Best Treatment for Sick Fish

Always remove sick fish to quarantine for treatment with appropriate medicaments and heat. Professional breeders often dispose of sick fish rather than treat them in order to rapidly eliminate the disease agent from the premises. page 59). For those that cause disease in fishes, we have a few tricks of our own. Of the medicaments effective against bacterial diseases, those synthesized in the laboratory, such as sulfa drugs, are called antimicrobials. Chemicals produced by bacteria or fungi are...

Breeding Behavior

At about ten months of age, your angelfish will segregate into pairs. Each pair (there may be only one) will occupy one side of the aquarium and drive the other angelfish away. Members of a pair seldom display to one another, instead orienting side-by-side facing outward and threatening the other fish. At this point, the other fish should be removed from the tank (changing the grow-out tank to a breeding tank), or the pair netted and placed in its own dedicated breeding tank. Commercial...

Conditions

Are these conditions required They are helpful for imported wild fish, but not required for domestic fish. Domestic fish do not need soft water. They spawn freely in hard, neutral, or alkaline water, in bare tanks and in high traffic areas if they have been raised under these conditions. What are the best conditions for wild fish Many fish found under restrictive conditions in nature do just fine when presented with entirely different conditions in captivity. The habitat conditions in nature...

Conditions for Wild Fish

Wild fish are easily frightened and should be disturbed as little as possible. They need to be housed in a high tank to accommodate their tall finnage, with soft and acidic water (reverse osmosis or deionized water filtered through peat moss). Security should be provided by abundant structure (rooted Vallisne-ria or Sagittaria plus waterlogged branches), dim, indirect light and a 24-hour night light, and privacy. Approach them slowly and infrequently, and place the aquarium out of a high...

Dominant or Recessive

When two different genes occupy precisely the same position on chromosome pairs, they are called alleles. Wild Pterophyllum scalare look much alike. But alleles can arise through mutations, when the DNA making up a gene is reorganized and the gene produces a different outcome. An example of a mutation in angelfish is the gene resulting in long fins (instead of normal fins). When an angelfish inherits two allelic genes, one of the genes may mask the effect of the other gene, or dominate it. Such...

Filters

Filters provide mechanical removal of debris, chemical removal of dissolved gases and colored and toxic compounds, and (most important) water movement that enhances oxygen diffusion into the tank and carbon dioxide expulsion. Filters do not remove the end products of nitrogen (protein and nucleic acid) and metabolism (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates) that requires water changes. For community tanks, the best filters are undergravel and some type of outside power filter, either a hang-on box type or...

Genetics A Brief Recap

Genetics is the study of hereditary traits. Since ancjelfish traits are controlled by genes, you need to keep the following concepts in mind when considering their traits 5 Alleles refers to two different genes that occupy the same position on chromosome pairs and affect the same trait. 1AII chromosomes occur in pairs one of each pair is contributed by the mother and the other by the father. 2 Mitosis differs from meiosis in that cells are divided during mitosis, with each pair of chromosomes...

Growout

After two weeks in quarantine the allum angels may be moved into an established, vegetated, 55- to 70-gallon (209- to 265-L) aquarium al 82 to 85F (27 to 29'C), where the nitrogen fixing bacteria convert nitrites to nitrates and the rich population of plants takes up the nitrates produced. Continue frequent partial water changes to dilute excess nitrates, phosphates, dissolved organic substances, and other waste products. The grow-out aquarium for quarter-sized wild fish should be not less than...

How Fish Are Named

Every animal, including every fish, is given a two-part technical name, followed by the name of the person who proposed it, and the year in which the proposal was published. The first word of the technical name is the genus, the immediate group to which the fish belongs. The second word is called the specific (species) epithet. A technical description of the fish must be published in a widely distributed journal (some aquarium magazines may qualify) and in enough detail that it may be readily...

How to Tell Them Apart

Many (not all) wild angelfish can be recognized by morphometries, meristics, or pigment patterns. Although three species can be separated by meristics, the true number of species may be twice that many. For now, however, we can use Kullander's reported meristics to separate the three recognized species. Ichthyologists usually count the number of scales in a horizontal line immediately above the lateral line, and the number of rows of scales from top to bottom above and below the lateral line....

Howto Maintaining

Siphoning witter front thr aipiiiriuni is the most efficient way In perform n wilier change, if Ihi' lapiarinoi is i nite large, siphoning the water out. ria a giirtiea hose, into the yard or sink is recommended. For a small uipuiriiuii. siphon the water into a bucket first, then dispense of the water elsewhere. Always siphon from the holloin of the lu uuriiiin. particularly if you hare an undergrurel filter ami are using a grarel nu llum. rocks, making the water basic and the pH elevated....

Howto The Growout

Prepare a large (20 gallons 76 L or more) grow-out tank for the hundreds of fry to provide room for growth, heavy feeding, and dilution of wastes between water changes. The tank should be bare, and filtration provided with a sponge filter operated with vigorous aeration. Dechlorinate, allow temperature equilibration, and observe the tank for at least six hours to detect bubbles on the glass. If bubbles appear indicating supersaturation with air in the tap water-allow the tank to sit and de-gas...

Light

A full hood provides light for plant growth and enjoyment of your fishes, retards water loss by evaporation, and keeps dust out and startled fishes inside the tank. The most popular lamps are full spectrum fluorescents with color enhancing wavelengths, but cheaper daylight bulbs are adequate for most tanks. A rule of thumb the level of illumination for live plants is 10 watts per gallon, but lights are not required on a dedicated breeding tank. Lights set on automatic timers should come on...

Making the Selection

How many fish should you buy Unlike livebearers, there are no external markings or structures to help you determine sex. So you have to get enough fish to increase the odds of getting a pair. If you buy Iwo fish, the odds arc 50 percent that you'll get a pair and 50 percent that you will not. Scientists have calculated that six fish provide a 95 percent probability of having at least one pair. Of course, those six could turn out to give you two or three pairs, and in fact getting two pairs...

Modern Cichiids

Modern cichiids today number about 1,000 species, half in Africa and half in Central and South America. Of perhaps 400 South American species of cichiids, approximately five (three named) are angelfishes. enerated by any one of the techniques. With tal evidence analysis, the statistical evidence ts stronger because it's based on more information (more robust, as the scientists say). What do geology, the fossil record, DNA analyses, osteological analyses, and total evidence analysis tell us...

Modern Names

The status of the genus Pterophyllum was summarized in 2000 by Sven Kullander of the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm. According to Kullander, three species have valid names, but there may be more than three species. Of two additional names that had been in use, Kullander concluded that Pterophyllum eimekei and P. dumerilii were junior (invalid) synonyms of Lichtenstein's P. scalare, but that P. altum and P. leopoldi were valid and distinct species. There's more. Kullander noted...

Names of Angelfish Species

The first angelfish to be described was named Zeus scalaris by the ichthyologist Lichtenstein in the year 1823. The name Zeus, however, had already been used for the genus name of another animal, and so a replacement genus name had to be coined. That genus, Pterophyllum, was proposed by Heckel in 1840 to contain Lichtenstein's fish, and it remains in use today. Because the current genus name is different from the original genus name, the author and year of the original name are placed in...

Optimal Breeding Conditions

Tank size 125 to 300 gallons (473 to 1136 L) Photoperiod 14 hours light, 10 hours dark Temperature 85 F (30 C) pH 4.0 to 6.0 Hardness less than 50 ppm or 2.8 degrees of German hardness using a test kit Phosphate undetectable Ammonia undetectable Nitrite undetectable Nitrate undetectable Shipping water may contain a great deal of waste ammonium ion. If shipping water is added to a receiving tank of neutral pH water, the ammonium ion is converted to toxic ammonia with a rapidly lethal effect....

Perccnt Solutions

A percent solution is milligrams (mg) of a solid or milliliters (ml) or cubic centimeters (cc) of a liquid in 100 ml or cc of liquid (usually water). So, a 10 percent aqueous (meaning water) methylene blue solution would be 10 mg of methylene blue powder in 100 ml of water. You can cut (dilute) a percent solution to any weaker strength if you have a clear vessel graduated in ml or cc. To make 70 percent alcohol from 95 percent alcohol, pour the 95 percent alcohol into the graduated vessel until...

Purchasing Angelfish

Most pro tic buy small, inc.vpensire dime- or nickel-sized fish and raise litem to adulthood. J bung Jish adapt more easily than oltier fish to new enrironments. new foods, new lighting, and eren a wider temperature range than tidalt fish. Angelfish are inexpensive and cute when heir bodies are nickel- or dime-sized, but they don't remain small. Because they grow rapidly, the absolutely smallest tank for adults is 15 gallons (57 L). Of course, they do better in 20- and 30-gallon (76- and 133-L)...

Roundworms

Nematode worms are common in wild fisr and in pond culture, and usually spread by copepods. Nematodes coil like a watch spring, and are always narrow and cylindrical. They may be white, red, pink, peach, yellow, or brown, and often glisten. Some occur individually and do little or no harm, and others occur in massive infections that can burst the body wall. Some encyst (usually larval forms) and others wander through the body or a specific organ. Capillaria pterophylli is a common nematode in...

Spawning

Spawning follows days of rigorous scraping and cleaning of the spawning surface by both fish, which use their teeth like steel wool to create the cleanest surface possible. The spawning tubes become engorged and enlarged during cleaning, until the fish are ready to breed. Breeding is under hormonal control, in turn dependent on temperature, light, a rich diet (see the chapter on feeding), and a cascade of hormones that results, finally, in the female's mature eggs undergoing the process of...

Tank

Xeirhorit juvenili s run be siphoned InIII ii xepariitr grvw-aul mpmriiini larger juveniles rim he transferred l> y net. The grow-out uipairiuin should hare the some o uter lis tlnit of the parents' uipniriiini. After three weeks on live Artemio nauplii, you can begin weaning the young on frozen adult brine shrimp. At this time they look like miniature angelfish, and from now on growth is rapid if water changes are continued. The fish may need to be divided among several tanks as they grow....

Temperature

Domestic angelfish do best in clean, clear water of moderate hardness and neutral to slightly basic pH (6.8-7.4). They are at their best at temperatures of 76 to 82'F (25 to 30C). Temperature may be controlled by a thermostatically controlled aquarium heater or a warm room. The most reliable aquarium heaters can fail. A heater slightly undersized for your aquarium is much safer. The industry recommendation is 5 watts of heat-generating capacity per gallon (4 L), so a 20-gallon (76-L) tank would...

Testing Wild Fish as Carriers of Viral or Bacterial Diseases

Gratzek et al. (1992) recommended a way for aquarists to test whether wild fish were carriers of pathogenic viruses or other microbes. Disease-free fry of domestic angelfish are added to the water of newly imported angelfish in quarantine. If the domestic fry quickly become sick and die, you can presume the wild fish are symptomless carriers of a pathogenic microbe (virus or bacterium). leaching of natural chemicals from the ground or from toxic plants) and from overwhelming infections of...

The Geological Record

Our modern continents have not always been at their present locations. Early on, there was only a single supercontinent called Gondwana. It eventually broke up into Antarctica, Africa, North America, South America, Eurasia, and the Indian subcontinent. These modern continents were, and continue to be, carried in different directions by tectonic plates, portions of the planet's crust that float over the molten interior. Other tectonic plates do not carry continents and remain hidden by the...

The Host Parasite Relationship

It's as normal for a wild fish to have parasites as it is a forest to have trees. In nature, the parasite burden is seldom overwhelming, and the fish and its parasites appear to get along famously the infections are subclinical (no symptoms). The relationship between the host fish and its parasites has developed over millennia. Parasites that were overly damaging managed to kill off their hosts and their own opportunities to leave offspring. What remains today is a harmonized ecosystem of host...

Thornyheaded Worms

The Acanthocephala are dangerous worms of the intestine of wild fish, and are transmitted through copepods, amphipods, or isopod intermediate hosts. The worm is slightly curved in the long axis and usually swollen in cross-section. It has a protruding snout armed with thorns that embed in the wall of the intestine causing a thickened lump. The parasites never cause outbreaks in aquaria, but can be a cause of death in wild fish. Pandosentis was reported from eichlids in Venezuela. Diagnosis is...

Unbagging

You've picked out six plain angels and taken them home. Don't simply dump them into your tank. Angelfish are sensitive to bright lights and temperature changes. Do as the dealers do. Turn off the room (and tank) lights, and float the plastic bag of angelfish in the aquarium for a half hour. During this time the temperature of the water in the plastic bag will change to the temperature of the water in your tank. Now open the bag, spill off some bag water into a bucket, and replace it with tank...

Water Changes

Water quality is as important as temperature, but more difficult to control. Every time food is put in a tank, it is digested by the fish or by microbes to waste products that include ammonia and other nitrogenous compounds related to urine. What goes in, must come out. Those waste products accumulate in your tank water. They must be removed or they will weaken the fish, stunt their growth, tint the water yellow, and make the fish susceptible to disease. Filters can remove particles of sediment...

Waters

The rivers and backwaters of South America vary just as much as those in the United States. River water that flows through limestone highlands tends to be moderately hard, moderately basic (alkaline), cool, and clear. No angelfishes occupy these habitats. Blackwater is the typical habitat of angelfishes. Largely slow-flowing, wide, meandering rivers of broad, flat forested river basins, these waters thunder from the sky during endless rainy seasons and leach through the surrounding forest and...

Additional Information

For a comprehensive view of the American cichlids and their distributions and habitats, see Staeck and Linke's two-volume series on American cichlids, available at your local pet shop. For up-to-date technical information and new publications, Sven Kullander's web site at the Swedish National Museum shtml is an essential starting point for understanding the evolutionary path that led to modern cichlids from their distant ancestors.

Mutations

Mutations can be dominant (capital letter) or recessive (small letter) to wild-type (+). Many angelfish genes are for incomplete dominance (blending). Put another way, an angelfish with two incomplete dominance genes for a trait (homozygous) has a double dose of the gene and therefore a double dose of the trait. There are exceptions, but incomplete dominant genes yielding single dose and double dose phenotypes are a recurring phenomenon through many angelfish mutations. All specific mutations...

Aquarium

A tropical fish beginner often starts with a 10-gallon (38-L) aquarium, but angelfish do better in tanks of at least 20 gallons (76 L). Height helps them avoid dragging their long anal and filamentous pelvic fins on the gravel, which leads to erosion of the skin, cuts, and infection. Show tanks (much higher than wide) provide the greatest height per unit volume, but that extra height requires more intense lighting to reach down to the rooted plants. The community tank may be equipped with an...

Unpacking and Transferring Altums

Unpack altums in dim light and float the bags in the quarantine tank for temperature equilibration. After 30 minutes, discard one-fourth of the bag water and replace it with quarantine tank water. Repeat three more times at five minute intervals, discarding shipping and dilution water each time, after which the highly diluted contents of the bag may be poured into the quarantine tank. Wild quarter-sized immature fish may contain monogenetic trematodes in the gills (gill flukes), or small black...

Mitosis and Meiosis

All the cells of the body divide through mitosis. In mitosis, the pairs of chromosomes double (so there are four of each chromosome rather than two) before the cell divides, pulling apart to form two daughter cells. As the cell divides, the four chromosomes in each set are shared by the daughter cells, each getting, once more, the original paired condition of one chromosome from each parent. This paired condition of chromosomes is called diploid Leopard ailfietfish earning Ihe xmokey unit zebra...

Water Quality

Charged ions) are mostly calcium (Ca+) and magnesium (Mg+) with lesser amounts of other cations, and they are often associated with anions (negatively charged ions) such as hydroxides (OH) and sulfates ( S04). The higher the concentration of dissolved cations in water, the greater the hardness. Rainwater, distilled water, and deionized water all have almost no cations and are considered soft. What is the importance to aquarists Hard water also contains calcium ions that assist the transfer of...

Foods and Feeding

Angelfish are carnivores that eat insects, worms, and crustaceans, but not plants or seeds. They may also eat slow-swimming, small fishes. The small invertebrates are rich in fats and proteins (about 50 50) and almost devoid of carbohydrates and fiber. In the wild, angelfish feed casually and lighlly all day long. What should we feed them in captivity, and how often should they be fed Live and frozen animal foods provide the richest and most natural diet tor angelfish. Breeders offer them adult...

Artemia nauplii

There is no substitute among tropical fish breeders for newly hatched live brine shrimp, otherwise called nauplii. Brine shrimp (Artemia) are small ('A inch 1 cm ) crustaceans that live in desert ponds and lakes with high sodium, calcium, and or magnesium salt content, where they feed on salt-tolerant blue-green eyanobacteria and algae, and in turn are fed upon by birds. Few other creatures live in salt ponds. In California and elsewhere, seawater is trapped in ponds for drying in the process...

The Three Recognized Species of Angelfishes

Kullander (personal communication) recalled P. altum from the upper Rio Negro, but probably not below the Sao Gabriel rapids, which is a barrier to the passage of many kinds of fishes. Further collections would be useful for validating and delimiting its distribution in the upper Rio Negro, and possibly even beyond the Sao Gabriel rapids toward the main stem of the Amazon. Apparently, it has not spread widely either in the Rio Negro or below, but it is widely distributed in the Orinoco...

Cichiids in South and Central America

While the land mass carried eastward on its tectonic plate across the widening South Atlantic Ocean would become modern Africa, the other segment being carried westward would become modern Soulh America. Here, the Heterochromis-Wke ancestral cichlid would exploit the new continent through a Rctroculus-Wke descendant. That basal Retroculus type persists today, but would give rise to successive lines leading to Cichla, Astronotus (oscar), Geophagus (eartheaters), Crenicichla (pike cichiids), and...

The Nitrogen Cycle

The principal waste products of fish metabolism are carbon dioxide and ammonia. Carbon dioxide is vented to the atmosphere if the water is well circulated. Ammonia is not, and can be lethal to fish even at concentrations as low as 0.02 parts per million (ppm). After an aquarium has been set up for a month or more, the surfaces of the glass, gravel, filters, and other structures become coated with a microbial community called biofilm. The biofilm contains protozoans, bacteria, fungi, rotifers,...

Pterophyllum Scalare

The past SO years of commercial and hobby reeding of Plerophyllum scalare have produced 3 hardy fish tolerant of common tap water conditions, a great range of temperatures, and resistant to diseases. We will never outgrow a ngelfish. Prominent and stately as adults, they are easy to breed and outstanding parents. Your entire surplus production of young will Oe snapped up eagerly by local pet stores to fill an insatiable demand from the public. Pterophyllum scalare in the past has been known by...

Total Evidence Analysis

Today there is a computerized statistical technique called total evidence analysis. It allows us to combine separate nuclear and mitochondrial DNA studies with studies of skeletons of fishes osteology and other kinds of investigations to produce a phylogenetic tree that once again resembles the results generated by any one of the techniques. With total evidence analysis, the statistical evidence is stronger because it's based on more information more robust, as the scientists say . What do...

Microworms

Many breeders maintain microworm cultures as a supplemental live food for angelfish and other tropical fish fry. Microworms are readily cultured in small covered plastic containers using dried baby food as a food base. Dried Gerber or Pablum flakes are mixed with tap water and a thin paste is spread onto the bottom of a butter or margarine tub to a depth of a half inch. Dried baker's yeast a live yeast is sprinkled on top or mixed with the paste. A starter culture of microworms is added to the...

Altum Angels

Several populations of angelfish have been called altum angels. The status of these fishes, based on conversations with Heiko Ble-her, sheds considerable light on the distribution of the true altum angelfish. What of the other altum angels from Peru and from the Rio Negro According to Blehcr and others, the Peruvian altum is a high-bodied population of P. scalare. Most important, Bleher states that the high-bodied form in the upper Rio Negro that resembles P. altum in fact is a variant of P....

Distribution of Angelfishes

Angclfishcs occur in the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and in smaller streams between these two huge basins. All angelfish streams drain into the South Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon is the world's largest river and carries more water than any river on Earth. It disgorges eight times as much water as the Congo in Africa and twelve times as much as the Mississippi. Its tributaries include the Rio Negro, Rio Branco, Rio Madeira, and a hundred other major streams coursing through Peru. Ecuador, Colombia,...

Strange Angelfish Phenotypes

The phenotype of an angelfish is what it looks like based on its genes genotype plus environmental influences. As an example of environmental effects, silver angelfish raised in constant light grow up without dark bars on the body and appear silvery, while those raised under ordinary conditions of 14 hours of light have dark bars on the body. This reduced pigment, or silvery effect, can only develop early in life under prolonged photo-periods, and is irreversible. In this ease, having the dark...

Induced Phenotypes

Cobra Angelfish

Green This is a fake phenotypc because there is no green gene. Wild angelfish from Guyana sometimes have a tint of green or blue on the head, but so far there has never been a green angel based on a mutant gene. Green angels in the trade are ordinary angelfish treated by unscrupulous producers with methyl testosterone, a synthetic male hormone added to the water to enhance colors. Unless the drug is continually added to the water or the diet, the green color fades. These fish may be...

Protozoan Diseases

White spot disease The most common disease of freshwater tropical fish is infection of the skin by Ichthyophthirius multifilis. The eh parasite is a ciliated protozoan, ubiquitous in water, that causes epidemics when fishes are stressed by cold temperatures or close contact with other heavily infected fish. Ich occurs in all aquariums and remains dormant until the fish are stressed or a new fish is introduced to the tank. Fish that recover from ich seldom become seriously infested again, but...

Formalin and Formaldehyde

Formalin and formaldehyde are not the same. A bottle labeled 40 percent or 37 percent formaldehyde refers to 40 or 37 milligrams of formaldehyde gas in 100 milliliters about a tenth of a quart of water. That bottle is called 100 percent formalin because it contains formaldehyde gas in saturation. If we want 10 percent formalin, then we cut it by adding nine parts of water if we wanted 5 percent formalin, we would cut it with 19 parts of water. In practice, these measurements are crude...

Cichlids in Africa

We know the first cichlids appeared some 130 million years ago. Halfway through the history of cichlids, about 65 million years ago, as Gondwana was breaking up, a more advanced cichlid appeared resembling Heterochromis and Hemichromis of Africa. While this Heteroehromis-Ukc fish was spreading over this large land mass, a giant crack was developing in the tectonic plate below, splitting it in two. As magma rose up, it pushed the plates apart and the land mass began breaking up, one side...

Quarantine

Newly imported P. altum should be unpacked in dim light and quarantined in a large volume 20 to 100 gallons 76 to 379 L of receiving water in near darkness for the first several days. The receiving water should be soft DH 1 to 15 and acidic pH 4.5 to 6.5 . Failure to keep them in soft, acidic water may result in susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, rapid deterioration, and death. Many newly unpacked fish show no signs of disease, but nonetheless keel over on their sides, do not...

What Is a Species

While a legal species is the name applied to the holotype specimen in a museum, a biological species is a potentially interbreeding population occupying a distinct region, and separated from other similar species by barriers that prevent interbreeding. That barrier could be a mountain, river, ocean, a breeding season, or simple lack of attraction. For fishes in close proximity, the barrier could be incompatibility of their genes so their hybrids do not survive, or the surviving hybrids cannot...

Punnet Squares

We can anticipate the odds of each type of sperm cell gene combining with each type of egg cell gene during fertilization. We can illustrate the proportions and possibilities of the offspring from the parents by using a box called a Punnet Square. When any egg combines with any sperm, the only possible combinations will be Here, Wis the genotype genetic makeup of the offspring represented by the fertilized egg zygote or first stage of an embryo . The homozygous extra-longfinned male crossed...

Information

Tropical Fish Hobbyist 43 10 1994 70-76. Goldstein, R.J. Cichlids of the World. Neptune, NJ T.F.H. Publications, 1973. Gratzek, J.B., and J.R. Matthews, eds., Aquari-ology, Fish Diseases and Water Chemistry. Blacksburg, VA Tetra Press, 1992. Killino, T.J., and M.S. Bodri. Safety of Milbe-mycin as an Oral or Bath Treatment for the Tropical Freshwater Angelfish Pterophyllum sen ore. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28 1 1997 94-96. Mayland, HJ. The...

Origin

Pterophyllum altum probably does not occur in eastern tributaries of the Orinoco, or in the Rio Negro, or in any other portions of the Amazon basin, according to several of today's experts. The fact remains, however, that at least one collection reports it from the Rio Negro. If P. altum has indeed crossed from the Orinoco drainage into the Rio Negro, il would have been through a legendary natural connection called the Rio Casiguiare, or the Casiquiare Canal. This high water bridge between the...

Dodecahexaenoic acid a HUFA or highly unsaturated fatty acid

H3C - CH CH CH CH2 - CM CH -CH CH - CH CH - COOH foods, and even increase the nutritive value of live baby brine shrimp, by adding a cheap source of carotenoids ordinary kitchen paprika. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, or HUFAs, are long-chain versions of fatty acids. Simple fatty acids might contain just 2 to 8 carbon atoms in a line, but the long-chain acids might have 18 to 24 carbons. Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, and this refers to whether each carbon atom is singly or...

Flatworms

Digenean Trematodes Fish

The principal parasitic flatworms are tapeworms cestodes , digenea internal flukes , and monogenea gill and skin flukes . Monogenea are serious disease agents because they have a direct life cycle that can result in uncontrolled multiplication. Monoge-nea are of two general forms those with tiny adhesive clamps and those with large suckers and anchors. Clamp-bearing monogenea usually occur on gills, whereas anchor-bearing monogenea occur on gills or skin, and are known even from the urinary...

Glossary

symbol for the wild-type allele accession number registration number of a museum specimen acidic having a pH well below 7.0 albino lacking melanin pigment alkalinity having the capacity to neutralize acids alleles genes affecting the same character differently anal fin unpaired fin on the abdomen of a fish ascites swelling or bloating with intracellular fluid bands vertical markings basic having a pll well above 7.0 B-cell type of antibody-producing white blood cell blackwater darkly stained...

Interactions

Genes sometimes interact with unpredictable consequences. As described under marbles, r 3 enhances both D and D' to increase black pigmentation. These are all alleles. A cross based on interacting non-allclic genes was the origin of Black Velvet. Here, the gene for blushing, or homozygous stripe-less angelfish S5 , was combined with the most intensely black of the dark gene strains Drf , yielding an intensely black angelfish. Epistasis This is the action of one gene affecting the expression of...

South American Genera of the Family Cichlidae after Kullander

Subfamily Retroculinae Retroculus Tribe Astronotini Tribe Chaetobranehini Tribe Crenicaratini Tribe Acarichthyini Tribe Geophagini Tribe Aearonini Tribe Ciehlasomatini Biotoecus, Crenicara, Dicrossus, Mazarunia Acariehthys, Guianacara Apistogramma, Apistogramnwides, Biotodoma, Geopha-gus, Gymnogeophagus, Mikrogcophagus, Satanoperca. Taeniacara, brasiliensis group, steindachneri group Aequidens, Bujurquina, Cichlasama, Cleithracara, Laetacara, Krobia, Nannacara, Tahuantinsuyoa, hoehni group,...