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The highly unsaturated fatty acids, or HUFAs, are long-chain versions of fatty acids. Simple fatty acids might contain just 2 to 8 carbon atoms in a line, but the long-chain acids might have 18 to 24 carbons. Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, and this refers to whether each carbon atom is singly or doubly bonded to its neighbor, as in C-C or C C. If it has double bonds, it is called unsaturated. If it. has a lot of carbons (a long-chain fatty acid) and a lot of double bonds, it is a HUFA. Certain HUFAs are important elements of brain and other nerve tissues and cannot be synthesized from precursors. They must be included in the diet. You can put HUFAs in foods by adding inexpensive cod liver oil.
A host of marine species can probably be used as live foods. Copepods, for example, and especially their larvae (nauplii ), appear to be important components of the natural diet of marine fish larvae. Copepods and other small crustaceans may form the bulk of the diet for adult drag-onets, such as Synchiropus picturatus. These tiny crustaceans often undergo spontaneous population explosions in mature aquariums established by the methods outlined in this book. When such an explosion occurs, one can harvest a few hundred of the organisms and transfer them to a separate container in an attempt to establish a culture. Supplying them with algae, detritus, and other organic matter removed from the display aquarium should result in a successful copepod farm. Mass culture of a single copepod species is also possible, using techniques similar to those developed for Brachionus rotifers.
Only three species exhibit a difference in color patterns between the sexes and juveniles in all but three species resemble adults. Only the Clark's Anemonefish displays a marked difference in color patterns between geographic regions. The diet of most anemonefishes consists of cunent-bome zooplankton, primarily copepods and larval tunicates, and occasional bits of algae.
Inches in length in the wild, a roomy tank of at least 150, Resplendent Angel iCentropyge resplendens) a rare little and preferably 300, gallons will be required to accommodate dazzler from Ascension Island in the middle of the Atlantic it for a full 20-year-plus lifespan. Although largely herbivorous, adult Queen Angels feed mostly on sponges, supplementing this diet with a variety of other encrusting invertebrates and algae. Large angel specimens can be difficult to acclimate to captive life, and it is therefore wise to obtain a juvenile specimen and allow it to grow up in the aquarium display. In this manner, it will become accustomed to feeding on a variety of aquarium foods more readily obtainable than its natural diet. At least one manufacturer of frozen foods markets a formula containing sponges. In my experience, this product is readily accepted by the Queen Angel and should form a portion of the diet of any captive specimen. Many fishes, including squirrelfishes (Holocen-...
Scorpionflshes and rabbitfishes all bear venomous spines that can cause a painful, and possibly dangerous, sting if carelessly handled. Several species of scorpionflshes or li-onfishes are available commercially. These differ only in size and color patterns, and all require the same care. Feed them every two or three days with frozen or live marine fishes and other seafoods (e.g., lancefish, shrimps). Foods derived from the ocean are of utmost importance in the diet of lionfishes, which will not live out their normal lifespan if fed exclusively on freshwater fish, such as live goldfish. Dwarf lion-fish (genus Dendrochirus) rarely exceed 6 inches in length and feed mostly on crustaceans and other mobile invertebrates that they hunt at night, preferring to spend the day sleeping, often upside-down under a ledge. Members of the genus Pterois, such as the commonly available P volitans,
Green This is a fake phenotypc because there is no green gene. Wild angelfish from Guyana sometimes have a tint of green or blue on the head, but so far there has never been a green angel based on a mutant gene. Green angels in the trade are ordinary angelfish treated by unscrupulous producers with methyl testosterone, a synthetic male hormone added to the water to enhance colors. Unless the drug is continually added to the water or the diet, the green color fades. These fish may be reproductively damaged, resulting in fewer and
Fishes, like many other forms of life, are of immense value to humans. They have long been a staple item in the diet of many peoples, leading to the downfall of many species. Today they form an important element in the economy of many nations while giving incalculable recreational and psychological value to the naturalist, sports enthusiast, and home aquarist. Some fishes are dangerous (e.g., poisonous, stinging, shocking, or biting) and are of immense concern in some parts of the world. Fishes are also the subject of international and domestic agreements and disagreements. Many government institutions are devoted to the study of their biology and propagation. Particular aspects of various species lend themselves to studies in behavior, ecology, evolution, genetics, and physiology. They are used as general indicators or summators of pollution, partly to the direct benefit of humans and partly to
The importance of microscopic and near-microscopic invertebrates that reproduce within the aquarium can scarcely be overstated. For many kinds of showy, colorful invertebrates, these organisms are an essential component of the diet. Live rock and live sand play numerous roles in the ecology of the aquarium, with food production being one of the major ones. In addition to tiny invertebrates, Eurythoe, a small orange bristleworm, usually becomes established in live sand. It performs valuable service as a scavenger as well as provides food for certain fish and crustaceans. Snails may deposit eggs that are eaten by other organisms, added value to their usefulness as algae grazers. Numerous sessile invertebrates may release their larvae, periodically providing yet another substitute for plankton. Spawning fish are likely to lose eggs or fry to other larger creatures in the same tank. While not likely to supply all of the aquarium's dietary needs, homegrown foods such as these likely...
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