Ancient Collections and Menageries

Vernon N. Kisling, Jr.

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Keeping Wild Animals 2

1.2.1 Environmental Knowledge 2

1.2.2 Domestication of Wild Animals 5

1.2.3 Beyond Domestication — Collecting Wild Animals 7

1.3 Ancient Collections 8

1.3.1 Mesopotamian Collections 8

1.3.2 Ancient Egyptian Collections 12

1.3.3 Ancient Asian Collections — India and China 16

1.3.4 Greek and Roman Collections 17

1.3.5 Persian and Arab Collections 21

1.3.6 Medieval Collections 21

1.3.7 Aztec and Inca Collections 25

1.4 Menageries 28

1.4.1 European Menageries 28

1.4.2 Colonial Menageries 33

1.4.3 Evolution of the Zoo and Aquarium 37

References 42

Additional Sources 47

2 Zoological Gardens of Great Britain

Clinton H. Keeling

2.1 Introduction 49

2.2 The Tower Menagerie 50

2.3 Estate Collections and the Windsor Great Park 56

2.4 The Exeter 'Change 58

2.5 Three Nineteenth-Century Private Collections 60

2.6 Zoological Gardens at Surrey and Liverpool 61

2.7 Manchester Zoological Gardens and the Belle Vue Zoo 65

2.8 Zoological Gardens at Edinburgh, Bristol, Hull, and Preston 66

2.9 Zoological Gardens at Paignton, Chester, and Dudley 67

2.10 London Zoological Garden 68

2.11 Zoological Gardens at Whipsnade and Jersey 72

References 73

3 Zoological Gardens of Western Europe

Harro Strehlow

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Post-Medieval Collections to Modern Zoos 75

3.2.1 Game Parks, Falconries, and Pheasantries 76

3.2.2 Deer Moats, Bear Pits, and Lion Cages 78

3.2.3 Menageries 80

3.2.4 Transition from Menagerie to Modern Zoo — Schonbrunn and Berlin 83

3.2.5 Transition from Menagerie to Modern Zoo —

Jardin des Plantes 89

3.3 Early Modern Zoos 90

3.3.1 The Exotic Style and the Systematic Zoo 97

3.3.2 The Hagenbeck Revolution 102

3.4 Modern Zoos 104

3.4.1 Zoos of the Early Twentieth Century 104

3.4.2 Zoos of the Late Twentieth Century 108

References 112

Additional Sources 116

4 Zoological Gardens of Central-Eastern Europe and Russia

Leszek Solski

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Poland 117

4.2.1 Wild Animal Keeping in Poland through the Nineteenth Century 117

4.2.2 Origin of Modern Polish Zoos to 1939 119

4.2.3 Polish Zoos during and after World War II 122

4.2.4 General Characteristics and Comments on Polish Zoos 130

4.3 Russia 132

4.3.1 Wild Animal Keeping in Russia through the Nineteenth Century 132

4.3.2 Origin of Modern Zoos in Russia to 1917 133

4.4 Soviet Union 135

4.4.1 Soviet Zoos — Political and Economic Realities 135

4.4.2 Russian Zoos in the Soviet Union 137

4.4.3 Other Zoos in the Soviet Union 139

4.4.4 General Characteristics and Comments on Soviet Zoos 140

4.5 Czech and Slovak Republics 140

4.6 Hungary 142

4.7 Bulgaria 143

4.8 General Comments on Central-Eastern European Zoos 145

References 145

Additional Source 146

5 Zoological Gardens of the United States

Vernon N. Kisling, Jr.

5.1 Introduction 147

5.2 Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Menageries 147

5.3 Nineteenth-Century Zoos and Aquariums 150

5.4 Twentieth-Century Zoos and Aquariums 164

5.5 Summary 177

References 177

Additional Sources 180

6 Zoological Gardens of Australia

Catherine de Courcy

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 Foundation and Development, 1857 to 1920 182

6.2.1 Origins 182

6.2.2 Enclosure Design 186

6.2.3 The Animal Collections 188

6.2.4 Early Development of the Four Objectives 192

6.2.5 Visitors 197

6.3 Survival, 1920-1960 198

6.3.1 Enclosure Design and the Animal Collection 198

6.3.2 Hallstrom and Taronga Zoo 200

6.3.3 Survival of the Four Objectives 201

6.4 Modernization, 1960 to the Present 202

6.4.1 Modernization of the Four Objectives 205

6.4.2 Visitors 211

References 211

7 Zoological Gardens of Asia

Sally Walker

7.1 Introduction 215

7.2 Southwest Asia 215

7.2.1 Afghanistan 217

7.2.2 Cyprus 218

7.2.3 Iran 218

7.2.4 Iraq 219

7.2.5 Israel 219

7.2.6 Jordan 221

7.2.7 Kuwait 221

7.2.8 Oman 221

7.2.9 Saudi Arabia 222

7.2.10 Turkey 222

7.2.11 United Arab Emirates 223

7.2.12 Yemen 223

7.3 South Asia 223

7.3.1 Bangladesh 223

7.3.2 Bhutan 224

7.3.3 Nepal 224

7.3.4 Pakistan 225

7.3.5 Sri Lanka 226

7.4 Southeast Asia 228

7.4.1 Brunei 229

7.4.2 Cambodia 229

7.4.3 Laos 229

7.4.4 Malaysia 229

7.4.5 Myanmar 231

7.4.6 Philippines 231

7.4.7 Singapore 232

7.4.8 Thailand 233

7.4.9 Vietnam 235

7.5 Indonesia 236

7.5.1 Java 237

7.5.2 Sumatra 238

7.6 East Asia 239

7.6.1 Hong Kong 239

7.6.2 Korea 240

7.6.3 Macau 240

7.6.4 Taiwan 240

7.6.5 China 241

References 244

Additional Sources 250

8 Zoological Gardens of India

Sally Walker

8.1 Introduction 251

8.2 Ancients and Invaders — Vedics, Guptas,

Moguls, Europeans 252

8.2.1 The Vedic Period — Spiritual and Mystical Values 252

8.2.2 The Gupta and Mogul Periods 253

Utilitarian or Mechanistic Values 256

8.3 Nineteenth-Century Indian Zoos 257

8.3.1 Calcutta's Wild Animal Collections —

Four Early Ones 257

8.3.2 Old Madras State Zoos 265

8.3.3 Kerala Trivandrum (Old Travancore State)

and Trichur Zoos 269

8.3.4 Sakkarbaug Zoo and the Gir Lions 270

8.3.5 Maharastra State and the Bombay Zoo 270

8.3.6 Princely Zoos 271

8.3.7 Old Mysore's Zoos 274

8.3.8 Early Collections Not Normally Mentioned 276

8.4 Twentieth-Century Indian Zoos 277

8.4.1 Modern Zoos and the National Zoological Park 277

8.4.2 Indian Crocodile Project and Specialist Zoos 283

8.5 Indian Zoos and Wildlife 284

8.5.1 Indian Board for Wildlife and Wildlife Protection Act... 285

8.5.2 Management of Zoos in India 286

8.5.3 The Future of Indian Zoos 289

References 290

9 Zoological Gardens of Japan

Ken Kawata

9.1 Introduction 295

9.2 Historical Overview 295

9.2.1 Pre-Restoration Era 295

9.2.2 The Emergence of Modern Zoos 296

9.2.3 World War II and Beyond 298

9.3 Institutional Overview 302

9.3.1 The Setting 302

9.3.2 Zoos 302

9.3.3 Aquariums 303

9.3.4 Traveling Menageries and Safari Parks 304

9.3.5 Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums 305

9.4 Administrative Overview 306

9.4.1 Governing Authorities 306

9.4.2 Marketing and Events 311

9.4.3 Philanthropy 312

9.4.4 Animals as Commodities 312

9.5 Animal Collections 313

9.5.1 Marveling at Giraffe 313

9.5.2 Animal News Makers 313

9.5.3 Exhibits 315

9.5.4 Breeding Programs 317

9.5.5 Research Activities 322

9.6 Internationalization and Cultural Uniqueness 323

9.6.1 The Sakoku Factor 323

9.6.2 Environmental Awareness 324

9.6.3 Penchant for Group Acceptance 325

9.6.4 Uncharted Waters 325

References 327

Additional Sources 329

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