Cichiids in South and Central America

While the land mass carried eastward on its tectonic plate across the widening South Atlantic Ocean would become modern Africa, the other segment being carried westward would become modern Soulh America.

Here, the Heterochromis-Wke ancestral cichlid would exploit the new continent through a Rctroculus-Wke descendant. That basal Retroculus type persists today, but would give rise to successive lines leading to Cichla, Astronotus (oscar), Geophagus (eartheaters), Crenicichla (pike cichiids), and finally another and most recent line that led to Cichlasoma types and Heros types. All those lines persisted with modern representatives. The early Heros persisted to modern Heros, and also gave rise to Symphysodon (discus), Mesonauta (festivum), Uaru, and Pterophyllum (angelfishes).

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