and harmless tank-mates best kept in a small, quiet reef system. Feeding Feeds on tiny plankton and organic particles collected by the crown. Needs plenty of food in the reef aquarium. Compatibility Reef safe. May fall victim to large brittlestars. This small feather duster forms dense colonies of clones and varies in color from region to region. These pretty worms are as delicate as they appear, and are among the more...

Pedersons Commensal Shrimp Periclimenes pedersoni

Periclimenes Pedersoni

To 2 cm 0.8 in. long Caribbean, Tropical Western Atlantic Lighting Requires intense lighting for its host sea anemone. Compatibility Reef safe. Lives individually, in pairs, or in larger groups associated with sea anemones. Needs a healthy host sea anemone for example, Condylactis gigantea to survive in captivity. A lovely little commensal shrimp that is easy to keep in a quiet dedicated aquarium, but which will often disappear in a reef community tank. Must have slow, careful acclimation to...

American Giant Hermit Crab Petrochirus diogenes

Phimochirus Operculatus

Caribbean Western Atlantic Aquascaping Lives on sandy bottoms and on seagrass beds perfect for a special aquarium replicating this habitat. Feeding A scavenger and carnivore, grazing rather indiscriminately on small invertebrates e.g., mollusks and worms . Accepts substitute meaty foods in the aquarium. Compatibility Not reef safe. The largest hermit crab from the Caribbean region and a possible choice for a biotope or fish-only reef tank. Hardy and long-lived. Polkadot...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Stolonifera Tubiporidae Organpipe Coral Tubipora music

Tropical Alcyonacea

Lighting Photosynthetic species that needs very strong light. Water Quality Demands nutrient-poor water and conditions tha prevent the colony from being overgrown by hair algae. Not a true stony coral, but with a distinctive dark red brittle skeleto composed of calcite tubes. Polyps may be light brown, green, or white, and are highly variable in shape, suggesting that several different species may exist. Can be rather difficult to keep, compared with other members of the Order Stolonifera....

Crustacea Decapoda Alpheidae Pistol shrimps

Red Caribbean Pistol Shrimp

Aquascaping Need a deep sand bed for their burrowing activities. Feeding Normal diet Is small invertebrates, but will take substitute meaty foods in captivity. Compatibility Reef safe. Many species live in association with shrimp gobies in shared burrows. Best kept in a quiet setting. Many colorful species are collected. They can be hardy, but need careful acclimation to captivity. By snapping a peg on the right claw the pistol shrimps generate a sharp' POP, hence the common name. Crustacea...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Alcyoaniina Nephtheidae Kenya Tree Capnella imbricata

Anthozoa Alcyonacea

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic species that needs very strong light. Feeding Nourished primarily by the photosynthetic products produced by its symbiotic algae does not require intentional feeding. A hardy, popular coral that is very easy to keep and propagate by cuttings. Reproduces asexually by releasing daughter colonies from its branches. Color may be brown, yellowish brown, or pale yellow, with polyps located at the ends of small branches. One of the first soft...

Protoreaster lincki

Red Fromia Starfish Care

With brilliant red spines, this Is a showy and distinctive species for a large tank and tankmates that are not on its usual list of prey. Hardy, but requires slow, careful acclimation to new water conditions. Echinodermata Asteroidea Valvatida Ophidiasteridae Elegant Sea Star Fromia indica Feeding Omnivorous grazes over rock, eating algae, tiny invertebrates, and microorganisms living with the algae. Difficult to provide with sufficient food in a typical reef system. Compatibility Reef safe....

Arthropods Chelicerata Merostomata Limulidae Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus

Merostomata

Aquascaping Needs a habitat with a large open sandy area. Water Quality Needs cooler temperatures, 21 24 C 70-75 F . Feeding Carnivorous will eat mussels and shrimps. Compatibility Potentially destructive and not reef safe. This a living fossil that occasionally becomes available to aquarists. Hardy, but must have a special aquarium. Beneath the formidable shell are chelicerae claws and five pairs of walking legs. Crustacea Stomatopoda Gonodactylidae Mantis shrimps Lysiosquillina spp. To 10 cm...

Fromia nodosa

Filum Echinodermata

Echinodermata Asteroidea Valvatida Ophidiasteridae Tamarisk Sea Star Tamaria stria To 20 cm 7.8 in. Eastern Pacific Feeding Omnivorous grazes over rock, eating algae, tiny invertebrates. and microorganisms living with the algae. Difficult to provide with sufficient food in a typical reef system. Compatibility Generally reef safe, but may attack certain sessile invertebrates. A richly pigmented sea star that is very sensitive to changing water conditions and thus difficult to ship without...

The Blue Cheeked Butterfly Fish Chaetodon semilarvatus

Blue Cheeked Butterflyfish

This typical reef dweller with its exceptionally attractive shape and coloration is unique to the Red Sea. It is one of the world's largest Butterfly Fish and can usually be seen foraging on the reef in pairs or in small groups. Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Chaetodontidae Orangeface Butterflyfish Chaetodon larvatus Feeding This fish is an obligate corallivore it feeds primarily on live coral polyps. Nearly impossible to adapt to substitute foods. Compatibility Not reef safe. Will eat...

Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae Multibarred Angelfish Paracentropyge multifasciatus

Angelfish Aquascaping Aquarium

Indo-west-Pacific Aquascaping This shy species requires caves and crevices for refuge, as well as live rock as a source of live food organisms. Feeding Natural diet is largely unknown possibly sponges, algae and tiny benthic invertebrates. Very difficult to feed in the aquarium. Does not readily accept substitute foods. Compatibility Not fully reef safe, but will ignore most soft corals. A very pretty fish, but shy, hard to feed, and with poor chances of survival. For experienced...

Aiptasiaeating Nudibranch Berghia verrucicornis

Normally around 2 cm 5 in. long Caribbean Feeding Feeds exclusively on glass anemones from the genus Aiptasia. Can be used as a predator in a tank infested with an uncontrolled population of Aiptasia. Compatibility Reef safe. Will die if its food supply is eradicated. A small, rather delicate nudibranch that is being tank-raised and sold as a biocontrol agent for nuisance Aiptasia. Short-lived. Careful acclimation needed. Mollusca Bivalvia Mytiloida Mytilidae

Cyphoma gibbosum

Compatibility Most species eat bristleworms some will kill and eat fishes. Need a specialized system of their own and expert care. Hazards Some cone shells, e.g., C. geographus and C. textile, are extremely poisonous and their sting can even be fatal to humans. Cone shells some 300 species in total are living works of art that deserve utmost respect. Conus geographus is the best-known species and has caused at least 12 fatalities among humans.

Porifera Demospongiae Halichondrida Axinellidae Strawberry spongePseudaxinella sp

Porifera Demospongiae

Grows slowly to medium-sized colonies Caribbean Sea Lighting Needs medium to low light intensities. Circulation Needs medium to strong alternating water motion. Feeding Filter feeder that needs dissolved or very fine suspended organic particles and minute plankton. This pretty species is frequently imported but relatively difficult to keep in most well-skimmed reef systems. As with most sponges, this species must never be exposed to open air, which can become trapped in the animal and lead to...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Holaxonia Gorgoniidae Sea Plume Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata

Photosynthetic Gorgonian

To 2 m 6.6 ft. high Caribbean Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs moderate to strong light intensities. Circulation Needs alternating medium to strong water currents. Aquascaping Grows large and requires plenty of space. A good beginner's gorgonlan hardy and quite attractive with violet or yellow branches. Pseudopterogorgia bipinnata develops feathery branches that are arranged in one plane. Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Holaxonia Gorgoniidae Lighting Photosynthetic need moderate to...

Curleycue Anemone Bartholomea annulata

Acrozoanthus

To 30 cm 11.7 in. across Caribbean Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs high light intensity. Compatibility Has strong stinging cells and will burn neighboring sessile animals severely. A common and hardy anemone with knobby, nearly transparent tentacles. It is a good candidate for a small biotope aquarium where the animal can serve as host for its many natural symbiotic shrimps and crabs. Cnidaria Anthozoa Actiniaria Aiptasidae Glassrose, Aiptasia Aiptasia sp. To 6 cm 2.3 in. tall...

Scroll Coral Turban Coral Turbinaria peltata

Diatom Live Rock

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs medium to strong light intensity. Circulation Requires moderate to strong water movement. Water Quality Like all stony corals it needs excellent water quality. including calcium for building the calcareous skeleton. Forming either flat plates, cups, or upright columns, this is a variable but hardy and interesting coral. May require a regular blast of water current to flush out detritus that may tend to accumulate in the cup of the...

Porifera Demospongiae Haplosclerida Petrosiidae Hard blue spongeXestospongia sp

Grows slowly to medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Circulation Needs medium to strong water currents. Feeding Difficult to keep well fed. Sponges are filter feeders that needs fine suspended organic particles and minute plankton Compatibility Dead or dying colonies may release toxins that can kill corals and other invertebrates. A beautiful blue sponge with dense, hard tissue. Unfortunately, very difficult to keep and often dead upon arrival. Best broken into smaller fragments and planted in...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Alcyoaniina Alcyoniidae Encrusting leather coralRhytisma sp

Parerythropodium

Medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Photosynthetic needs moderate to strong lighting. Compatibility Competes with neighboring corals and algae by releasing irritating chemical compounds. Can therefore be a potential threat to other corals. This encrusting soft coral formerly known as Parerythropodium sp. is regularly imported and both easy to keep and simple to propagate by cuttings. Usually bright yellow, occasionally brown, with long polyps and a thin encrusting base. Difficult to...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Alcyoaniina Alcyoniidae Cauliflower coralCladiella sp

Diodogorgia Nodulifera

Medium-sized to large colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs intense lighting. Circulation Needs moderate to strong water motion. Water Quality Needs the best possible water quality more sensitive than other species when it comes to shifting water quality. More difficult to keep and propagate than other genera in the family. Usually has white tissue with brown polyps, a coloration that separates the genus from other genera in the family. Colonies are usually slimy to...

Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Holaxonia Gorgoniidae Sea rodRumphella sp

Holaxonia Polyps

Medium to large colonies Indo-Pacific Lighting Contains symbiotic algae and needs moderate to strong light intensities. Circulation Needs alternating medium to strong water motion. Aquascaping Can grow to form huge colonies and may need a large aquarium. A very hardy coral and one of only a few photosynthetic gorgonians found in the Indo-Pacific. The common R. aggregata forms bushy colonies, usually with a gray or light brown color. Cnidaria Anthozoa Alcyonacea Holaxonia Ellisellidae Sea whips...

Porifera Demospongiae Haplosclerida Chalinidae Soft blue spongeHaliclona sp

Demospongiae

Grows slowly to medium-sized colonies Indo-Pacific Circulation Needs medium to strong water currents. Feeding Difficult to keep nourished. Requires dissolved or very fine suspended organic particles and minute plankton. Forms bright blue branching colonies. The tissue is soft in comparison to Xestospongia below . Difficult to keep in well-skimmed, nutrient-poor reef systems. Best broken into smaller fragments and planted in different spots in the aquarium.