Acknowledgments

First, and foremost, this book has been possible only because of the contributors who have written about the zoos and aquariums in their regions and countries. No one individual could know, or even gather, this historical information from throughout the world. Too much time, money, language skills, and effort would be required to accomplish what these contributors have achieved. Although some guidance was given to the contributors to establish some degree of...

Appendix Zoos and Aquariums of the World

Zoological Gardens of Great Zoological Gardens of Western Belgium The Zoological Gardens of Eastern Czech and Slovak Russia and Former Soviet Zoological Gardens of the United Zoological Gardens of Australia Zoological Gardens of Southwest Asia (Middle South Southeast East Zoological Gardens of Zoological Gardens of Zoological Gardens of Zoological Gardens of South and Central America 387 Central Elephant King Louis IX of France brought with him when he returned from the Crusades during the...

Cip

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any...

Cover Photographs

Background Photograph African Panorama exhibit at Hagenbeck's Tierpark, Stellingen (Hamburg), Germany. Panorama exhibits revolutionized the exhibition of animals during the twentieth century (see Chapter 3). (Photograph by Harro Strehlow.) Front Cover Camel exhibit during the mid-1920s at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan (see Chapter 9). (Photograph courtesy of Ueno Zoo.) Upper Left Heron painted as an illustration for the Indian Natural History Project, from a specimen at the Barrackpore menagerie,...

Folk Systematics to Scientific Systematics

An inclination to categorize has always been a part of human nature. With regard to animals and plants, this process is known as systematics. Studies of several primitive societies that exist relatively unchanged today indicate their forebearers developed accurate biological classification systems and common organizing principles. Organisms are placed in naturally occurring groupings, with each group having easily recognized characteristics distinguishable from characteristics of other groups...

Historical Trends

A great deal of pride is taken in historical firsts, such as which zoo was the first established in a particular country, which zoo had the first exhibition or first birth of a particular species, which zoo developed certain kinds of exhibits first, and so on. Pride aside, what is more important are the trends, of which the firsts are just the beginning. Institutions, such as zoological gardens, do not begin fully developed and, in fact, are never fully developed. Zoological gardens are still...

Info

Egypt, Europe, Mesopotamia, India various species small wild cats India (chicken and peacock), Asia (pheasant), Africa (guinea fowl), Central America (turkey), Mesopotamia (pigeon, goose, and duck) Central America (turkey), Mesopotamia (pigeon, goose, and duck) Palaeozoological evidence from archaeological sites indicates that only a few species were kept for domestication purposes, although other species were present. Untamable species were eventually killed for food or released, while those...

Keeping Wild Animals

In the Mesolithic period (10,000-8000 B.C.), which followed the end of the last Ice Age, humans were preliterate food gatherers, hunters, and fishers living in small social groups. During this era these groups developed distinct cultures, improved their tool technology, and exploited natural resources. They advanced socially, intellectually, and technologically as they adapted to the challenges of a changing environment, caused by the ending Ice Age with its climatic changes and accompanying...

Overview

Zoo and Aquarium History begins with a chronologically arranged global perspective in Chapter 1 and then, about the time of the European Renaissance, changes to a geographic perspective. Chapter 1 provides an introduction and covers the first keeping of wild animals, the ancient collections, and the menageries. It covers the world from roughly 10,000 b.c. (the end of the last Ice Age and the beginning of domestication) to about a.d. 1456 (the beginning of the European Renaissance). However,...

Zoological Gardens of Africa

Wilhelmus Labuschagne and Sally Walker 10.2 Arab Republic of 10.2.1 Giza Zoological 10.2.2 Other Egyptian and Sudanese Territory Zoos 339 10.3 Sub-Saharan 10.3.2 Republic of South 10.3.3 Other African 10.4 African 10.4.1 Malagasy Republic Additional 11 Zoological Gardens of South America James F. Ellis, Jr. and Georgeann A. Ellis 11.2 Brazilian 11.2.1 The North 11.2.2 The Northeast 11.2.3 The Center-West 11.2.4 The Southeast 11.2.5 The South 11.3 Parque Zoobot nico Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi...

Preface On Zooligical Park Report

History is a human invention, so it tends to have an anthropocentric perspective that excludes other species. As historian Max Oelschlaeger points out, The wild plants and animals, the web of life with which our humanity is bound, and without which the human drama could not be enacted, become bit players.1 This history of zoos and aquariums is about some of those bit players and the forgotten roles they have played in our human drama. Much of our past has been an integral part of nature our...

Ancient Collections and Menageries

1.2 Keeping Wild 1.2.2 Domestication of Wild 1.2.3 Beyond Domestication Collecting Wild Animals 7 1.3 Ancient 1.3.1 Mesopotamian 1.3.2 Ancient Egyptian 1.3.3 Ancient Asian Collections India and China 16 1.3.4 Greek and Roman 1.3.5 Persian and Arab Collections 1.3.6 Medieval 1.3.7 Aztec and Inca 1.4.1 European 1.4.2 Colonial 1.4.3 Evolution of the Zoo and Additional 2 Zoological Gardens of Great Britain 2.2 The Tower 2.3 Estate Collections and the Windsor Great Park 56 2.4 The Exeter 2.5 Three...

Royal Parks and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon Nineveh

Babylonian and Assyrian royal parks and hanging gardens were the result of Meso-potamian garden evolution. Some of these parks and gardens may have been public parks for the benefit of the cities in which they were established. However, for the most part, they were for the use and enjoyment of the royal family. Royal parks and gardens were often the site of royal hunts, a place to entertain guests, and a place to keep animals. Tiglath-Pileser I Assyria, 1114-1076 b.c. kept herds of deer,...

Goeldi Museum And Botanical And Zoological Garden

Catherine de Courcy is a resident of Melbourne, Australia, where she is a librarian at the State Library of Victoria. Her master's thesis was on the history of the Melbourne Zoological Gardens. Her publications include two on the history of Australian zoos. James F. Ellis, Jr. and Georgeann A. Ellis. Dr. James Ellis is the Associate Director of International Programs at Washington State University, Pullman. He has worked at the Oklahoma City Zoo, Peoria Zoo, and Santa Fe Community College...