Zoo and Aquarium History begins with a chronologically arranged global perspective in Chapter 1 and then, about the time of the European Renaissance, changes to a geographic perspective. Chapter 1 provides an introduction and covers the first keeping of wild animals, the ancient collections, and the menageries. It covers the world from roughly 10,000 b.c. (the end of the last Ice Age and the beginning of domestication) to about a.d. 1456 (the beginning of the

European Renaissance). However, there is some chronological overlap between the end of this chapter and the beginnings of the other chapters, since the first chapter ends with the development of menageries and their transformations into zoological gardens. This was an evolutionary process that took time, that cannot be well defined, and that occurred at different times in different countries.

Chapters 2 through 11 are geographically arranged histories of zoological gardens, usually beginning with the menageries upon which these zoological gardens were founded. Some of the chapters cover individual countries, and others cover regions with several countries. The chapters provide information on the major zoological gardens of Great Britain, Europe (based on its historic division into Western Europe and Eastern Europe), the United States, Australia, Asia, India, Japan, Africa, and South America. Each chapter contains a list of references, which also serves as bibliography.

An appendix presents a chronological listing of the world's zoos and aquariums. It is not intended to be a directory of zoos and aquariums, as only those zoos and aquariums with known years of establishment are listed. The list is arranged geographically, as are the chapters, but not all the zoos and aquariums listed are discussed in the text because of space limitations.


1. Oelschlaeger, Max, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1991, 7-8.

2. Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Zoos — Histoire des jardins zoologiques en occident (XVIe -XXe siècles), La Découverte, Paris, 1998 [Zoos — History of Western Zoological Gardens (16th-20th Centuries)].

3. Fisher, James, Zoos of the World: The Story of Animals in Captivity, Natural History Press, Garden City, NY, 1967.

4. Loisel, Gustave, Histoire des ménageries de l'antiquité à nos jours, Octave Doin et Fils and Henri Laurens, Paris, 1912.

5. Lukaszewicz, K., Ogrody Zoologiczne-Wczoraj-Dzis-Jutro, Wiedza Powszechna, Warszawa, 1975 [Zoological Gardens-Yesterday-Today-Tomorrow].

6. Hediger, H., Zoologische Gärten. Gestern-Heute-Morgen, Hallwag Verlag, Bern, Switzerland, 1977 [Zoological Gardens: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow].

7. Hoage, R. J. and Deiss, William A., Eds., New Worlds, New Animals: From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1996.

8. Sullivan, Arthur L. and Shaffer, Mark L., "Biogeography of the megazoo: biogeographic studies suggest organizing principles for a future system of wild lands," Science, 189, 13, 1975.

9. Flower, William, "Jubilee address," in Annual Report, Zoological Society of London, London, 1887.

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